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Calcium oxide

Junhua Xi, Junfeng Jing, Yanbin Zhang, Chaozhao Liang, Zongyao Hao, Li Zhang, Yang Chen
Oxidative stress is important for the calcium oxalate (CaOx)-induced kidney stone formation. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) plays an essential role in the amelioration of oxidative damages. This study aims to explore the effect of SIRT3 on the formation of CaOx-induced kidney stones and the underlying mechanism. SIRT3 expression in renal tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis in renal tissues was examined by TUNEL staining. Crystal-cell adherence and cell apoptosis in HK-2 cells were assessed by analyzing Ca2+ concentration and by the flow cytometry analysis, respectively...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Cheng Xu, Qian Liu, Jin Xu, Aihua Gu
Mitochondria are organelles that play a key role in the regulation of cell energy metabolism, biosynthesis, and cell death. Mitochondria are also involved in important physiological processes, such as the three-carboxylic acid cycle, the oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids, and calcium ion homeostasis. The energy demands of male germ cells during mitosis and meiosis are higher than those of somatic cells, suggesting that mitochondria play a critical role in sperm. Mitochondria are nanotoxicity targets in male germ cells...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matthew Klos, Sherry Morgenstern, Kayla Hicks, Shreyas Suresh, Eric J Devaney
β-hydroxybutyrate is the primary ketone body produced by the body during ketosis and is used to meet its metabolic demands. The healthy adult heart derives most of its energy from fatty acid oxidation. However, in certain diseases, the heart alters its substrate preference and increases its ketone body metabolism. Little is known about the effects of βOHB on ventricular myocyte excitation-contraction coupling. Therefore, we examined the effects of ketone body metabolism on single cell excitation-contraction coupling during normoxic and hypoxic conditions...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Sang Eun Park, Ji Hoon Song, Chansik Hong, Dong Eun Kim, Jee-Won Sul, Tae-Youn Kim, Bo-Ra Seo, Insuk So, Sang-Yeob Kim, Dong-Jun Bae, Mi-Ha Park, Hye Min Lim, In-Jeoung Baek, Antonio Riccio, Joo-Yong Lee, Woo Hyun Shim, Bumwoo Park, Jae-Young Koh, Jung Jin Hwang
After the publication of this work errors were noticed in Fig. 3b and 4d.
December 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ilya R Akberdin, David A Collins, Richard Hamilton, Dmitry Y Oshchepkov, Anil K Shukla, Carrie D Nicora, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Joshua N Adkins, Marina G Kalyuzhnaya
Background: Rare Earth Elements (REEs) control methanol utilization in both methane- and methanol-utilizing microbes. It has been established that the addition of REEs leads to the transcriptional repression of MxaFI-MeDH [a two-subunit methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), calcium-dependent] and the activation of XoxF-MeDH (a one-subunit MeDH, lanthanum-dependent). Both enzymes are pyrroquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and show significant homology; however, they display different kinetic properties and substrate specificities...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
L Cuenca, A L Gil-Martinez, L Cano-Fernandez, C Sanchez-Rodrigo, C Estrada, E Fernandez-Villalba, M T Herrero
After Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent and incidental neurodegenerative disorder, affecting more than 2% of the population older than 65 years old. Since it was first described 200 years ago by Dr James Parkinson, great steps have been made in the understanding of the pathology. However, the cause(s) that initiates and perpetuates the neurodegenerative process is (are) still not clear. Thus, early diagnosis is not available, nor are there efficient therapies that can stop neurodegeneration...
December 12, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Dusadee Ospondpant, Suttinee Phuagkhaopong, Kran Suknuntha, Kant Sangpairoj, Thitima Kasemsuk, Chutima Srimaroeng, Pornpun Vivithanaporn
Cadmium is a highly neurotoxic heavy metal impairing neurogenesis and induces neurodegenerative disorders. Toxic concentrations of cadmium induce astrocytic apoptosis by depleting intracellular glutathione levels, elevating intracellular calcium levels, altering mitochondria membrane potentials, and activating JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cadmium suppresses cell proliferation in kidney epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and primary myelocytes; however, cadmium's effects on proteins regulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in astrocytes are less known...
