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epithelial to mesenchymal transition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931214/baicalin-alleviates-radiation-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-primary-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells-via-tgf-%C3%AE-and-erk-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathways
#1
Jinhua Lu, Yazhen Zhong, Zechen Lin, Xianlei Lin, Zhaohui Chen, Xuping Wu, Nan Wang, Haiqiao Zhang, Siyu Huang, Yuan Zhu, Yuanyuan Wang, Shengyou Lin
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat thoracic malignancies. However, it may lead to severe lung pneumonitis and ultimately fibrosis. Irradiation has been reported to increase epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), which play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and ERK/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathways are critically involved in radiation-induced EMT. In the present study, we investigated whether baicalin was a novel therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced EMT in type II AEC...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930679/melanoma-suppressor-functions-of-the-carcinoma-oncogene-foxq1
#2
Archis Bagati, Anna Bianchi-Smiraglia, Sudha Moparthy, Kateryna Kolesnikova, Emily E Fink, Brittany C Lipchick, Masha Kolesnikova, Peter Jowdy, Anthony Polechetti, Amin Mahpour, Jason Ross, Joseph A Wawrzyniak, Dong Hyun Yun, Gyorgy Paragh, Nadezhda I Kozlova, Albert E Berman, Jianmin Wang, Song Liu, Michael J Nemeth, Mikhail A Nikiforov
Lineage-specific regulation of tumor progression by the same transcription factor is understudied. We find that levels of the FOXQ1 transcription factor, an oncogene in carcinomas, are decreased during melanoma progression. Moreover, in contrast to carcinomas, FOXQ1 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis in melanoma cells. We find that these lineage-specific functions of FOXQ1 largely depend on its ability to activate (in carcinomas) or repress (in melanoma) transcription of the N-cadherin gene (CDH2)...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930601/a-role-of-line-1-in-telomere-regulation
#3
Catharina Mueller, Thomas Aschacher, Brigitte Wolf, Michael Bergmann
Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1) are well known as retrotransposons. A number of reports indicate that down-regulation of LINE-1 substantially affects growth of malignant cells and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which is difficult to be explained by its function as retrotransposon. More recent data indicate that LINE-1 is broadly involved in the regulation of telomere maintenance. This explains the essential role of LINE-1 for survival of malignant cells and further supports a global function of active LINE-1 elements in cell proliferation...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930565/role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-2-splicing-in-normal-and-cancer-cells
#4
Toshiyuki Ishiwata
Types 1-4 of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are all expressed in various cancers. Because of its prominent role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression, FGFR-2, is being considered as a novel target in cancer treatment. Owing to the alternative splicing of its extracellular domain, FGFR-2 exists in two variants: IIIb and IIIc. FGFR-2 IIIb is mainly expressed in normal epithelial cells, as well as in oral mucosal, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, pulmonary, breast, endometrial, cervical, and prostate cancers...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930561/immune-ligands-for-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-ctls-in-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#5
Ioannis A Voutsadakis
   The immune system has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics in recent years with the success of immune blockade inhibitors in a variety of cancers whose list is increasing with a quick pace. Despite the efficacy of these drugs across a significant part of the cancer spectrum, responses are still seen only in a minority of patients, that implies that most patients are refractory or promptly develop resistance to these agents. Mechanisms of this resistance are important to decipher as this knowledge may lead to the introduction of additional therapies or manipulations to modulate resistance...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929494/crhr2-ucn2-signaling-is-a-novel-regulator-of-mir-7-yy1-fas-circuitry-contributing-to-reversal-of-colorectal-cancer-cell-resistance-to-fas-mediated-apoptosis
#6
Charalabos Pothoulakis, Monica Torre-Rojas, Marco A Duran-Padilla, Jonathan Gevorkian, Odysseas Zoras, Emmanuel Chrysos, George Chalkiadakis, Stavroula Baritaki
Colorectal cancer (CRC) responds poorly to immuno-mediated cytotoxicity. Underexpression of Corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2 (CRHR2) in CRC, promotes tumor survival, growth and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), in vitro and in vivo. We explored the role of CRHR2 downregulation in CRC cell resistance to Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanism. CRC cell sensitivity to CH11-induced apoptosis was compared between Urocortin-2 (Ucn2)-stimulated parental and CRHR2-overexpressing CRC cell lines and targets of CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling were identified through in vitro and ex vivo analyses...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929255/carbonic-anhydrase-ix-inhibition-affects-viability-of-cancer-cells-adapted-to-extracellular-acidosis
#7
Elena Andreucci, Silvia Peppicelli, Fabrizio Carta, Giulia Brisotto, Eva Biscontin, Jessica Ruzzolini, Francesca Bianchini, Alessio Biagioni, Claudiu T Supuran, Lido Calorini
Among the players of the adaptive response of cancer cells able to promote a resistant and aggressive phenotype, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) recently has emerged as one of the most relevant drug targets. Indeed, CAIX targeting has received a lot of interest, and selective inhibitors are currently under clinical trials. Hypoxia has been identified as the master inductor of CAIX, but, to date, very few is known about the influence that another important characteristic of tumor microenvironment, i.e., extracellular acidosis, exerts on CAIX expression and activity...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928908/epithelial-plasticity-and-cancer-stem-cells-major-mechanisms-of-cancer-pathogenesis-and-therapy-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Minal Garg
