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Radical Scavenger

Jingxin Yang, Zijun Dong, Chengchun Jiang, Hong Liu, Ji Li
Bicarbonate scavenges OH to form CO3 - that enhances the bromate formation by ozonation. However, the role of CO3 - in the bromate formation during ozonation has never been quantitatively investigated. Herein, we establish a quantitative approach for evaluating the role played by CO3 - based on the detection of CO3 - -involved bromate and CO3 - exposure. Experiments demonstrated that the CO3 - -involved bromate was responsible for 33.7-69.9% of the total bromate formed with bicarbonate concentrations from 0...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Li-Zhi Huang, Mingtao Zhu, Zizheng Liu, Zongping Wang, Hans Christian B Hansen
In order to overcome the inefficiency of heterogeneous electro-Fenton process for water treatment at neutral pH, single sheet iron oxide (SSI) derived from layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) double hydroxides (green rusts) was fabricated on an indium tin oxide electrode via layer by layer assembly and used in an undivided electrolysis cell. Use of radical scavengers demonstrated the formation of oxygen radicals by electrochemical reduction of oxygen at the SSI electrode, and the key role of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and superoxide anion (O2 - ) radicals in degradation of the azo dye orange II...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Soroor Sadegh Malvajerd, Amir Azadi, Zhila Izadi, Masoumeh Kurd, Tahereh Dara, Maryam Dibaei, Mohammad Sharif Zadeh, Hamid Akbari-Javar, Mehrdad Hamidi
Curcumin is a multi-therapeutic agent with great therapeutic potential in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In the current study curcumin was encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for the purpose of increasing the brain accumulation. The preparation processes have been optimized using experimental design and multi-objective optimization method. Entrapment efficiency of curcumin in SLNs and NLCs was found to be 82% ± 0.49 and 94% ± 0.74, respectively...
October 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
S A Salmataj, Shobha U Kamath, V Ramachandra Murty, Sreedhara Ranganath Pai
Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic creates various health problems. Ixora coccinea flower extract was investigated for its ability to protect against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in CHO cell line. MTT assay confirmed the efficacy of the extract in ameliorating arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. The value (48 mM) of 24 h inhibitory concentration (IC50) of sodium arsenate for CHO cells was obtained by MTT assay. Various free radical scavenging assays like DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide scavenging assay confirmed antioxidant activity of the Ixora coccinea flower extract...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Saeed Ghasemi, Diba Eghbali Koohi, Mohammad Sadegh Bakhshi Emmamzadehhashemi, Shahriyar Shahbazi Khamas, Mohammad Moazen, Amin Khabbaz Hashemi, Gholamreza Amin, Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi, Zahra Yousefi, Fatemeh Yousefbeyk
The leaves of seventeen cultivars of olive growing in the north of Iran were investigated for total phenol content and antioxidant activity. The identification and quantification of main phenolic compounds were performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. The cultivars Kalamon, Gordal, and Coratina contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (190.65 ± 0.03, 184.72 ± 0.001, and 155.91 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). The maximum radical scavenging activities were found in Gordal, Coratina, and Kalamon extracts (IC50 20...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yoon-Jin Lee, Jeong-Eun Oh, Sang-Han Lee
Extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment contributes to chemoresistance of malignant tumors. The objective of this study was to determine anticancer effects of arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan extracted from seeds of Arctium lappa, on acidity-tolerant prostate cancer PC-3AcT cells. The PC-3AcT cells manifested increased tolerance to low-pH media with enhanced percent cell viability and increased resistance to docetaxel compared to their parental PC-3 cells. Arctigenin alone or in combination with docetaxel induced potent cytotoxicity...
October 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tian Chai, Xiao-Bo Zhao, Wei-Feng Wang, Yin Qiang, Xiao-Yun Zhang, Jun-Li Yang
Gx-50 is a bioactive compound for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) found in Sichuan pepper ( Zanthoxylum bungeanum ). In order to find a stronger anti-AD lead compound, 20 gx-50 ( 1 ⁻ 20 ) analogs have been designed and synthesized, and their molecular structures were determined based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, as well as comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 ⁻ 20 were evaluated for their anti-AD potential by using DPPH radical scavenging assay for considering their anti-oxidant activity, thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay for considering the inhibitory or disaggregate potency of A β , and transgenic Drosophila model assay for evaluating their rescue effect on memory loss...
