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"brown adipose"

Juan Jiang, PengZhou Li, Hao Ling, ZhouZhou Xu, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
Obesity is associated with increased risks of diverse diseases; brown adipose tissue (BAT) can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity by increasing the decomposition of white adipose tissue (WAT) to enhance the non-coupled oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acid in adipocytes and contributes to weight loss. However, BAT is abundant in only small rodents and newborn humans, but not in adults. PRDM16 is a key factor that induces the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors to brown adipocytes and simultaneously inhibits myogenic differentiation...
August 10, 2018: Human Cell
Yi-Heng Lee, Hao-Chieh Hsu, Pei-Chen Kao, Young-Ji Shiao, Skye Hsin-Hsien Yeh, Feng-Shiun Shie, Shu-Meng Hsu, Chih-Wen Yeh, Hui-Kang Liu, Shi-Bing Yang, Huey-Jen Tsay
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease is highly associated with metabolic syndromes. We previously demonstrated that glycemic dysregulation and obesity are augmented in high fat diet (HFD)-treated APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. In the current study, the underlying mechanism mediating exacerbated metabolic stresses in HFD APP/PS1 transgenic mice was further examined. APP/PS1 mice developed insulin resistance and, consequently, impaired glucose homeostasis after 10 weeks on HFD...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hye Eun Lee, Gabsik Yang, Sin-Hee Han, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Tae-Jin An, Jae-Ki Jang, Joo Young Lee
The main function of brown adipose tissue is to dissipate surplus caloric intake into heat energy by thermogenesis, increasing energy expenditure. Inducible brown adipocytes can develop within white adipose tissue (WAT) through a process referred to as browning. Browning of white fat represents a promising strategy for treatment of obesity and the related complications. We investigated whether Glycyrrhiza uralensis and its ingredients modulated adipogenesis through adipocyte browning using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice model...
August 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zhi Zhang, Frederico Machado, Li Zhao, Charlotte Heinen, Ewout Foppen, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Jiang-Ning Zhou, Peter Bisschop, Anita Boelen, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek
Cold exposure increases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression primarily in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN is a well-known hypothalamic hub in the control of energy metabolism. TRH terminals and receptors are found on PVN neurons. We hypothesized that TRH release in the PVN plays an important role in the control of thermogenesis and energy mobilization during cold exposure. <br><br>Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to a cold environment (4oC) or TRH retrodialysis in the PVN for 2-hours...
August 9, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Rushita A Bagchi, Bradley S Ferguson, Matthew S Stratton, Tianjing Hu, Maria A Cavasin, Lei Sun, Ying-Hsi Lin, Dianxin Liu, Pilar Londono, Kunhua Song, Maria F Pino, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Philipp E Scherer, Sheila Collins, Edward Seto, Timothy A McKinsey
Little is known about the biological function of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), which is the lone class IV HDAC. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of HDAC11 in mice stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT). Consequently, HDAC11-deficient mice exhibit enhanced thermogenic potential and, in response to high-fat feeding, attenuated obesity, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced hepatic steatosis. Ex vivo and cell-based assays revealed that HDAC11 catalytic activity suppresses the BAT transcriptional program, in both the basal state and in response to β-adrenergic receptor signaling, through a mechanism that is dependent on physical association with BRD2, a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-histone-binding protein...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Stephanie L Clookey, Rebecca J Welly, Terese M Zidon, MIchelle L Gastecki, Makenzie L Woodford, Zachary I Grunewald, Nathan C Winn, Dusti Eaton, Natalia G Karasseva, Harrold S Sacks, Jaume Padilla, Victoria Vieira-Potter
Premenopausal females are protected against adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, until loss of ovarian hormone production (e.g., menopause). There is some evidence that females have greater brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic capacity. Because BAT mass correlates inversely with insulin resistance, we hypothesized that increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression contributes to the superior metabolic health of females. Given that UCP1 transiently increases in BAT following ovariectomy (OVX), we hypothesized that UCP1 may 'buffer' OVX-mediated metabolic dysfunction...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Wenfei Sun, Hua Dong, Anton S Becker, Dianne H Dapito, Salvatore Modica, Gerald Grandl, Lennart Opitz, Vissarion Efthymiou, Leon G Straub, Gitalee Sarker, Miroslav Balaz, Lucia Balazova, Aliki Perdikari, Elke Kiehlmann, Sara Bacanovic, Caroline Zellweger, Daria Peleg-Raibstein, Pawel Pelczar, Wolf Reik, Irene A Burger, Ferdinand von Meyenn, Christian Wolfrum
In the version of this article originally published, the bars in the mean temperature graph in Fig. 1a were incorrectly aligned. The left-most bar should have been aligned with the Apr label on the projected month of conception axis. The error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of this article.