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been linked with aggressive tumor biology and therapy resistance. It plays central role not only in the generation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) but also direct them across the multiple organ systems to promote tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs are reported to express stem cell genes as well as specific cell surface markers and allow aberrant differentiation of progenies. It facilitates cancer cells to leave primary tumor, acquire migratory characteristics, grow into new environment and develop radio-chemo-resistance...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928896/eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-3b-is-both-a-promising-prognostic-biomarker-and-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Yuanwei Zang, Xiang Zhang, Lei Yan, Gangli Gu, Dawei Li, Yongzhen Zhang, Liang Fang, Shanshan Fu, Juchao Ren, Zhonghua Xu
Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) constitute a new class of therapeutic cancer targets. EIF3b is the major scaffold protein of eIF3 (the largest core of eIFs). We sought to define the role played by and the mechanism of action of eIF3b in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We found that high-level eIF3b expression in tumors was not only associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype, but was also independently prognostic for patients with ccRCC. Knockdown of eIF3b impaired the action of the Akt pathway, thus inhibiting cell proliferation by disrupting the cell cycle and triggering apoptosis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928894/mzf-1-elk-1-pkc%C3%AE-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Je-Chiuan Ye, Li-Sung Hsu, Jen-Hsiang Tsai, Hsin-Ling Yang, Meen-Woon Hsiao, Jin-Ming Hwang, Chia-Jen Lee, Jer-Yuh Liu
Background: Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) is a key signaling molecule in human cancer development. As a therapeutic strategy, targeting PKCα is difficult because the molecule is ubiquitously expressed in non-malignant cells. PKCα is regulated by the cooperative interaction of the transcription factors myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF-1) and Ets-like protein-1 (Elk-1) in human cancer cells. Methods: By conducting tissue array analysis, herein, we determined the protein expression of MZF-1/Elk-1/PKCα in various cancers...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928869/hes1-promotes-colorectal-cancer-cell-resistance-to-5-fu-by-inducing-of-emt-and-abc-transporter-proteins
#11
Lei Sun, Jia Ke, Zhen He, Zexian Chen, Qinghua Huang, Wenjia Ai, Guoqiang Wang, Yisheng Wei, Xiangcai Zou, Shi Zhang, Ping Lan, Chuyuan Hong
Background and Aim: Hairy enhancer of split-1 (HES1) is a downstream transcriptional factor of Notch signaling pathway, which was found to be related to chemoresistance. This study was aimed to investigate the role of HES1 in chemoresistance of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Tissue microarray was used to analyze the clinical significance of HES1 in radical resected (R0) stage II/III CRC patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) chemoresistance was examined in CRC cell lines (RKO and HCT8, LOVO) with stable over-expression and inhibition of HES1 gene by cytotoxicity test...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928801/ginsenoside-rb1-inhibits-hypoxia-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-regulating-microrna-25
#12
Dan Liu, Ting Liu, Yue Teng, Wei Chen, Le Zhao, Xu Li
Metastasis frequently occurs in advanced ovarian cancer, which not only leads to substantial mortality but also becomes a major challenge to effective treatment. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key mechanism facilitating cancer metastasis. Targeting the EMT process with more efficacious and less toxic agents to prevent metastasis is of significant therapeutic value for ovarian cancer treatment. The anti-EMT function and mechanism of ginsenoside Rb1, a monomer composition extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng or P...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928657/colocynth-extracts-prevent-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-stemness-of-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Kaushik Chowdhury, Ankit Sharma, Suresh Kumar, Gyanesh K Gunjan, Alo Nag, Chandi C Mandal
Modern treatment strategies provide better overall survival in cancer patients, primarily by controlling tumor growth. However, off-target and systemic toxicity, tumor recurrence, and resistance to therapy are still inadvertent hurdles in current treatment regimens. Similarly, metastasis is another deadly threat to patients suffering from cancer. This has created an urgent demand to come up with new drugs having anti-metastatic potential and minimum side effects. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic potential of colocynth medicinal plant...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928159/bmp4-induces-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-favors-tumor-progression-in-bladder-cancer
#14
Víctor G Martínez, Carolina Rubio, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Cristina Segovia, Fernando López-Calderón, Marina Garín, Alicia Teijeira, Ester Munera-Maravilla, Alberto Varas, Rosa Sacedón, Felix Guerrero-Ramos, Felipe Villacampa, Federico de la Rosa, Daniel Castellano, Eduardo López-Collazo, Jesus M Paramio, Ángeles Vicente, Marta Dueñas