October 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yolanda Del Rocio Moreno-Ramírez, Guillermo C G Martínez-Ávila, Víctor Arturo González-Hernández, Cecilia Castro-López, Jorge Ariel Torres-Castillo
The total phenolic compounds content, free radical-scavenging capacity and capsaicinoid content in populations of wild Piquin chili ( C. annuum ) were studied. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from nine ecotypes were evaluated. High contents of phenolic compounds and free radical-scavenging capacities were observed for both extracts; however, the values that were found for the hydroalcoholic phase were substantially higher. LC-MS analysis allowed for the detection of 32 compounds, where apigenin-8- C -glucoside followed by vanillic acid 1- O -β- o -glucopyranosylester (Isomer I or II) and 7-ethoxy-4-methylcoumarin were the most widely distributed; they were found in more than 89% of the ecotypes...
October 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pollyanna Francielli de Oliveira, Suzana Amorim Mendes, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Luis Claudio Kellner Filho, Leticia Pereira Pimenta, Kátia Aparecida Siqueira, Marcos Antônio Soares, Ana Helena Januário, Denise Crispim Tavares
The medicinal plant Vochysia divergens is a colonizing tree species of the Pantanal, a unique and little explored wetland region in Brazil. This species is used in folk medicine as syrups and teas to treat respiratory infections, digestive disorders, asthma, scarring, and skin diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and genotoxic potential of the ethanolic extract of Vochysia divergens leaves (VdE), as well as the influence of VdE and its major component (the flavone 3',5-dimethoxy luteolin-7- O - β -glucopyranoside; 3'5 DL) on MMS-induced genotoxicity...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Anchalee Prasansuklab, Tewin Tencomnao
BACKGROUND: Acanthus ebracteatus (AE), an herb native to Asia, has been recognized in traditional folk medicine not only for its antioxidant properties and various pharmacological activities but also as an ingredient of longevity formulas. However, its anti-neurodegenerative potential is not yet clearly known. This work aimed to evaluate the protective effect of AE leaf extract against glutamate-induced oxidative damage in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells, a neurodegenerative model system due to a reduction in glutathione levels and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
October 16, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yang Yang, Ling Li, Qiyun Hang, Yuan Fang, Xiaoliang Dong, Peng Cao, Zhimin Yin, Lan Luo
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host response to infection and characterized by redox imbalance and severe oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) serves several vital functions, including scavenging free radicals and maintaining intracellular redox balance. Extracellular GSH is unable to be taken into the majority of human cells, and the GSH prodrug N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) does not exhibit promising clinical effects. γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GC), an intermediate dipeptide of the GSH-synthesis pathway and harboring anti-inflammatory properties, represents a relatively unexplored option for sepsis treatment...
September 26, 2018: Redox Biology
Yawen Hong, Tiejin Ying
A water-soluble polysaccharide WSP1 was extracted from the fruiting body of Termitornyces albuminosus. Its molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and molecular structure were determined by GPC, GC-MS, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, methylation analysis, NMR (1D and 2D) and AFM. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of WSP1 was evaluated in vitro by the tests of reducing power, scavenging ability on DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical, and chelating ability on ferrous ion. The results indicated that the molecular weight of WSP1 was 9 kDa, and it was mainly composed of fucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:3...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Peipei Wang, Jinming Wu, Zhonghong Gao, Hailing Li
Serum albumin (SA) has been shown to act as a heme scavenger in hemolysis and can protect cell against the toxic effect of heme. However, the mechanism of SA in heme detoxification is not well understood. Interestingly, increasing studies indicate that heme/H2 O2 -dependent reaction is unlikely to be the principal cause of heme toxicity in excessive intravascular hemolysis conditions. Moreover, high levels of NO2 - and NO3 - were also found in patients with severe hemolytic diseases, which seem to involve in heme toxic effect as well...