August 7, 2018: Nature Medicine
Wenfei Sun, Hua Dong, Anton S Becker, Dianne H Dapito, Salvatore Modica, Gerald Grandl, Lennart Opitz, Vissarion Efthymiou, Leon G Straub, Gitalee Sarker, Miroslav Balaz, Lucia Balazova, Aliki Perdikari, Elke Kiehlmann, Sara Bacanovic, Caroline Zellweger, Daria Peleg-Raibstein, Pawel Pelczar, Wolf Reik, Irene A Burger, Ferdinand von Meyenn, Christian Wolfrum
In the version of this article originally published, the months on the axis labeled projected month of conception in Fig. 1a were out of order. April and March should have been the first and last months listed, respectively. The error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of this article.
August 7, 2018: Nature Medicine
Elisa Principi, Ambra Buschiazzo, Andrea Papait, Patrizio Castagnola, Delfina Costa, Roberta Pece, Irena Maric, Mara Scussolini, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti, Felice Strollo, Sara Tavella
BACKGROUND: Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is widely expressed in the organism with pleiotropic roles. In particular, its overexpression correlates with tissue stress conditions including inflammation, metabolic disorders, chronic diseases and cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of systemic LCN2 overexpression on adipose tissue and glucose metabolism. SUBJECTS: Eighteen-month-old transgenic mice with systemic LCN2 overexpression (LCN2-Tg) and age/sex-matched wild-type mice...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Michael E Symonds, Peter Aldiss, Mark Pope, Helen Budge
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) possesses a unique uncoupling protein (UCP1) which, when activated, enables the rapid generation of heat and the oxidation of lipids or glucose or both. It is present in small amounts (~15-350 mL) in adult humans. UCP1 is rapidly activated at birth and is essential in preventing hypothermia in newborns, who rapidly generate large amounts of heat through non-shivering thermogenesis. Since the "re-discovery" of BAT in adult humans about 10 years ago, there has been an exceptional amount of research interest...
2018: F1000Research
Xingxing Kong, Ting Yao, Peng Zhou, Lawrence Kazak, Danielle Tenen, Anna Lyubetskaya, Brian A Dawes, Linus Tsai, Barbara B Kahn, Bruce M Spiegelman, Tiemin Liu, Evan D Rosen
Skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are functionally linked, as exercise increases browning via secretion of myokines. It is unknown whether BAT affects muscle function. Here, we find that loss of the transcription factor IRF4 in BAT (BATI4KO) reduces exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, ribosomal protein synthesis, and mTOR signaling in muscle and causes tubular aggregate formation. Loss of IRF4 induces myogenic gene expression in BAT, including the secreted factor myostatin, a known inhibitor of muscle function...
July 25, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Sahar I Daas, Balsam R Rizeq, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Cancer cachexia is a complex disorder that is driven by inflammation and metabolic imbalances, resulting in extreme weight loss. Adipose tissue, a main player in cancer cachexia, is an essential metabolic and secretory organ consisting of both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue. Its secretory products, including adipokines and cytokines, affect a wide variety of central and peripheral organs, such as the skeletal muscle, brain, pancreas, and liver. Therefore, a combination of metabolic alterations, and systemic inflammation dysregulation of both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory modulators contribute toward adipose tissue wasting in cancer cachexia...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ruy A Louzada, Denise P Carvalho
Thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) are secreted by the thyroid gland, while T3 is also generated from the peripheral metabolism of T4 by iodothyronine deiodinases types I and II. Several conditions like stress, diseases, and physical exercise can promote changes in local TH metabolism, leading to different target tissue effects that depend on the presence of tissue-specific enzymatic activities. The newly discovered physiological and pharmacological actions of T4 and T3 metabolites, such as 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2), and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) are of great interest...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Shuyuan Chen, Raul A Bastarrachea, Jin-Song Shen, Antonio Laviada-Nagel, Ernesto Rodriguez-Ayala, Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Pintong Huang, Ralph A DeFronzo, Jack W Kent, Paul A Grayburn
Here we present our progress in inducing an ectopic brown adipose tissue (BAT) phenotype in skeletal muscle (SKM) as a potential gene therapy for obesity and its comorbidities. We used ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), a novel targeted, non-viral approach to gene therapy, to deliver genes in the BAT differentiation pathway into rodent SKM to engineer a thermogenic BAT phenotype with ectopic mUCP-1 overexpression. In parallel, we performed a second protocol using wild-type Ucp-1-null knockout mice to test whether the effects of the gene therapy are UCP-1 dependent...