December 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Verónica Martínez Cerdeño, Tiffany Hong, Sarwat Amina, Mirna Lechpammer, Jeanelle Ariza, Flora Tassone, Stephen C Noctor, Paul Hagerman, Randi Hagerman
BACKGROUND: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene. Expansions of more than 200 CGG repeats give rise to fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of cognitive impairment. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is characterized by cerebellar tremor and ataxia, and the presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in neurons and astrocytes. It has been previously suggested that fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is associated with an inflammatory state based on signs of oxidative stress-mediated damage and iron deposition...
December 10, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Patrick Brice Defo Deeh, Pierre Watcho, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Esther Ngadjui, Umar Zayyanu Usman
This study evaluated the effects of the methanolic extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (GT) and selenium (Se) on cell viability, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ), apoptosis and oxidative stress through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel activity in CCL-97 (R2C) tumour Leydig cells. The cells were divided into nine groups and treated as follows: (a)-Control, (b)-Capsazepine (CPZ, 0.1 mM, a TRPV1 channel blocker), (c)-Capsaicin (CAP, 0.01 mM, a TRPV1 channel activator), (d)-GT (500 μg/ml), (e)-GT+CPZ, (f)-GT+CAP, (g)-Se (200 nM), (h)-Se+CPZ and (i)-Se+CAP...
December 10, 2018: Andrologia
Houqing Zeng, Xin Zhang, Ming Ding, Xiajun Zhang, Yiyong Zhu
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread agricultural problem in arable soils of the whole world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Zn deficiency response are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomic profilings of soybean leaves and roots in response to Zn deficiency through Illumina's high-throughput RNA sequencing in order to understand the molecular basis of Zn deficiency response in the plants. A total of 614 and 1011 gene loci were found to be differentially expressed in leaves and roots, respectively, and 88 loci were commonly found in both leaves and roots...
December 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Eliana Baez-Jurado, Gina Guio-Vega, Oscar Hidalgo-Lanussa, Janneth González, Valentina Echeverria, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Amirhossein Sahebkar, George E Barreto
Astrocytes are specialized cells capable of regulating inflammatory responses in neurodegenerative diseases or traumatic brain injury. In addition to playing an important role in neuroinflammation, these cells regulate essential functions for the preservation of brain tissue. Therefore, the search for therapeutic alternatives to preserve these cells and maintain their functions contributes in some way to counteract the progress of the injury and maintain neuronal survival in various brain pathologies. Among these strategies, the conditioned medium from human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CM-hMSCA) has been reported with a potential beneficial effect against several neuropathologies...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Pranas Katauskis, Feliksas Ivanauskas, Aidas Alaburda
Information in the brain is stored in a form of an altered synaptic strength between neurons. The long-term potentiation (LTP), a phenomenon when a short-term increase in neural activity is transformed into a long-lasting increase in strengths of synaptic connectivity, provides an experimental substrate of memory. Using reaction-diffusion equations, we established an LTP model, describing the dynamics of glutamate (Glu), calcium (Ca2+ ) and nitric oxide (NO) in response to the stimulus-a presynaptic action potential...
December 10, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Márta Sárközy, Zsuzsanna Z A Kovács, Mónika G Kovács, Renáta Gáspár, Gergő Szűcs, László Dux
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem and a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CKD could amplify the progression of chronic heart failure leading to the development of type 4 cardio-renal syndrome (T4CRS). The severity and persistence of heart failure are strongly associated with mortality risk in T4CRS. CKD is also a catabolic state leading to renal sarcopenia which is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle strength and physical function. Renal sarcopenia also promotes the development of CVD and increases the mortality in CKD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yin Tintut, Jeffrey J Hsu, Linda L Demer
Previously considered a degenerative process, cardiovascular calcification is now established as an active process that is regulated in several ways by lipids, phospholipids, and lipoproteins. These compounds serve many of the same functions in vascular and valvular calcification as they do in skeletal bone calcification. Hyperlipidemia leads to accumulation of lipoproteins in the subendothelial space of cardiovascular tissues, which leads to formation of mildly oxidized phospholipids, which are known bioactive factors in vascular cell calcification...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Fatema Suliman Alatawi, Uzma A Faridi, Mohsen Suliaman Alatawi
Background: In diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hyperglycemia has been reported to induce oxidative stress, which may lead to health complications. Vitamin D, however, acts as a non-enzymatic antioxidant to protect cells against oxidative stress and damage. Objective: To investigate the antioxidative effect of vitamin D combined with calcium in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups (ten rats in each group)...
