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Radical Scavenger

Zunlai Sheng, Jiahong Zhao, Ishfaq Muhammad, Ying Zhang
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), using aqueous ethanol as the solvent, was firstly applied to extract phenolic compounds from Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits (T. chebula fruits). In this study, ethanol concentration (%), ultrasonic intensity (W/cm2), particle diameter (mm), extraction temperature (°C), ultrasonic time (min), liquid-solid ratio (mL/g) and extraction cycle were investigated by single-factor experiment and then optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The optimized result for UAE was 68% ethanol concentration, ultrasonic intensity of 3...
2018: PloS One
Tao Lin, Jae Eun Lee, Jeong Won Kang, Reza K Oqani, Eun Seok Cho, Seong Bok Kim, Dong Il Jin
Poor-quality oocytes (those with 1 to 2 layers of cumulus cells) typically possess low meiotic competence and development. Prolonging the duration of in vitro maturation (IVM; 52 h) can enhance the maturation rate of poor-quality oocytes, but it does not improve subsequent embryonic development. This likely reflects the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis seen in these oocytes compared with the non-prolonged IVM (44 h) group. Melatonin is a free radical scavenger, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic agent that reported to enhance the quality of embryos by inhibiting ROS generation and apoptosis...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Zeinab Nazarian-Samani, Robert D E Sewell, Zahra Lorigooini, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review describes evidence concerning medicinal plants that, in addition to exerting hypoglycemic effects, decrease accompanying complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). RECENT FINDINGS: Studies on the antidiabetic mechanisms of medicinal plants have shown that most of them produce hypoglycemic activity by stimulating insulin secretion, augmenting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), inhibiting α-amylase or α-glucosidase, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, free radical scavenging plus antioxidant activity (against reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)), up-regulating or elevating translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), and preventing development of insulin resistance...
August 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Eun-Young Jang, Yong-Jun Son, Soo-Yeun Park, Ji-Yeon Yoo, Dae-Youn Hwang, Hyean-Cheal Park, Hong-Joo Son
In the present study, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesised for the first time using Pseudomonas geniculata H10 as reducing and stabilising agents. The synthesis of SNPs was the maximum when the culture supernatant was treated with 2.5 mM AgNO3 at pH 7 and 40°C for 10 h. The SNPs were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the presence of proteins, suggesting they may have been responsible for the reduction and acted as capping agents...
September 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Deepika Singh, Vikas Kumar, Ekta Yadav, Neha Falls, Manvendra Singh, Ujendra Komal, Amita Verma
Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous extract of Carissa carandas ( C. carandas ) leaves was studied. Fabrication of AgNPs was confirmed by the UV-visible spectroscopy which gives absorption maxima at 420 nm. C. carandas leaves are the rich source of the bioactive molecules, acts as a reducing and stabilising agent in AgNPs, confirmed by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The field emission scanning electron microscope revealed the spherical shape of biosynthesised AgNPs...
September 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Elias E Elemike, Damian C Onwudiwe, Anthony C Ekennia, Anine Jordaan
In this study, the conversion of silver ions into ∼30.74 nm sized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved in 30 min at a reaction temperature of 80-90°C in aqueous leaf extract of Artemisia afra . The synthesised AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance in the range of 423-438 nm. Spherical and face-centred cubic nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) results indicated that the obtained nanoparticles were stabilised and capped through the carbonyl and carboxylate ion groups possibly from flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolics and esters content of the extracts...
September 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Juan C Mayo, Arturo Aguado, Rafael Cernuda-Cernuda, Alejandro Álvarez-Artime, Vanesa Cepas, Isabel Quirós-González, David Hevia, Rosa M Sáinz
Melatonin, N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is an indole mainly synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland and secreted exclusively during the night in all the animals reported to date. While the pineal gland is the major source responsible for this night rise, it is not at all the exclusive production site and many other tissues and organs produce melatonin as well. Likewise, melatonin is not restricted to vertebrates, as its presence has been reported in almost all the phyla from protozoa to mammals. Melatonin displays a large set of functions including adaptation to light: dark cycles, free radical scavenging ability, antioxidant enzyme modulation, immunomodulatory actions or differentiation⁻proliferation regulatory effects, among others...
August 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Amel Bouziane, Boulanouar Bakchiche, Maria Inês Dias, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Husam A AlSalamat, Sanaa K Bardaweel
The present study focuses on the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities of the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Cytisus villosus Pourr. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn was used to identify the phenolic compounds, being (epi)gallocatechin dimer the major compound (111 ± 5 µg/g·dw) in the aqueous extract, while myricetin- O -rhamnoside (226 ± 9 µg/g·dw) was the main molecule in the ethyl acetate extract. Both extracts exhibited good scavenging activities against DPPH radical (EC50 µg/mL of 59 ± 2 and 31 ± 2 for aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively)...
August 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yan-Zhen Zheng, Da-Fu Chen, Geng Deng, Rui Guo
Flavonoids widely found in natural foods are excellent free radical scavengers. The relationship between the substituent and antioxidative activity of flavonoids has not yet been completely elucidated. In this work, the antioxidative activity of apigenin derivatives with different substituents at the C3 position was determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP), and proton affinity (PA) were calculated. Donator acceptor map (DAM) analysis illustrated that the studied compounds are worse electron acceptors than F and also are not better electron donors than Na...
