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"brown adipose"

Michele Alves-Bezerra, Yingxia Li, Mariana Acuña, Anna A Ivanova, Kathleen E Corey, Eric A Ortlund, David E Cohen
In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), triglycerides accumulate within the liver because the rates of fatty acid accrual by uptake from plasma and de novo synthesis exceed elimination by mitochondrial oxidation and secretion as VLDL-triglycerides. Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) is an acyl-CoA thioesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs into free fatty acids plus CoASH. Them2 is highly expressed in the liver, as well as other oxidative tissues. Mice globally lacking Them2 are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis, and exhibit improved glucose homeostasis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ziye Xu, Jiaqi Liu, Wenjing You, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
In mammals, cold stress activates the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, and induces thermogenesis to maintain body temperature. The cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 3 (CRTC3) plays important role in adipose development and energy metabolism. However, the effect of cold exposure on the intracellular localization of CRTC3 in BAT is unclear. Here, we report that cold-treated mice have higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in adipose tissues and lower body weights and fat masses...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
A Kaisanlahti, T Glumoff
Mammalian adipose tissue is traditionally categorized into white and brown relating to their function and morphology: while white serves as an energy storage, brown adipose tissue acts as the heat generator maintaining the core body temperature. The most recently identified type of fat, beige adipocyte tissue, resembles brown fat by morphology and function but is developmentally more related to white. The synthesis of beige fat, so-called browning of white fat, has developed into a topical issue in diabetes and metabolism research...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Borja Martinez-Tellez, Yolanda Garcia-Rivero, Juan M A Alcantara, Francisco M Acosta, Francisco J Amaro-Gahete, Jose M Llamas-Elvira, Jonatan R Ruiz
Cold induced thermogenesis (CIT) in humans results mainly from the combination of both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle thermogenic activity. The relative contribution of both tissues to CIT and to cold induced nutrient oxidation rates (CI-NUTox) remains, however, to be elucidated. We investigated the association of BAT and skeletal muscle activity after a personalized cold exposure with CIT and CI-NUTox in 57 healthy adults (23.0 ± 2.4 years old; 25.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2 ; 35 women). BAT and skeletal muscle (paracervical, sternocleidomastoid, scalene, longus colli, trapezius, parathoracic, supraspinatus, subscapular, deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii) metabolic activity were assessed by means of a 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan preceded by a personalized cold exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pragyanshu Khare, Priyanka Mangal, Ritesh K Baboota, Sneha Jagtap, Vijay Kumar, Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Ravneet K Boparai, Shyam S Sharma, Romesh Khardori, Sanjay K Bhadada, Kanthi K Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Glucagon mediated mechanisms have been shown to play clinically significant role in energy expenditure. The present study was designed to understand whether pharmacological mimicking of cold using menthol (TRPM8 modulator) can induce glucagon-mediated energy expenditure to prevent weight gain and related complications. Acute oral and topical administration of TRPM8 agonists (menthol and icilin) increased serum glucagon concentration which was prevented by pre-treatment with AMTB, a TRPM8 blocker. Chronic administration of menthol (50 and 100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) to HFD fed animals prevented weight gain, insulin resistance, adipose tissue hypertrophy and triacylglycerol deposition in liver...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jaehoon Bae, Motofumi Kumazoe, Yoshinori Fujimura, Hirofumi Tachibana
Obesity is a major problem in developed countries and a burden on social health care systems. Several epidemiological studies showed the protective effects of green tea against obesity-related diseases. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) acts as a mediator for the physiological effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, the major constituent of green tea. Here, we showed that the level of phosphodiesterase 5, a negative regulator of cGMP, was up-regulated in adipose tissues of high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet-fed mice and that this up-regulation was ameliorated by diallyl disulfide (DADS), the major organosulfur in garlic...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
José C de-Lima-Júnior, Gabriela F Souza, Alexandre Moura-Assis, Rodrigo S Gaspar, Joana M Gaspar, Andréa L Rocha, Danilo L Ferrucci, Tanes I Lima, Sheila C Victório, Ivan L P Bonfante, Claudia R Cavaglieri, José C Pareja, Sérgio Q Brunetto, Celso D Ramos, Bruno Geloneze, Marcelo A Mori, Leonardo R Silveira, Gesmar R S Segundo, Eduardo R Ropelle, Lício A Velloso
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is the most relevant mechanism linking obesity with insulin-resistance and metabolic disease. It impacts the structure and function of tissues and organs involved in metabolism, such as the liver, pancreatic islets and the hypothalamus. Brown adipose tissue has emerged as an important component of whole body energy homeostasis, controlling caloric expenditure through the regulation of non-shivering thermogenesis. However, little is known about the impact of systemic inflammation on the structure and function of brown adipose tissue...