December 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Maximillian A Rogers, Elena Aikawa
Cardiovascular calcification is a health disorder with increasing prevalence and high morbidity and mortality. The only available therapeutic options for calcific vascular and valvular heart disease are invasive transcatheter procedures or surgeries that do not fully address the wide spectrum of these conditions; therefore, an urgent need exists for medical options. Cardiovascular calcification is an active process, which provides a potential opportunity for effective therapeutic targeting. Numerous biological processes are involved in calcific disease, including matrix remodelling, transcriptional regulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, calcium and phosphate signalling, endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid and mineral metabolism, autophagy, inflammation, apoptosis, loss of mineralization inhibition, impaired mineral resorption, cellular senescence and extracellular vesicles that act as precursors of microcalcification...
December 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Antonios Chrysargyris, Maria Solomou, Spyridon A Petropoulos, Nikos Tzortzakis
Marginal water, including saline water, has been proposed as an alternative source of irrigation water for partially covering plant water requirements due to scarcity of adequate water supply in hot arid and semi-arid areas, such as those usually found in the Mediterranean basin. In the present study, spearmint plants (Mentha spicata L.) were grown in a deep flow hydroponic system under saline conditions, namely 0, 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. Moreover, foliar application of specific cations (K, Zn, Si) was tested as a means for alleviation of salinity stress under a plant physiological and biochemical approach...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
David R Zhou, Rawan Eid, Eric Boucher, Katie A Miller, Craig A Mandato, Michael T Greenwood
The prevailing models of stress induced Programmed Cell Death (PCD) posit that excess extracellular chemicals interact with or enter cells and disrupts cellular homeostasis. This activates signalling cascades involving the mitochondria, an increase in the steady state levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) as well as the activation of Bax and caspases. Further, the increased ROS also causes cellular damage that triggers or enhances PCD responses. The models have been modified in a number of ways, for example to include the existence of caspase and Bax independent forms of PCD...
December 5, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Hyun Ji Park, Kyung Chul Shin, Soon-Kyu Yoou, Myeongsin Kang, Jae Gon Kim, Dong Jun Sung, Wonjong Yu, Youngjin Lee, Sung Hea Kim, Young Min Bae, Sang Woong Park
Oxidative stress is associated with many cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis. Oxidative stress reportedly activates the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VDCCL ) and elevates [Ca2+ ]i in many cells. However, how oxidative stress activates VDCCL under clinical setting and the consequence for arteries are unclear. Here, we examined the hypothesis that hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) regulates membrane potential (Em) by altering Na+ influx through cation channels, which consequently activates VDCCL to induce vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric arteries...
December 10, 2018: Free Radical Research
Evgeny Bolbasov, Dmitry Popkov, Natalia Kononovich, Elena Gorbach, Igor Khlusov, Alexey Golovkin, Ksenia Stankevich, Viktor Ignatov, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Bouznik, Yuri Anissimov, Sergei Tverdokhlebov, Arnold Popkov
This study aims to investigate the comparative study of calcium phosphate coatings for flexible intramedullary nails (FINs) used to lengthen long tubular bones. The presence of a calcium phosphate coating deposited by micro-arc oxidation or a composite coating based on a copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with tetrafluoroethylene (VDF-TeFE) and hydroxyapatite (HA) on the surface of the FIN significantly enhanced the regeneration of bone in the area of osteotomy during limb lengthening by combined osteosynthesis...
December 4, 2018: Biomedical Materials
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