August 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shoufeng Tang, Deling Yuan, Yandi Rao, Jingyi Zhang, Ying Qu, Jianmin Gu
Degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), a primary member of antibiotics in water, was performed by a gas phase dielectric barrier discharge (GPDBD) plasma reactor. The influences of operation conditions including applied voltages, air bubbling rates, initial OTC concentrations and initial pH values on OTC abatement were investigated respectively. The results showed that the decontamination process can be fitted by first order kinetics, and the removal ratio and rate were affected obviously by those parameters...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Michele Michelin, Simon Liebentritt, António A Vicente, José António Teixeira
Corncob was successively pretreated by liquid hot water (LHW) and ethanol organosolv (EO) in an integrated process. LHW was performed at 200 °C for 30 min, and EO was performed using uncatalyzed ethanol-water solutions, according to a design of experiments. The effects of the most influential operational variables (ethanol concentration, temperature and time) on yield and chemical composition of the fractions were assessed. Results showed the factor with the greatest effect was ethanol concentration (p < 0...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, David W Morton
A high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for quantification of α-amylase inhibitory activity and stigmasterol content in ant plant extracts. An improved HPTLC method for the determination of total free radical scavenging activity in samples using DPPH• is also reported. For quantification of α -amylase inhibitory activity, the developed HPTLC plate is dipped into an α -amylase solution, and the bioautogram is then incubated at 25 °C for 30 min under humid conditions...
2018: MethodsX
Hanyeong Park, Minhee Lee, Kee-Tae Kim, Eunju Park, Hyun-Dong Paik
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic effect of dairy products milk (M) and yogurt (Y) after the addition of 2% red ginseng extract to milk (RM) and to yogurt (RY). Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and total radical trapping antioxidant potential were determined in the samples. Furthermore, antigenotoxic effect of samples was measured, using comet assay in human leukocytes...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yuan Jia, Ying He, Fachuang Lu
In this study, 11 dehydrodiferulic acids (DFAs) and 8 diethyl dehydrodiferulates (DEFs) were synthesized and evaluated by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays for their antioxidant properties to understand the Structure-Antioxidant Activity Relationship (SAR) of these dehydrodiferulates. In both assays, the order of antioxidant activity for all tested ferulic acid dimers were consistent except for 3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-3H-furan-2-one (2, 8-8-lactone DC DFA, not occurred naturally) being the best antioxidant by TEAC test...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Awatief F Hifney, Mustafa A Fawzy, Khayria M Abdel-Gawad, Mohamed Gomaa
The seaweed Cystoseira trinodis was fermented by different fungi prior to extraction of fucoidan and alginate to enhance their antioxidative potential. All the investigated fungi were able to produce fucoidanase (1.05-3.41 U/ml) and alginate lyase (7.27-18.59 U/mL). Different fungal species induced a reduction in the molecular weight (MW) of fucoidan and alginate in comparison to the unfermented control. The MW of fucoidan reduced by 41-81.5%, while the MW of alginate was reduced by 28-75%, depending on the fungal species...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Gong Zhang, Shasha Chen, Wu Zhou, Jing Meng, Kai Deng, Haonan Zhou, Na Hu, Yourui Suo
Lycium ruthenicum Murray (LR) is a functional food, and it has long been used in traditional folk medicine. However, detailed qualitative and quantitative analyses related to its phenolic compounds remains scarce. This work reports, for the first time, the establishment of a rapid method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 25 phenolic compounds by UPLC-quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS). This method was validated by LODs, LOQs, precision, repeatability, stability, mean recovery, recovery range and RSD...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mehmet Ali Demirci, Yaşar Ipek, Fatih Gul, Tevfik Ozen, Ibrahim Demirtas
Apple pulps (AP) were obtained as a side product in fruit juice factories and contains valuable phenolic compounds. The dried AP was subjected to extraction with water, ethyl acetate (APEA) and n-butanol (APBU), respectively. 5-Hydroxymaltol (5-HM) was isolated and confirmed by NMR techniques. The HPLC-TOF/MS analysis revealed the presence of 16 components including major components of morine, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and fumaric acid. The antioxidant activities were evaluated with total antioxidant activity, reducing power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, metal chelating, free radical and H2 O2 scavenging activities...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Emma Deniere, Stijn Van Hulle, Herman Van Langenhove, Kristof Demeestere
Given the need for innovations in advanced oxidation processes to deal with challenges such as OH scavenging, this paper addresses the removal of pharmaceuticals with a large variety in ozone reactivity (kO3  = 0.15-3 × 105 M-1 s-1 ) by use of the novel ozone-activated peroxymonosulfate (O3 /PMS) process. A clear improvement in removal efficiency (up to 5 times higher) is noticed as a result of the generation of SO4 - radicals, mainly for slow-ozone reacting compounds (kO3 ≤ 250 M-1 s-1 ) and in the presence of a OH scavenger...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yoshimi Sueishi, Risako Nii
Monoterpenes are major active components of lavender, thyme, and mint. The X-ray radioprotective activity of pure monoterpenes is attributed to their scavenging ability against active species, but so far no firm evidence has been demonstrated. The objective of this study is to quantitatively determine antioxidant abilities of monoterpenes and collate it with radioprotective activity. Using multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) method, we have determined the scavenging abilities of monoterpenes (linalool, thymol, and menthol) against six active species...
August 2, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Guey-Horng Wang, Yi-Min Lin, Jong-Tar Kuo, Chia-Pei Lin, Chin-Feng Chang, Min-Chi Hsieh, Chiu-Yu Cheng, Ying-Chien Chung
Asparagus cochinchinensis root (ACR) is used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, ACR was first extracted with 25% ethyl acetate (EA) and then fermented by Aspergillus oryzae to enhance its antioxidant activity and evaluate its potential antityrosinase activity. The physiological activity and cytotoxicity of A. oryzae-fermented ACR extract, along with its antityrosinase activity and effects on melanogenic factor levels in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs), were analyzed and compared with those of the unfermented extract...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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