October 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Rajappa Rashmi, Salai Bojan Magesh, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar, Sarvajayakesavulu Suryanarayanan, Madhunapantula Venkata SubbaRao
Background: Naringenin is a bioactive flavonoid found in grapes and citrus fruits including tangelo, blood orange, lemons, and tangerines. The aims of this study were to investigate the ability of naringenin to scavenge free radicals and determine its ability to protect animals from streptozotocin (STZ) -induced liver damage. Methods: The free radical-scavenging activity of naringenin was evaluated by in vitro cell-free assay systems. In animals, the antioxidant potential of orally administered 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight naringenin for 45 days was assessed by measuring TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides, SOD, catalase, GST, GPx, and glutathione levels in liver homogenates prepared from animals injected intraperitoneally with multiple low dose streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg for five consecutive days...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Lobna Mansouri, Chedly Tizaoui, Sven-Uwe Geissen, Latifa Bousselmi
Several Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) including O3 /H2 O2 , O3 /TiO2 , O3 /activated carbon (AC), O3 /Al2 O3 , O3 /Fe2+ /H2 O2 and UV/TiO2 have been investigated and compared for the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP), an endocrine disrupting compound, in aqueous solutions. Hydroxyl radicals were the main species responsible for DEP degradation and this was supported by computational chemistry calculation, scavenger experiments, and LC/MS/MS analysis. The change of the abundance of reaction products over time was determined...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hong-Xin Cui, Fang-Fang Duan, Shan-Shan Jia, Fang-Rong Cheng, Ke Yuan
Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. is a plant belonging to the Taxaceae family and Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii is the only grafted and thoroughbred species belonging to this species. In this study, we extracted five different seed oils, including T. grandis seed oil (TGSO), T. grandis "Xiangyafei" seed oil (XYSO), T. grandis "Zhimafei" seed oil (ZMSO), T. grandis "Majus"seed oil (TGMSO), and T. grandis "cunguangfei" seed oil (CGSO) using physical pressure. The resulting extracts were analyzed to determine their fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, and inhibitory activity towards tyrosinase...
2018: BioMed Research International
Haein Lee, Eunok Choe
This study evaluated contribution of minor compounds naturally present in peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) to the iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation of oil-in-water emulsion. Emulsions consisted of tocopherol-stripped soybean oil and pH 4.0 citrate buffer (4:6, w/w) with iron. Minor compounds included α-tocopherol, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, β-carotene, and chlorophyll b at natural concentration in 400 ppm of the peppermint extract. The emulsions were oxidized in the dark, and headspace oxygen contents, hydroperoxide contents, and p -anisidine values were determined...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Jihee Kim, Eunok Choe
This study evaluated the pH effect on the lipid oxidation and polyphenols of the emulsions consisting of soybean oil, citric acid buffer (pH 2.6, 4.0, or 6.0), and peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) extract (400 mg/kg), with/without FeSO4 . The emulsions in tightly-sealed bottles were placed at 25 °C in the dark, and lipid oxidation and polyphenol contents and composition were determined. The lipid oxidation was high in the emulsions at pH 4.0 in the absence of iron, however, iron addition made them more stable than the emulsions at pH 2...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Yu Jeong Kim, Yongcheol Lee, Jaecheol Kim, Sun Young Park, Kiuk Lee, Keum Taek Hwang
Physicochemical characteristics and anti-oxidant capacities of seeds from two farm-cultivated and one mountain-cultivated ginsengs ( Panax ginseng Meyer) (MG) were determined. The seeds had 17.9-22.1% (dry basis) crude lipids, 11.5-15.2% crude proteins, and 1.4-1.7% ash. Oleic acid (77.9-78.5%) was the predominant fatty acid in the seed oils, followed by linoleic acid (16.6-17.4%). The highest Hunter b value, carotenoids, (β + γ)-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol, and the lowest α-tocotrienol were observed in the seed oils from MG...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Marco Cordani, Giovanna Butera, Ilaria Dando, Margalida Torrens-Mas, Elena Butturini, Raffaella Pacchiana, Elisa Oppici, Chiara Cavallini, Sara Gasperini, Nicola Tamassia, Mercedes Nadal-Serrano, Michela Coan, Davide Rossi, Gianluca Gaidano, Michele Caraglia, Sofia Mariotto, Riccardo Spizzo, Pilar Roca, Jordi Oliver, Maria Teresa Scupoli, Massimo Donadelli
BACKGROUND: The TP53 tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently altered gene in tumors and mutant p53 gain-of-function isoforms actively promote cancer malignancy. METHODS: A panel of wild-type and mutant p53 cancer cell lines of different tissues, including pancreas, breast, skin, and lung were used, as well as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with different TP53 gene status. The effects of mutant p53 were evaluated by confocal microscopy, reactive oxygen species production assay, immunoblotting, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after cellular transfection...
October 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
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