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World class health care

Abolanle Saheed Adekunle, John Adekunle Oyedele Oyekunle, Ibitomilola Janet Ola, Olaoluwa Ruth Obisesan, Nobanathi Wendy Maxakato
The study was carried out to determine the presence and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some personal care products in Nigeria. Commonly used consumer care products grouped into four classes, namely: plastics, cosmetics, disinfectants and washing products, were purchased from some supermarkets in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The solid samples were pulverized and the PAHs and OCPs were extracted with n-hexane and dichloromethane, respectively using Soxhlet extraction method, while the liquid samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Giuseppe Di Tano, Andrea Di Lenarda, Domenico Gabrielli, Nadia Aspromonte, Renata De Maria, Maria Frigerio, Massimo Iacoviello, Andrea Mortara, Adriano Murrone, Federico Nardi, Fabrizio Oliva, Roberto Pontremoli, Marino Scherillo, Michele Senni, Stefano Urbinati, Michele Massimo Gulizia
Sacubitril/valsartan, the first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), is the first medication to demonstrate a mortality benefit in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) since the early 2000s. Sacubitril/valsartan simultaneously suppresses renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation through blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors and enhances the activity of vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides, through inhibition of neprilysin, the enzyme responsible for their degradation...
October 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Karin E Thompson, Ramesh M Ray, Shanta Alli, Wenbo Ge, Alyssa Boler, W Shannon McCool, Avtar S Meena, Pradeep K Shukla, Radakrishna Rao, Leonard R Johnson, Mark A Miller, Gabor J Tigyi
Diarrheal disease is a severe global health problem. It is estimated that secretory diarrhea causes 2.5 million deaths annually among children under the age of five in the developing world. A critical barrier in treating diarrheal disease is lack of easy-to-use effective treatments. While antibiotics may shorten the length and severity of diarrhea, oral rehydration remains the primary approach in managing secretory diarrhea. Existing treatments mostly depend on reconstituting medicines with water that is often contaminated which can be an unresolved problem in the developing world...
September 25, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Özal Yıldırım, Paweł Pławiak, Ru-San Tan, U Rajendra Acharya
This article presents a new deep learning approach for cardiac arrhythmia (17 classes) detection based on long-duration electrocardiography (ECG) signal analysis. Cardiovascular disease prevention is one of the most important tasks of any health care system as about 50 million people are at risk of heart disease in the world. Although automatic analysis of ECG signal is very popular, current methods are not satisfactory. The goal of our research was to design a new method based on deep learning to efficiently and quickly classify cardiac arrhythmias...
September 15, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jon B Christensen
The North American Treaty Organization (NATO) Special Operations Combat Medic (NSOCM) course is specifically designed to train 24 highly selected Special Operations Forces (SOF) members to treat trauma and nontrauma patients who have life-threatening diseases and/or injuries. The NSOCM course is held at the International Special Training Centre (ISTC) in Pfullendorf, Germany, and exemplifies ISTC's mission to build interoperability and strengthening alliances between multinational partners. The 24-week NSOCM course is taught by subject matter experts and SOF members from around the globe...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Régis Vaillancourt, Mike P Zender, Laurie Coulon, Annie Pouliot
Background: A panel of medication management experts previously identified 9 key medication safety issues and high-alert drug classes as representing the most pressing medication-handling issues in health care. Objective: To develop medication safety pictograms depicting medication safety issues and high-alert drug classes that represent medication-handling risks for health care personnel. Methods: An iterative design process, including activities such as semiotic analysis, design/redesign, and evaluation, was used to develop medication safety pictograms...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Mikashmi Kohli, Ian Schiller, Nandini Dendukuri, Keertan Dheda, Claudia M Denkinger, Samuel G Schumacher, Karen R Steingart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's leading infectious cause of death. Extrapulmonary TB accounts for 15% of TB cases, but the proportion is increasing, and over half a million people were newly diagnosed with rifampicin-resistant TB in 2016. Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended, rapid, automated, nucleic acid amplification assay that is used widely for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens...
