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Physical effects of sexual abuse

S Rafiq, C Campodonico, F Varese
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have observed that dissociative experiences are frequently reported by individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), especially amongst patients that report a history of adverse/traumatic life experiences. This review examined the magnitude and consistency of the relationship between childhood adversity (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, bullying, natural disasters and mass violence) and dissociation across three SMI diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and personality disorders...
October 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Sarah Turner, Tamara Taillieu, R Nicholas Carleton, Jitender Sareen, Tracie O Afifi
BACKGROUND: A history of child abuse has been identified as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in general population samples; however, it remains unknown how a history of child abuse and career-related trauma together are related to suicidal behaviour. This cross-sectional survey was designed to 1) estimate the prevalence of a history of child abuse among Canadian public safety personnel, 2) examine the associations between child abuse and suicidal behaviour, 3) examine the associations between career-related trauma and suicidal behaviour and 4) examine the cumulative and interactive effects of child abuse and career-related trauma on suicidal behaviour...
October 2018: CMAJ Open
Abigail M Hatcher, Andrew Gibbs, Rachel Jewkes, Ruari-Santiago McBride, Dean Peacock, Nicola Christofides
PURPOSE: Depressive disorders contribute to health declines among young men, but little is known about how childhood trauma alongside poverty alters depressive symptoms in young adulthood. These life-course dynamics are particularly under-researched in African settings. METHODS: We assessed how childhood trauma and poverty were associated with depressive symptomology among young men (aged 18-30 years). Data were collected through community-based surveys in two peri-urban, South African settlements...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Hanlin Fu, Tiejian Feng, Jiabi Qin, Tingting Wang, Xiaobing Wu, Yumao Cai, Lina Lan, Tubao Yang
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of childhood maltreatment among college students in China by a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic search of relevant articles in Pubmed, Wanfang Data, Chinese Scientific Journals Fulltext Database (CQVIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) was conducted on September 1, 2017. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and sources of heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analyses...
2018: PloS One
W Häuser, E Brähler, G Schmutzer, H Glaesmer
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) might predispose to and resilience might protect against chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). We studied whether ACE are positively associated with CNCP, whether resilience was negatively associated with CNCP and whether resilience buffered a potential association of ACE with CNCP. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey (N=2,425) representative for the adult German general population was conducted in 2013. The following questionnaires were used: Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire for CNCP stages; Childhood Trauma Screener for ACE; Brief Resilient Coping Scale for resilience; Patient Health Questionnaire for psychological symptom burden; Giessen Subjective Complaints List for somatic symptom burden...
October 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
William R Lovallo, Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Kristen H Sorocco, Andrew J Cohoon
Early life adversity (ELA) contributes to behavioral impulsivity along with risk for substance use disorders, both accompanied by blunted stress-axis reactivity. However, the biological contributors to blunted stress reactivity are not known. We took advantage of the fact that women have significant opioid inhibition of cortisol output by using the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, to unmask opioid interactions due to ELA. We administered 50 mg of naltrexone or placebo to 72 healthy women (23 years of age) in a double-blind crossover study and observed deviations in cortisol secretion from placebo over the next 180 minutes...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Adams, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Childhood physical and sexual abuse victims are at increased risk for developing depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Prior findings suggest abuse onset, duration, and severity moderate relationships between victimization and psychopathology. However, because these abuse characteristics are highly intercorrelated, their unique, individual effects on mental health outcomes remain unclear. To address this gap, the present study examined relationships between physical and sexual abuse characteristics and mental health outcomes and whether these relationships differed by sex...
October 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
F Fekih-Romdhane, R Ridha, M Cheour
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence exists everywhere in the world. It depends mainly on the cultural and religious norms conveyed in the various societies. This is a neglected area of research. Available data are insufficient, especially in Arab-Muslim context. METHODS: In this paper, we comprehensively review the scientific literature in order to clarify the cultural, religious and legal aspects of the concept of sexual violence against women in Tunisia, and ask the question of the urgent need to put in place strategies to counter this problem...
October 6, 2018: L'Encéphale
Susan Sierau, Lars Otto White, Annette Maria Klein, Jody Todd Manly, Kai von Klitzing, Philipp Yorck Herzberg
Child victims' reports of psychological and physical abuse by caregivers are a fundamental source of information beyond official records and caregiver reports. However, few or no sensitive and age-appropriate child-report instruments exist that have undergone in-depth validity and reliability testing across a broad age-range. Our study addresses this gap by examining psychometric properties of a picture-based, modularized version of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC-R), encompassing the maltreatment subtypes of psychological and physical abuse...
