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Physical effects of sexual abuse

Holly A Swartz, Jill M Cyranowski, Yu Cheng, Marlissa Amole
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of maternal depression with psychotherapy has been shown to confer indirect benefits to school-age offspring with psychiatric disorders. The current study sought to understand mechanisms by which improvement in depressed mothers, with and without histories of trauma and treated with psychotherapy, produce changes in children who struggle with psychiatric illnesses themselves. We hypothesized that maternal history of childhood trauma would moderate the relationship between maternal and child outcomes and that increased positive and decreased negative parenting behaviors would mediate the relationship between maternal and child outcomes...
August 3, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Lil Tonmyr, Ben Mathews, Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Tracie O Afifi
BACKGROUND: Within Canadian provinces over the past half-century, legislation has been enacted to increase child protection organization (CPO) involvement in situations of child maltreatment (CM). This study had two objectives: 1) to document enactment dates of legislation for mandatory reporting of CM; 2) to examine reported CPO involvement among people reporting a CM history in relation to the timing of these legislative changes. METHODS: The history of mandatory reporting of CM was compiled using secondary sources and doctrinal legal review of provincial legislation...
August 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sara Torres-Castro, Claudia Szlejf, Lorena Parra-Rodríguez, Oscar Rosas-Carrasco
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between frailty and elder abuse in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Secondary cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. SETTING: The Frailty, Dynapenia and Sarcopenia in Mexican Adults study, a cohort of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older (N=487, mean age 73.2 ± 8.0, 80% female)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Rony Berger, Joy Benatov, Raphael Cuadros, Jacob VanNattan, Marc Gelkopf
Children in Sub-Saharan Africa are living under chronic adversity due to poverty, serious health issues, physical and sexual abuse, and armed conflicts. These highly stressful conditions have deleterious effects on their mental health and socio-emotional adjustment. Since many children lack adequate access to mental health care, culturally adapted school-based resiliency programs could provide a resource to scaffold their development and promote their mental health. This study evaluated the efficacy of a universal school-based intervention in enhancing the resiliency of Tanzanian primary school children and cultivating prosocial behaviors...
August 9, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Belén Sanz-Barbero, Consuelo Corradi, Laura Otero-García, Alba Ayala, Carmen Vives-Cases
OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyze whether a relationship exists between gender equality and political responses to gender violence (GV) against women with physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in the European Union (EU). METHODS: We analyzed a subsample of 39,269 ever-partnered women aged 18 and older from the violence against women survey (2012) of the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights. Outcome was last 12 months physical and/or sexual IPV. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used...
August 4, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Katherine A Cascio
Women in prostitution (WIP) experience extremely high levels of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and are significantly more likely to experience mental health issues and trauma than the general population. Research that addresses the mental health needs of WIP emphasizes treating trauma, both trauma that predated entry into prostitution and trauma experienced during prostitution. Very little research is available on services for WIP, thus providers have limited guidance on providing effective services, particularly trauma-informed care...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Linda Bara Lydsdottir, Louise M Howard, Halldora Olafsdottir, Hjalti Einarsson, Thora Steingrimsdottir, Jon Fridrik Sigurdsson
Risk factors for antenatal common mental problems include a history of depression, lack of social support and a history of both childhood and adulthood sexual and physical abuse. However, it is less clear whether pregnancy is a time of particular susceptibility to mental disorders due to prior childhood experiences. The aim of the paper was to investigate the potential pathways to antenatal mental health problems. A total of 521 women attending prenatal care attended a clinical interview and answered psychological questionnaires...
July 28, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ikenna D Ebuenyi, Uzoechi E Chikezie, Gerald O Dariah
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is common globally but underreported. It has far-reaching physical, social, and mental health effects and often the victims suffer in silence because of the shame and stigma associated with the experience. Despite international and country specific legislation to protect children and punish offenders, CSA thrives and sometimes leads to the death of victims. We report two cases of children aged 7 and 8 who presented at Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital Bayelsa, Nigeria. In both cases, the offender was known to the victim's parents who did not only refuse to report the cases to law enforcement agents but also discontinued medical follow-up for the children...
June 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
Özlem Can Gürkan, Zübeyde Ekşi, Derya Deniz, Hasan Çırçır
The current literature contains few studies conducted on the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on pregnancy symptoms. Does being subjected to IPV during pregnancy increase the incidence of pregnancy-related symptoms? The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of IPV on pregnancy-related symptoms. The study was conducted as comparative, descriptive, and cross-sectional research with a total of 370 participants. Data were collected using the Domestic Violence Against Women Screening Form, the Pregnancy Symptoms Inventory (PSI), and a descriptive questionnaire...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Raimo K R Salokangas, Tiina From, Sinikka Luutonen, Jarmo Hietala
BACKGROUND: The attachment theory suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have an effect on how individuals perceive other people's attitude towards them. ACEs have also been associated with adult depression. We hypothesised that ACEs associate with perceived negative attitude of others (AoO) and depressive symptoms (DEPS), and that these associations differ between the genders. METHODS: Altogether, 692 participants drawn from the general population completed the Trauma and Distress Scale, as a measurement of ACE and its domains: emotional abuse (EmoAb), physical abuse (PhyAb), sexual abuse (SexAb), emotional neglect (EmoNeg) and physical neglect (PhyNeg); a visual analog scale with the question: "What kind of attitude do other people take towards you?", and the self-report scale DEPS on depressive symptoms...
