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Science Production

Geoffrey Belknap
This paper examines how communities of naturalists in mid-nineteenth-century Britain were formed and solidified around the shared practices of public meetings, the publication and reading of periodicals, and the making and printing of images. By focusing on communities of naturalists and the sites of their communication, this article undermines the distinction between amateur and professional scientific practice. Building on the notion of imagined communities, this paper also shows that in some cases the editors and illustrators utilized imagery to construct a specifically British naturalist community...
August 15, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Jin Liu
Astaxanthin represents a high-value ketocarotenoid that has been gaining great attention from both the science and public communities in recent years. Microalgae are the primary source of natural astaxanthin. Chlorella zofingiensis, a freshwater and oleaginous green microalga, is capable of growing well photoautotrophically, heterotrophically, and mixotrophically for high-density biomass and astaxanthin production. Here we describe the astaxanthin production pipeline using C. zofingiensis as cell factories under different trophic conditions, including strain preparation, inoculation, and cultivation, biomass harvest and dewatering, and astaxanthin extraction, determination, and quantification...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nora M Bello, Vera C Ferreira, Daniel Gianola, Guilherme J M Rosa
Understanding causal mechanisms among variables is critical to efficient management of complex biological systems such as animal agriculture production. The increasing availability of data from commercial livestock operations offers unique opportunities for attaining causal insight, despite the inherently observational nature of these data. Causal claims based on observational data are substantiated by recent theoretical and methodological developments in the rapidly evolving field of causal inference. Thus, the objectives of this review are as follows: 1) to introduce a unifying conceptual framework for investigating causal effects from observational data in livestock, 2) to illustrate its implementation in the context of the animal sciences, and 3) to discuss opportunities and challenges associated with this framework...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Barnabás Palcsó, Romána Zelkó
Along with the development of novel drug delivery systems the material science is also advancing. Conventional and novel synthetic or natural excipients provide opportunities to design dosage forms of the required features including their bioavailability. Emerging trends in the design and development of drug products indicate an increasing need for the functionality-related characterization of excipients. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of different types of excipients in relation to their application possibilities in various dosage forms with special focus on the enabling excipients...
July 2018: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Ricarda Servaty, Gabriele Perger, Volker Harth, Stefanie Mache
BACKGROUND: The flexible working and business model of coworking spaces inherits the provision of workspace and further the construction of a network for entrepreneurs, creative and knowledge workers. Until now, research on coworking spaces is scarce in the field of health sciences. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated reasons and motives for working in coworking spaces and working conditions under health related aspects. Demands and resources while working in coworking spaces were analyzed according to a theoretical model for (Job-demands-resources model - JDR) perceived working conditions...
August 9, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Mncengeli Sibanda, Robert Summers, Johanna Catharina Meyer
Introduction: in November, 2005, the South African (SA) National Department of Health (NDoH) mandated that, as from the 1st December, 2005, all new clinical trials to be conducted in the country must be registered on the South African National Clinical Trials Register (SANCTR). The objective was to compare access to the information contained in and the usability of the SANCTR with five other international on-line clinical trials registers. Methods: Access to SANCTR was determined through the use of three search engines using the keywords "South African Clinical Trials...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
M H G Kuijpers
This paper introduces the methodology of perceptive categories through which an empirical analysis of skill is achievable, taking European Bronze Age metalworking as a case study. Based on scientific data provided by the material sciences, in this case compositional and metallographic analyses of Late Copper Age and Early Bronze Age axes, the thresholds to categorise and interpret these data, and organise them in a chaîne opératoire , are centred on the human senses-and thus on metalworking as a craft. This is a pragmatic approach that appreciates scientific measurements of metal objects as essential empirical evidence whilst recognising that a considerable share of these archaeometric data are inapt or too detailed for an understanding of skill...
2018: Journal of archaeological method and theory
Neil Stephens, Lucy Di Silvio, Illtud Dunsford, Marianne Ellis, Abigail Glencross, Alexandra Sexton
Background: Cultured meat forms part of the emerging field of cellular agriculture. Still an early stage field it seeks to deliver products traditionally made through livestock rearing in novel forms that require no, or significantly reduced, animal involvement. Key examples include cultured meat, milk, egg white and leather. Here, we focus upon cultured meat and its technical, socio-political and regulatory challenges and opportunities. Scope and approach: The paper reports the thinking of an interdisciplinary team, all of whom have been active in the field for a number of years...
August 2018: Trends in Food Science & Technology
Nicole Vitellone
What's at stake when the syringe becomes a tool for thinking? Reflecting on the production of Social Science of the Syringe, this commentary describes the empirical challenges of encountering injecting drug users directly affected by Harm Reduction policies as significant stakeholders in the expression of drug problems.
August 9, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Tianqing Li, Zongyong Ai, Weizhi Ji
A growing body of literature has shown that stem cells are very effective for the treatment of degenerative diseases in rodents but these exciting results have not translated to clinical practice. The difference results from the divergence in genetic, metabolic, and physiological phenotypes between rodents and humans. The high degree of similarity between non-human primates (NHPs) and humans provides the most accurate models for preclinical studies of stem cell therapy. Using a NHP model to understand the following key issues, which cannot be addressed in humans or rodents, will be helpful for extending stem cell applications in the basic science and the clinic...