2018: PloS One
Tiara C Willie, Trace Kershaw, Tami P Sullivan
Women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) are at an increased risk of engaging in sexual risk behaviors and experiencing depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) can put women at increased risk of poor sexual and mental health. Women experiencing IPV report ACEs, but few studies have examined the heterogeneity in women's experiences of ACEs and its effects on sexual and mental health. Therefore, the current study used latent profile analysis to identify profiles of ACEs (i...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Charles Van Liew, Gabriel Leon, Mikayla Neese, Terry A Cronan
To determine whether the effects of symptom duration on fibromyalgia physical impairment are moderated by symptom self-efficacy, data from 572 female participants, who were members of a large health maintenance organization and had a diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) were assessed. Age, symptom duration, history of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, fibromyalgia-specific self-efficacy (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale adapted for FMS [ASES]), depression (Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]), fibromyalgia physical impairment (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire [FIQ]), and pain (McGill Present Pain Index [PPI]) were measured five times across 18 months...
September 30, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Patricia Hindin, Rula Btoush, Dennis P Carmody
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine pathways through which childhood abuse increases the risk of cervical cancer, including smoking, stress, risky sexual behavior, and not having a Papanicolaou (Pap) test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive, correlational study. The sample included 410 women, recruited from a large, multisite women's health center that serves low-income communities in New Jersey. Data were analyzed using path models and conditional regression analysis...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Kader Mert, Sena Dilek Aksoy
OBJECTIVE: Sexual abuse of children is an important public health issue. The aim of this study was to provide a multidimensional examination of women over the age of 18 who were exposed to sexual abuse in childhood and the effect of this abuse on their lives. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: This qualitative study was conducted over the period June 2015-February 2017. Twenty-three women were gathered by the snowball sampling method. MEASURES: We collected the data using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews...
September 25, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Melissa T Merrick, Derek C Ford, Katie A Ports, Angie S Guinn
Importance: Early adversity is associated with leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality and effects on life opportunities. Objective: To provide an updated prevalence estimate of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the United States using a large, diverse, and representative sample of adults in 23 states. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were collected through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annual, nationally representative telephone survey on health-related behaviors, health conditions, and use of preventive services, from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014...
September 17, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
J A Campbell, C E Mendez, E Garacci, R J Walker, N Wagner, L E Egede
BACKGROUND: ACEs have a dose-response relationship with diabetes. The relationship between ACEs and pre-diabetes is not well known and may represent an effective area for prevention efforts. METHODS: Data from 1054 participants from two waves of the longitudinal MIDUS study were used. Multivariate general linear regression models assessed the relationship between ACEs and biomarker outcomes. Correlation tests and mediation models investigated the relationship between ACE and pre-diabetes...
November 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Julia I Herzog, Christian Schmahl
Introduction: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) such as sexual and physical abuse or neglect are frequent in childhood and constitute a massive stressor with long-lasting adverse effects on the brain, mental and physical health.The aim of this qualitative review is to present a concise overview of the present literature on the impact of ACE on neurobiology, mental and somatic health in later adulthood. Methods: The authors reviewed the existing literature on the impact of ACE on neurobiology, mental and somatic health in later adulthood and summarized the results for a concise qualitative overview...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Susan Yoon, Jamie Cage, Fei Pei, Sheila Barnhart
The primary aim of the study was to investigate the development of psychobehavioral symptoms (internalizing, externalizing, and posttraumatic stress [PTS]) of child welfare-involved adolescents over a 3-year period and to identify predictors of the trajectories. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-II), latent growth curve modeling was conducted on a sample of 350 adolescents who were between 11 and 13 years of age at baseline. Findings indicated that adolescents' internalizing symptoms decreased over time, whereas externalizing symptoms remained stable over time...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Olivia V Fletcher, Philip A May, Soraya Seedat, Kathleen J Sikkema, Melissa H Watt
BACKGROUND: The Western Cape Province of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) globally. Effective prevention of FASD requires understanding women's attitudes about alcohol use during pregnancy and whether these attitudes translate into behavior. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this mixed-methods study was to describe attitudes toward alcohol use during pregnancy and examine how these attitudes influence drinking behaviors during pregnancy...
September 9, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Charles H Zeanah, Kathryn L Humphreys
Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and various forms of neglect of children are associated with substantially increased risk for concurrent and subsequent psychopathology and are among the common problems encountered by clinicians in many clinical settings. Such cases pose additional challenges for clinicians because of the many complex family and system forces that engulf these children and their families. Assessing maltreated children generally requires more time than evaluations of children who have not experienced maltreatment...
September 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Amanda L Shamblaw, Robyn E Cardy, Eric Prost, Kate L Harkness
Depression is the most common mental disorder in pregnancy. An important risk factor in the development of prenatal depression is lifetime history of abuse. The current review quantitatively synthesized research on the association between history of abuse and prenatal depressive symptoms using a meta-analytic technique. A total of 3322 articles were identified through electronic searches of the following databases: PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE Cochrane Collaboration databases between the years of 1980 and 2016...
September 8, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
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