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Physical effects of sexual abuse

Maurice Eisenbruch
In Cambodia, more than half of all children experience physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. This article examines how Cambodians view the causes and effects of child abuse and analyses its underlying cultural forces. Adopting a conceptual framework originally developed for the cultural context of violence against women, 110 cases of child abuse were ethnographically studied, comprising 61 cases of sexual abuse (50 girls and 11 boys), 26 cases of physical abuse (13 girls and 13 boys), and 23 cases of emotional abuse or neglect (13 girls and 10 boys)...
November 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Steve Kisely, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Ryan Mills, Lane Strathearn, Alexandra Clavarino, Jake Moses Najman
BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies have shown a high association between child abuse and subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Prospective studies are rarer.AimsTo examine, using a prospective record-linkage analysis, whether substantiated child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in early adulthood. METHOD: The participants were 3778 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia. Exposure to suspected child maltreatment was measured by linkage with state child protection agency data...
December 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Melissa D Grady, Jamie Yoder, Adam Brown
The aim of this study was to empirically examine the theoretical model proposed by Grady, Levenson, and Bolder used to explain the relationships between experiencing trauma, attachment styles, and risk factors associated with sexual offending. The specific risk factors tested were emotional, behavioral, and cognitive regulation deficits. The research questions were as follows: (1) What specific childhood traumatic experiences (physical and sexual abuse and/or other domestic trauma events) are associated with anxious-ambivalent and anxious-avoidant attachments? (2) Are anxious-ambivalent and anxious-avoidant attachment styles differentially linked to dysregulation outcomes (emotional, behavioral and cognitive shift, and inhibitions)? (3) Do insecure attachment styles explain why childhood trauma is associated with dysregulation? and (4) Do these early life experiences contribute to sexual offending behavior? The sample included 200 male youth adjudicated for either a sexual or nonsexual crime and living in the community or a residential facility...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Matthew C Morris, Miriam Marco, Kathryn Maguire-Jack, Chrystyna D Kouros, Brooklynn Bailey, Ernesto Ruiz, Wansoo Im
Child maltreatment is a major public health problem. Although maltreatment rates vary over time and are influenced by neighborhood characteristics, the unique effects of crime and disadvantage on risk are not well understood. This study utilized a Bayesian spatiotemporal approach to examine risk factors for substantiated child abuse and neglect over a 9-year period across zip codes in Davidson County, TN. Risk of child sexual and physical abuse decreased from 2008 to 2016. In contrast, risk of child neglect increased from 2011 to 2014, followed by a rapid decrease in risk...
November 22, 2018: Child Maltreatment
M E Pearce, K A Jongbloed, S D Pooyak, A H Blair, W M Christian, R Sharma, A Mazzuca, D S Zamar, M T Schechter, P M Spittal
Background: Mental health and wellbeing, including addressing impacts of historical trauma and substance use among young people, has been identified as a key priority by Indigenous communities and leaders across Canada and globally. Yet, research to understand mental health among young Indigenous people who have used drugs is limited. Aims: To examine longitudinal risk and strengths-based factors associated with psychological distress among young Indigenous people who use drugs...
2018: Global Mental Health
A Schönfelder, N Hallensleben, L Spangenberg, T Forkmann, D Rath, H Glaesmer
BACKGROUND: Several studies provide evidence for a relationship between childhood abuse and suicidality across the lifespan. To examine this association in the context of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), we investigated whether its constructs thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness and capability for suicide are potential mediators. METHODS: Eighty-four German psychiatric inpatients with unipolar depression (M = 37.6 years, 69% female) and current or lifetime suicidal ideation were included...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Meltem Idig-Camuroglu, Z Belma Gölge
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of gender and childhood abuse on non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors among university students in Turkey. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this study convenience sampling technique was used, the sample consisted of 1000 young adults who were from the eight universities in two big cities; Istanbul and Ankara. Besides with demographic questionnaire, Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were used...
December 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Dave S Pasalich, Charles B Fleming, Susan J Spieker, Mary Jane Lohr, Monica L Oxford
To better understand how and for whom parenting intervention may improve family outcomes in child welfare services, we examined whether parents' own history of child abuse moderated the indirect effects of the Promoting First Relationships® (PFR) intervention on toddlers' secure base behavior via parental sensitivity. Parents ( N = 247) and their toddlers (10-24 months) involved with child protective services were randomized to PFR or a control intervention. Results showed that the PFR group demonstrated greater parental sensitivity at postintervention than the control group, which in turn led to higher levels of toddler secure base behavior at 6-month follow-up...
November 14, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Mathias Lillig
Conduct disorder is a psychiatric syndrome that most commonly occurs in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by symptoms of aggression toward people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. Risk factors include male sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, poverty in childhood, exposure to physical or sexual abuse or domestic violence, and parental substance use disorders or criminal behavior. At least three symptoms should have been present in the past 12 months, with at least one present in the past six months to diagnose conduct disorder...