August 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Antje Fuss, Humphrey Deogratias Mazigo, Dennis Tappe, Christa Kasang, Andreas Mueller
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic infections in the world and has significant economic and public health consequences, particularly in poor communities. Reliable and accurate diagnosis plays a key role in surveillance, prevention and control of schistosomiasis. Currently, the microscopic Kato Katz (KK) stool thick smear technique is the most commonly used method to diagnose Schistosoma mansoni infections in epidemiological surveys. It is well-known that the sensitivity of this parasitological method decreases when infection intensities are moderate to low, however...
2018: PloS One
Bo Liu, Shen-Gen Zhang, Chein-Chi Chang
Emerging pollutants (EPs) are a class of chemical pollutants that have potential or substantial threats to human health and ecological environment. EPs mainly include pharmaceuticals and personal care products, endocrine disrupting chemicals, antibiotics, persistent organic pollutants, disinfection by-products and other industrial chemicals, etc. In recent years, with the improvement of environmental analysis level, these substances have been detected frequently in urban sewage, surface water and drinking water all over the world...
October 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Isabelle Nogueira Leroux, Ana Paula Sacone da Silva Ferreira, Fernanda Pollo Paniz, Tatiana Pedron, Fernanda Junqueira Salles, Fábio Ferreira da Silva, Heloisa França Maltez, Bruno Lemos Batista, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio
Lead, known as a metal with high neurotoxicity to children, cadmium, which is a carcinogenic and bioaccumulative contaminant, and arsenic, a class 1 carcinogenic according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are toxic elements (TEs) whose relevant route of exposure may be diet. We determined the bio-accessible fraction of lead, cadmium, and arsenic from the diet of preschool children from two day care centers (DCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 64 one⁻four-year-old children from two DCCs where the 24-h duplicate diet samples were collected...
August 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael J Reagin, Michael V Gentry
Cybersecurity is no longer an option or an afterthought-it is a strategic asset that every organization must address, especially in healthcare. The impact of modern cyberattacks extends well beyond privacy breaches and damage to brand or reputation; it can also affect the safe delivery of care. In 2017, a global security incident affected National Health Service hospitals in England and Scotland, preventing them from providing services to patients and causing thousands of appointments to be canceled. Such serious cyberattacks are becoming more prevalent, and their impact has dramatically changed from impeding back-office operations to threatening patient safety and the financial viability of healthcare organizations...
2018: Frontiers of Health Services Management
Colin D Sperling, Leilei Xia, Ian B Berger, Michael H Shin, Marshall C Strother, Thomas J Guzzo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between obesity and postoperative outcomes following minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN) and minimally invasive radical nephrectomy (MIRN). METHODS: Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database, we identified adult patients who underwent either MIPN or MIRN from 2012 to 2016. Patients were stratified by body mass index (BMI) according the World Health Organization classification of obesity (non-obese [BMI 18...
August 16, 2018: Urology
Rima Kaddoura, Jocelyn DeJong, Huda Zurayk, Tamar Kabakian, Christine Abbyad, Fadi G Mirza
PROBLEM: There is lack of data on the rate of episiotomy in Lebanon and the study's hospital. BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have addressed episiotomy practice in Lebanon and the Middle East and they show varying rates. AIM: To identify the rate, and change in rate, of episiotomy practice over the years at a teaching hospital in Lebanon and to assess whether maternal age, parity, fetal weight, woman's hospital admission class, and physician's gender were associated with episiotomy...