August 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Meng Jiang, Yun Qi, Huan Liu, Yinguang Chen
Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies (NNs) have been shaping the wastewater treatment process unprecedentedly. Bibliometric methods are regarded as an indispensable light to guide direction in scientific domain. The present study aims to investigate the role of NNs in wastewater treatment with bibliometric techniques based on SCI databases from 1997 to 2016. Results showed that China (962), USA (324) and Iran (140) are the most productive countries. Chinese Academy of Sciences (149), Tongji University (49), and Harbin Institute of Technology (40) from China are the most contributive institutions...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Elizabeth Chloe Romanis
In 2017, a Philadelphia research team revealed the closest thing to an artificial womb (AW) the world had ever seen. The 'biobag', if as successful as early animal testing suggests, will change the face of neonatal intensive care. At present, premature neonates born earlier than 22 weeks have no hope of survival. For some time, there have been no significant improvements in mortality rates or incidences of long-term complications for preterms at the viability threshold. Artificial womb technology (AWT), that might change these odds, is eagerly anticipated for clinical application...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Ehsanul Kabir, Vanish Kumar, Ki-Hyun Kim, Alex C K Yip, J R Sohn
Nanotechnology is currently one of the highest priority research fields in many countries due to its immense potentiality and economic impact. Nanotechnology involves the research, development, production, and processing of structures and materials on a nanometer scale in various fields of science, technology, health care, industries, and agriculture. As such, it has contributed to the gradual restructuring of many associated technologies. However, due to the uncertainties and irregularities in shape, size, and chemical compositions, the presence of certain nanomaterials may exert adverse impacts on the environment as well as human health...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jenni L Hoffman, Linda Myler, Sandra Hines
Students in health care today are very different than those of past generations. Health care education requires both innovation and creativity to meet the changing needs of students. Soft skills such as leadership, communication, nursing informatics, technology, and professionalism can sometimes be lost in pursuit of scientific knowledge. The purpose of this descriptive pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a product designed to assist in the development of soft skills in a bachelor of science in nursing curriculum...
August 7, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Bushra Ghazal, Sumaia Saif, Kashif Farid, Adnan Khan, Sapna Rehman, Ahmad Reshma, Hina Fazal, Mohammad Ali, Ashfaq Ahmad, Latifur Rahman, Nisar Ahmad
Nanotechnology is one of the advance technologies that almost found implications in every field of science. The importance is due to the unique properties of nanoparticles. In this study, bimetallic alloys of copper (Cu) and gold (Au) were tested in submerge root cultures of Stevia rebaudiana for production of biomass and secondary metabolites. A known amount of inoculum roots were submerged in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium containing combination of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5 mg l-1 ) and different ratios of nanoparticles (NPs)...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Rebecca Addo, Samuel Agyei Agyemang, Yesim Tozan, Justice Nonvignon
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, the focus of mental health care has shifted from institutionalisation to community-based programs and short hospital stays. This change means that there is an increased role for caregivers, mostly family members, in managing persons with mental illness. Although there is evidence to support the benefits of deinstitutionalisation of mental health care, there are also indications of substantial burden experienced by caregivers; the evidence of which is limited in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: PloS One
Yu-Ting Yeh, Jui-Hui Peng, Hsien-Li Peter Peng
BACKGROUND: Masseteric hypertrophy is a benign condition characterized by the enlargement of the masseter muscles. A square-shaped jawline due to masseter muscle prominence or hypertrophy is one of the general characteristics of the Asian face, making it a frequent target for esthetic treatment requests. While the application of botulinum toxin on the masseter muscle is an off-label use, it is very popular in Asian countries. However, comprehensive reviews of the complications associated with this procedure remain limited in scope...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Munehito Arai, Yuuki Hayashi, Hisashi Kudo
Cyanobacterial biosynthesis of alkanes is an attractive way of producing substitutes for petroleum-based fuels. Key enzymes for bioalkane production in cyanobacteria are acyl-ACP reductase (AAR) and aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO). AAR catalyzes the reduction of the fatty acyl-ACP/CoA substrates to fatty aldehydes, which are then converted into alkanes/alkenes by ADO. These enzymes have been widely used for biofuel production by metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria and other organisms. However, both proteins, particularly ADO, have low enzymatic activities, and their catalytic activities are desired to be improved for use in biofuel production...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hamid Mollazadeh, Amir R Afshari, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Nigella sativa ( N. sativa , family Ranunculaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used for centuries throughout the world as a natural remedy. A wide range of chemical compounds found in N. sativa expresses its vast therapeutic effects. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main component (up to 50%) in the essential oil of N. sativa . Also, pinene (up to 15%), p-cymene (40%), thymohydroquinone (THQ), thymol (THY), and dithymoquinone (DTQ) are other pharmacologically active compounds of its oil. Other terpenoid compounds, such as carvacrol, carvone, 4-terpineol, limonenes, and citronellol, are also found in small quantities in its oil...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Tae Sub Park, Joonghoon Park, Jeong Hyo Lee, Jeong-Woong Park, Byung-Chul Park
Chicken as a food source is one of the most widespread domestic animals, and it has been used extensively as a research model. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is the most efficient and reliable tool for precise genome-targeted modification and has generated considerable excitement for industrial applications, as well as biologic science. Unlike in mammals, germline-transmittable primordial germ cells (PGCs) in chicken were used as an alternative strategy for the production of genetically altered chickens...
August 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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