November 15, 2018: American Family Physician
Molly R Wolf, Shraddha Prabhu
In this retrospective study of 244 adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA), their experiences of childhood polyvictimization were analyzed as to their cumulative effect on trauma symptoms, education, and income levels. The data were gathered by anonymously sampling adult survivors of CSA from websites that were specific to this population (such as online peer support groups). Their experiences of victimization were examined as to Cumulative Polyvictimization, Witnessing Traumas (such as witnessing intimate partner violence), and Experiencing Traumas (such as child physical abuse)...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
S Rafiq, C Campodonico, F Varese
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have observed that dissociative experiences are frequently reported by individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), especially amongst patients that report a history of adverse/traumatic life experiences. This review examined the magnitude and consistency of the relationship between childhood adversity (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, bullying, natural disasters and mass violence) and dissociation across three SMI diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and personality disorders...
December 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Sarah Turner, Tamara Taillieu, R Nicholas Carleton, Jitender Sareen, Tracie O Afifi
BACKGROUND: A history of child abuse has been identified as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in general population samples; however, it remains unknown how a history of child abuse and career-related trauma together are related to suicidal behaviour. This cross-sectional survey was designed to 1) estimate the prevalence of a history of child abuse among Canadian public safety personnel, 2) examine the associations between child abuse and suicidal behaviour, 3) examine the associations between career-related trauma and suicidal behaviour and 4) examine the cumulative and interactive effects of child abuse and career-related trauma on suicidal behaviour...
October 2018: CMAJ Open
Abigail M Hatcher, Andrew Gibbs, Rachel Jewkes, Ruari-Santiago McBride, Dean Peacock, Nicola Christofides
PURPOSE: Depressive disorders contribute to health declines among young men, but little is known about how childhood trauma alongside poverty alters depressive symptoms in young adulthood. These life-course dynamics are particularly under-researched in African settings. METHODS: We assessed how childhood trauma and poverty were associated with depressive symptomology among young men (aged 18-30 years). Data were collected through community-based surveys in two peri-urban, South African settlements...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Hanlin Fu, Tiejian Feng, Jiabi Qin, Tingting Wang, Xiaobing Wu, Yumao Cai, Lina Lan, Tubao Yang
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of childhood maltreatment among college students in China by a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic search of relevant articles in Pubmed, Wanfang Data, Chinese Scientific Journals Fulltext Database (CQVIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) was conducted on September 1, 2017. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and sources of heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analyses...
2018: PloS One
Winfried Häuser, Elmar Brähler, Gabriele Schmutzer, Heide Glaesmer
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) might predispose to and resilience might protect against chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). We studied whether ACE are positively associated with CNCP, whether resilience was negatively associated with CNCP and whether resilience buffered a potential association of ACE with CNCP. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey (N = 2,425) representative for the adult German general population was conducted in 2013. The following questionnaires were used: Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire for CNCP stages; Childhood Trauma Screener for ACE; Brief Resilient Coping Scale for resilience; Patient Health Questionnaire 4 for psychological symptom burden; Giessen Subjective Complaints List for somatic symptom burden...
October 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
William R Lovallo, Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Kristen H Sorocco, Andrew J Cohoon
Early life adversity (ELA) contributes to behavioral impulsivity along with risk for substance use disorders, both accompanied by blunted stress-axis reactivity. However, the biological contributors to blunted stress reactivity are not known. We took advantage of the fact that women have significant opioid inhibition of cortisol output by using the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, to unmask opioid interactions due to ELA. We administered 50 mg of naltrexone or placebo to 72 healthy women (23 years of age) in a double-blind crossover study and observed deviations in cortisol secretion from placebo over the next 180 minutes...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Adams, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Childhood physical and sexual abuse victims are at increased risk for developing depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Prior findings suggest abuse onset, duration, and severity moderate relationships between victimization and psychopathology. However, because these abuse characteristics are highly intercorrelated, their unique, individual effects on mental health outcomes remain unclear. To address this gap, the present study examined relationships between physical and sexual abuse characteristics and mental health outcomes and whether these relationships differed by sex...
October 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
F Fekih-Romdhane, R Ridha, M Cheour
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence exists everywhere in the world. It depends mainly on the cultural and religious norms conveyed in the various societies. This is a neglected area of research. Available data are insufficient, especially in Arab-Muslim context. METHODS: In this paper, we comprehensively review the scientific literature in order to clarify the cultural, religious and legal aspects of the concept of sexual violence against women in Tunisia, and ask the question of the urgent need to put in place strategies to counter this problem...
October 6, 2018: L'Encéphale
Susan Sierau, Lars Otto White, Annette Maria Klein, Jody Todd Manly, Kai von Klitzing, Philipp Yorck Herzberg
Child victims' reports of psychological and physical abuse by caregivers are a fundamental source of information beyond official records and caregiver reports. However, few or no sensitive and age-appropriate child-report instruments exist that have undergone in-depth validity and reliability testing across a broad age-range. Our study addresses this gap by examining psychometric properties of a picture-based, modularized version of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC-R), encompassing the maltreatment subtypes of psychological and physical abuse...
2018: PloS One
Tiara C Willie, Trace Kershaw, Tami P Sullivan
Women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) are at an increased risk of engaging in sexual risk behaviors and experiencing depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) can put women at increased risk of poor sexual and mental health. Women experiencing IPV report ACEs, but few studies have examined the heterogeneity in women's experiences of ACEs and its effects on sexual and mental health. Therefore, the current study used latent profile analysis to identify profiles of ACEs (i...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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