July 26, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Saúl Levy-Blitchtein, Ignasi Roca, Stefany Plasencia-Rebata, William Vicente-Taboada, Jorge Velásquez-Pomar, Laura Muñoz, Javier Moreno-Morales, Maria J Pons, Juana Del Valle-Mendoza, Jordi Vila
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the top-ranked pathogen in the World Health Organization priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It emerged as a global pathogen due to the successful expansion of a few epidemic lineages, or international clones (ICs), producing acquired class D carbapenemases (OXA-type). During the past decade, however, reports regarding IC-I isolates in Latin America are scarce and are non-existent for IC-II and IC-III isolates. This study evaluates the molecular mechanisms of carbapenem resistance and the epidemiology of 80 non-duplicate clinical samples of A...
July 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Shunsuke Hyuga, Jennifer Danielsson, Joy Vink, Xiao Wen Fu, Ronald Wapner, George Gallos
BACKGROUND: Pre-term birth is a major health care challenge throughout the world, and preterm labor represents a potentially reversible component of this problem. Current tocolytics do not improve preterm labor beyond 48 h. We have previously shown that anoctamin 1 (ANO1) channel blockade results in relaxation of pre-contracted human uterine smooth muscle (USM). Three drug classes with reported medicinal effects in humans also have members with ANO1 antagonism. In this study, we compared the ability of representatives from these 3 classes to reduce human USM contractility and excitability...
2018: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
Evelyne Kloter, Katja Barrueto, Sabine D Klein, Felix Scholkmann, Ursula Wolf
An increasing cancer incidence affecting any age and social class is putting serious strain on populations and health care systems around the world. This systematic literature search aims (i) to examine the correlation of heart rate variability (HRV) and cancer patients' prognosis, (ii) to examine the relationship of HRV and clinicopathological features, and (iii) to compare HRV between different patient groups, and between patient and control groups. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marília Silva Paulo, Tom Loney, Luis V Lapão
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate the top five key priorities and barriers to chronic care in the health system of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). DESIGN: A modified Delphi study was performed to reach consensus on priority areas and barriers to the development of the Chronic Care Model in the health system of Abu Dhabi. Individual wireless audience response devices (keypads) linked to a computer were used to reduce 28 priorities and 20 barriers to the top five during three iterative rounds over three consecutive days...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Ingrid Toews, Aneesh Thomas George, John V Peter, Richard Kirubakaran, Luís Eduardo S Fontes, Jabez Paul Barnabas Ezekiel, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to stress ulcers contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in people admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Stress ulceration refers to GI mucosal injury related to the stress of being critically ill. ICU patients with major bleeding as a result of stress ulceration might have mortality rates approaching 48.5% to 65%. However, the incidence of stress-induced GI bleeding in ICUs has decreased, and not all critically ill patients need prophylaxis...
June 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maureen Njue, Patricia Njuguna, Melissa C Kapulu, Gladys Sanga, Philip Bejon, Vicki Marsh, Sassy Molyneux, Dorcas Kamuya
Background: The range and amount of volunteer infection studies, known as Controlled Human Infection Model (CHMI) studies, in Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is increasing with rapid technological advancement, world-class laboratory facilities and increasing capacity development initiatives. However, the ethical issues these studies present in LMICs have not been empirically studied. We present findings of a descriptive social science study nested within a malaria volunteer infection study, on-going at the time of writing, at the KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme (KWTRP) on the Kenyan Coast...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Christiane E Angermann, Birgit Assmus, Stefan D Anker, Johannes Brachmann, Georg Ertl, Friedrich Köhler, Stephan Rosenkranz, Carsten Tschöpe, Philip B Adamson, Michael Böhm
BACKGROUND: Wireless monitoring of pulmonary artery (PA) pressures with the CardioMEMS HF™ system is indicated in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III heart failure (HF). Randomized and observational trials have shown a reduction in HF-related hospitalizations and improved quality of life in patients using this device in the United States. OBJECTIVE: MEMS-HF is a prospective, non-randomized, open-label, multicenter study to characterize safety and feasibility of using remote PA pressure monitoring in a real-world setting in Germany, The Netherlands and Ireland...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
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