July 21, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Raimo K R Salokangas, Paul Patterson, Jarmo Hietala, Markus Heinimaa, Tiina From, Tuula Ilonen, Heinrich Graf von Reventlow, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Georg Juckel, Don Linszen, Peter Dingemans, Max Birchwood, Joachim Klosterkötter, Stephan Ruhrmann
AIM: Depression and suicidal ideation (SUI) and behaviour are more prevalent in females than males, and common in clinical high-risk (CHR) patients. Childhood adversities and trauma (CAT) are associated with adult depression and SUI. The role of gender as a moderator and depression as a mediator for the effect of CAT on SUI has not been explored in CHR patients. METHODS: In all, 245 young help-seeking CHR patients were assessed for SUI (thoughts of killing themselves) with the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline, 9-month and 18-month follow-ups...
July 23, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Gabriella Ozvald
Physical and sexual trauma during childhood is a matter of public health problem. The consequences of cumulative childhood trauma follows on one's journey through life and are decisive for nerve development, social, emotional and cognitive functioning, and leads to the development of other health risk behaviors as well as to early death. 22-44% of patients in health care suffered from childhood trauma. This ratio is even higher in case of cancer patients. Traumatised oncological patients are particularly characterised by delaying tests or rejecting treatment even in the case of noticeable complaints...
July 20, 2018: Magyar Onkologia
Guillaume Durand, Joana de Calheiros Velozo
Many studies have reported an effect of childhood maltreatment and parenting behavior with the future development of psychopathic traits. However, there is a limited amount of research on parenting behavior and adult psychopathic traits as possible identifiers of childhood maltreatment. The aim of this study is three-fold (1) identify specific parenting behaviors and adult psychopathic traits that predict forms of childhood maltreatment, (2) explore gender differences, and (3) expand on other studies on psychopathy by focusing on a representative sample of the community...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jason B Phillips
Adolescents are exposed to high levels of violence in the United States. Exposure to violence at this point in the life course can have both short- and long-term consequences for young victims that include socioemotional distress and depression, substance abuse, and delinquency. Prior research indicates that positive, productive, and supportive reactions on the parts of those close to targets of violence attenuate feelings of distress and social anomie that many victims report. However, less attention has been devoted to the attributes of criminal violence that may stress the postincident interpersonal relationships of victims and their family members, friends, or peers...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
C Van Woudenberg, E M Voorendonk, H Bongaerts, H A Zoet, M Verhagen, C W Lee, A van Minnen, A De Jongh
Background: There is room for improvement regarding the treatment of severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intensifying treatment to increase patient retention is a promising development. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an intensive trauma-focused treatment programme over 8 days for individuals suffering from severe PTSD. Method: Treatment was provided for 347 PTSD patients (70% women; mean age = 38.32 years, SD  = 11.69) and consisted of daily sessions of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy (16 sessions in total), physical activity, and psycho-education...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kelsey Holt, Icela Zavala, Ximena Quintero, Doroteo Mendoza, Marie C McCormick, Christine Dehlendorf, Ellice Lieberman, Ana Langer
BACKGROUND: Client-centered contraceptive counseling is critical to meeting demand for contraception and protecting human rights. However, despite various efforts to optimize counseling, little is known outside of the United States about what individuals themselves value in counseling. In the present study we investigate women's preferences for contraceptive counseling in Mexico to inform efforts to improve service quality. METHODS: We conducted applied qualitative research, using six focus group discussions with 43 women in two cities in Mexico with distinct sizes and sociocultural contexts (Mexico City and Tepeji del Río, Hidalgo) to assess contraceptive counseling preferences...
July 16, 2018: Reproductive Health
Yasemin Kahya
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is one of the most alarming social problems all over the world. Recently, IPV research focuses on the bidirectional nature of the phenomenon, which underlines that both women and men can equally be victims and perpetrators of IPV, especially in community samples. The cycle of violence theory asserts that child abuse and neglect (CAN) is a vulnerability factor for being both a victim and perpetrator of IPV while developmental mechanisms perspective assesses mediators explaining this association...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Katelyn K Jetelina, Stefany Olague, Jordan G Wondrack
The purpose of this project was to assess the magnitude of the relationship between violence against women and cancer; to identify the exposures and cancers for which this relationship was particularly robust; to identify the effect of violence exposure on cancer screening. We conducted a meta-analysis of 36 studies to determine the relationship between violence against women and cancer outcomes, including screening, in 2017. Results from this review provide evidence of a significant, positive relationship between violence and cancer diagnoses, particularly for cervical cancer...
July 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Kyle D Webster, Susan Michalowski, Thomas E Hranilovich
The legitimacy and etiology of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) remains a controversial topic within Psychiatry. The two schools of thought are the Post-Traumatic Model (PTM) and the Socio-Cognitive Model (SCM). This case highlights the validity of PTM in an individual who suffered severe and prolonged physical, psychological, and sexual abuse from 2 years old through adulthood. The reported abuse was corroborated and proven on two separate occasions via medical professionals/rape kit and the police. This resulted in the incarceration of one of her abusers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Alessandra Minelli, Chiara Magri, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Massimo Gennarelli
Childhood trauma (CT) increases the likelihood of developing severe mental illnesses, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), during adulthood. Several studies have suggested an inflammatory immune system dysregulation as a biological mediator; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship remain largely undetermined. Moreover, different types of CT, in particular, emotional abuse and neglect, confer a higher risk of developing MDD, and recent meta-analyses showed that each CT can be associated with different pro-inflammatory biomarkers...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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