PURPOSE: Bladder cancer (BC) is a current clinical and social problem. At diagnosis, most patients present non-muscle invasive tumors, characterized by a high recurrence rate, which could progress to muscle invasive disease and metastasis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-dependent signaling arising from stromal bladder tissue mediates urothelial homeostasis by promoting urothelial cell differentiation. However, the possible role of BMP ligands in BC is still unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor and normal tissue from 68 patients with urothelial cancer were prospectively collected and analyzed for expression of BMP and macrophage markers...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927233/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-mediated-fgfr-erk-signaling-supports-maintenance-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Osamu Maehara, Goki Suda, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Yoshito Komatsu, Fumiyuki Sato, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Kenichi Morikawa, Koji Ogawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Megumi Kimura, Ayaka Asano, Yoshiyuki Fujimoto, Shinya Ohashi, Shingo Kagawa, Hideaki Kinugasa, Seiji Naganuma, Kelly A Whelan, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Koji Nakagawa, Hiroshi Takeda, Naoya Sakamoto
In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a subset of cells defined by high expression of CD44 and low expression of CD24 has been reported to possess characteristics of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Novel therapies directly targeting CSCs have the potential to improve prognosis of ESCC patients. Although fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression correlates with recurrence and poor survival in ESCC patients, the role of FGF-2 in regulation of ESCC CSCs has yet to be elucidated. We report that FGF-2 is significantly upregulated in CSCs and significantly increases CSC content in ESCC cell lines by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
September 13, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927144/mir-381-inhibits-migration-and-invasion-in-human-gastric-carcinoma-through-downregulatedting-sox4
#16
Mingming Zhang, Shishu Huang, Dan Long
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) serves essential roles in the generation and progression of various types of human cancer. In the present study, the expression and biological functions of miR-381 in human gastric carcinoma (GC) were focused upon. The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of miR-381 was significantly downregulated in GC tissue samples. Furthermore, low expression of miR-381 was identified to be associated with lymphatic metastasis and advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage (III+IV)...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927132/downregulation-of-esophageal-cancer-related-gene-4-promotes-proliferation-and-migration-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Shujian Ge, Yali Xu, Hongliang Wang, Yaxin Sun, Xiangguo Tian, Zhixin Cao, Xiaoyan Lin, Jiawen Xu, Qiangxiu Wang
Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which is involved in cell apoptosis, migration, infection and inflammation responsiveness; however, its expression level and clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the present study, the authors aim to evaluate the clinical significance and potential role of ECRG4 in HCC. Level of ECRG4 protein expression in HCC and peripheral tissues was investigated in tissue specimens obtained from 56 consecutive HCC patients by immunohistochemistry...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927111/luteolin-reduces-migration-of-human-glioblastoma-cell-lines-via-inhibition-of-the-p-igf-1r-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#18
Qiang Wang, Handong Wang, Yue Jia, Hui Ding, Li Zhang, Hao Pan
Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a common dietary flavonoid, which has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects in multiple cancer models. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of luteolin on glioblastoma cell metastasis remain poorly understood. The present study assessed the effects of luteolin in the U251MG and U87MG human glioblastoma cell lines. Luteolin treatment significantly inhibited glioblastoma cell migration, and this effect was associated with downregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and upregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927099/interleukin-6-identified-as-an-important-factor-in-hypoxia-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-based-gefitinib-adaptive-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#19
Shi-Min An, Hui-Min Lei, Xu-Ping Ding, Fan Sun, Chun Zhang, Ya-Bin Tang, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Ying Shen, Liang Zhu
Gefitinib resistance and relapse of the disease were the greatest challenges facing clinical therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Of note, regarding the hypoxia condition in solid tumor tissues in vivo, roles of hypoxia in gefitinib adaptive resistance and its association with lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the role of hypoxia in gefitinib adaptive resistance and its association with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-based LCSC gefitinib resistance were comparatively studied using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927057/effect-of-epithelial-growth-factor-on-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-e-cadherin-%C3%AE-catenin-expression-in-an-in-situ-model-of-tumorigenesis
#20
Natalia Festugatto Navarini, Vera Cavalcanti De Araújo, Marcelo Sperandio, Marcelo Henrique Napimoga, Lucas Novaes Teixeira, Ney Soares De Araújo, Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez
The aim of the present study was to analyze the in vitro effect of various doses of epidermal growth factor (EGF; 5 and 10 ng/ml) on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) secretion and E-cadherin/β-catenin expression by co-cultured cells that mimic an in situ carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, where benign myoepithelial cells from a pleomorphic adenoma surround malignant epithelial cells. EGF was supplemented in various doses and the effects were evaluated following four days of cell culture. ELISA was performed to determine MMP-2 secretion levels...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
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