August 2, 2018: Gene Therapy
Fernando F Anhê, Renato T Nachbar, Thibault V Varin, Jocelyn Trottier, Stéphanie Dudonné, Mélanie Le Barz, Perrine Feutry, Geneviève Pilon, Olivier Barbier, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, André Marette
OBJECTIVE: The consumption of fruits is strongly associated with better health and higher bacterial diversity in the gut microbiota (GM). Camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia ) is an Amazonian fruit with a unique phytochemical profile, strong antioxidant potential and purported anti-inflammatory potential. DESIGN: By using metabolic tests coupled with 16S rRNA gene-based taxonomic profiling and faecal microbial transplantation (FMT), we have assessed the effect of a crude extract of camu camu (CC) on obesity and associated immunometabolic disorders in high fat/high sucrose (HFHS)-fed mice...
July 31, 2018: Gut
Steve C N Hui, Simon K H Wong, Qiyong Ai, David K W Yeung, Enders K W Ng, Winnie C W Chu
OBJECTIVES: To study the change in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT), as well as fat content in the liver and pancreas, in patients with morbid obesity before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Twelve patients with morbid obesity (F=8, M=4, age: 45.4 years (38.4-51.2), BMI: 35.2 kg/m2 (32.5-38.6)) underwent pre-op MRI at baseline and two post-op scans at 6-month and 12-month intervals after bariatric surgery. Co-registered water, fat, fat-fraction and T2* image series were acquired...
July 30, 2018: European Radiology
Georgios K Dimitriadis, Raghu Adya, Bee K Tan, Terence A Jones, Vinod S Menon, Manjunath Ramanjaneya, Gregory Kaltsas, Alexander D Miras, Harpal S Randeva
The role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in pathological states of energy homeostasis and impaired adipocyte function, such as obesity has been a major area of research interest in recent years. Herein, we sought to determine the direct effects of adipokines, visfatin and leptin on BAT thermogenesis. The effects of mouse recombinant visfatin, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and leptin with or without FK866 were studied on differentiated T37i cells. Treated cells were analyzed for key genes and proteins regulating BAT [UCP-1, PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing 16 (PRDM-16), PPARgamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP-140)] using quantitative PCR and western blot analysis...
July 27, 2018: Cytokine
Yuta Nakagawa, Kana Ishimura, Satomi Oya, Masaki Kamino, Yasuyuki Fujii, Fumio Nanba, Toshiya Toda, Takeshi Ishii, Takahiro Adachi, Yoshitomo Suhara, Naomi Osakabe
OBJECTIVES: We previously found that elevated energy expenditure following a single oral dose of flavan 3-ols (FL), a mixture of catechins and B type procyanidins, is caused by sympathetic nerve activation. In the present study, we compared the activity of the FL components (-)-epicatechin (EC; monomer), procyanidin B2 (B2; dimer), procyanidin C1 (C1; trimer), cinnamtannin A2 (A2; tetramer), and more than pentamer fraction (P5). METHODS: Male ICR mice were treated with a single oral dose of FL, EC, B2, C1, A2, or P5...
2018: PloS One
Angie S Xiang, Peter J Meikle, Andrew L Carey, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Development of therapeutic agents directed towards increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) energy expenditure to combat obesity and its comorbidities is currently an area of intense research. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested a potentially significant role for BAT in regulating whole body energy expenditure as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Lipids, particularly long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), are recognized as integral substrates in mediating the primary heat-producing functions of BAT, and to date thought to be principally sourced from stored intracellular lipid droplets...
July 23, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ni-Huiping Son, Debapriya Basu, Dmitri Samovski, Terri A Pietka, Vivek S Peche, Florian Willecke, Xiang Fang, Shui-Qing Yu, Diego Scerbo, Hye Rim Chang, Fei Sun, Svetlana Bagdasarov, Konstantinos Drosatos, Steve T Yeh, Adam E Mullick, Kooresh I Shoghi, Namrata Gumaste, KyeongJin Kim, Lesley-Ann M Huggins, Tenzin Lhakhang, Nada A Abumrad, Ira J Goldberg
Movement of circulating fatty acids (FAs) to parenchymal cells requires their transfer across the endothelial cell (EC) barrier. The multi-ligand receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) facilitates tissue FA uptake and is expressed in ECs and parenchymal cells such as myocytes and adipocytes. Whether tissue uptake of FAs is dependent on EC or parenchymal cell CD36, or both, is unknown. Using a cell-specific deletion approach, we show that EC, but not parenchymal cell CD36 deletion increased fasting plasma FAs and postprandial triglycerides...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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