November 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
Randall L Mynatt, Eric Ravussin
Most theories of meal-induced thermogenesis involve a gut-brain-brown adipose tissue axis driving sympathetic nervous system-mediated thermogenesis. Li et al. demonstrate that secretin released by the gut after a meal binds to abundant receptors in brown adipose tissue to stimulate thermogenesis, inhibiting food intake and thereby suggesting a novel role for secretin regulating satiety.
November 29, 2018: Cell
Ferran Jardí, Nari Kim, Michaël R Laurent, Rougin Khalil, Ludo Deboel, Dieter Schollaert, Harry van Lenthe, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren
Androgens via the androgen receptor (AR) are required for optimal male bone health. The target cell(s) for the effects of androgens on cortical bone remain(s) incompletely understood. In females, estrogen receptor alpha in neurons is a negative regulator of cortical and trabecular bone. Whether neuronal AR regulates bone mass in males remains unexplored. Here, we inactivated AR in neurons using a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 under the control of the neuronal promoter Thy1. Tamoxifen induced a 70-80% reduction of AR mRNA levels in Thy1-CreERT2 positive brain regions cerebral cortex and brainstem as well as in the peripheral nervous tissue of male neuronal AR knockout (N-ARKO) mice...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
S Moreno-Fernández, M Garcés-Rimón, J A Uranga, J Astier, J F Landrier, M Miguel
Nutritional compounds could be a safe and less expensive treatment for complications associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action and the target tissues of a pepsin egg white hydrolysate (EWH) which had previously been demonstrated to improve some obesity-related disorders on a high-fat/high-glucose rat model. Wistar rats were used and divided into 3 groups: Control group (C), High-fat/high-glucose diet (MS) and high-fat/high-glucose diet + EWH (MSH)...
November 29, 2018: Food & Function
Isabel Cornejo-Pareja, Araceli Muñoz-Garach, Mercedes Clemente-Postigo, Francisco J Tinahones
Recently, a number of studies have related the development of highly prevalent disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity to gut microbiota. Obesity itself have been associated with modifications in gut microbiota composition, and a tendency towards an overgrowth of microorganisms that obtain more efficient energy from diet. It's capacity to decompose the polysaccharides that can not be digested by the host, increase monosaccharide and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. However, the increase in fat mass is not only due to a more efficient harvest of energy, but also the microbiota participates in changes in endotoxemia, bowel permeability, insulin resistance, hormonal environment, expression of genes regulating lipogenesis, interaction with bile acids, as well as changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated with the use of drugs such as metformin...
November 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marcel Scheideler
Brite/brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue able to dissipate energy via non-shivering thermogenesis. It is naturally activated by cold and has been demonstrated to increase thermogenic capacity, elevate energy expenditure, and to ultimately contribute to fat mass reduction. Thus, it emerges as novel therapeutic concept for pharmacological intervention in obesity and other metabolic disorders. Therefore, the comprehensive understanding of the regulatory network in thermogenic adipocytes is in demand...
November 27, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Vanessa Pellegrinelli, Vivian J Peirce, Laura Howard, Samuel Virtue, Dénes Türei, Martina Senzacqua, Andrea Frontini, Jeffrey W Dalley, Antony R Horton, Guillaume Bidault, Ilenia Severi, Andrew Whittle, Kamal Rahmouni, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Saverio Cinti, Alun M Davies, Antonio Vidal-Puig
Activation of brown adipose tissue-mediated thermogenesis is a strategy for tackling obesity and promoting metabolic health. BMP8b is secreted by brown/beige adipocytes and enhances energy dissipation. Here we show that adipocyte-secreted BMP8b contributes to adrenergic-induced remodeling of the neuro-vascular network in adipose tissue (AT). Overexpression of bmp8b in AT enhances browning of the subcutaneous depot and maximal thermogenic capacity. Moreover, BMP8b-induced browning, increased sympathetic innervation and vascularization of AT were maintained at 28 °C, a condition of low adrenergic output...
November 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Bingbing Guo, Bin Liu, Hehong Wei, Ka-Wing Cheng, Feng Chen
SCOPE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Nitzschia laevis extract (NLE) in preventing obesity in mice fed with a high-fat-diet (HFD), and the potential underlying mechanisms focusing on modulation of gut microbiota profile. METHODS AND RESULTS: Physiological, histological and biochemical parameters and gut microbiota compositions were compared among four experimental groups fed respectively with the following diets for 8 weeks: Normal chow diet, HFD, HFD + low concentration of NLE and HFD + high concentration of NLE...
November 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Takahiro Yamazaki, Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi, Kumiko Koizumi, Chika Takahashi, Shiori Nakajima, Sayoko Kitao, Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Mikio Katayama, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Matured hop bitter acids (MHBA) are oxidation products from bitter components in hops, which are used widely as food materials to add flavor and bitterness in beer production. Our previous study has shown that MHBA induces thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) via sympathetic nerves in rodents and reduces body fat in healthy adults. However, it is unclear how MHBA affects the sympathetic nervous system. In this study, we demonstrate that MHBA treatment of enteroendocrine cells increases Ca2+ levels and induces the secretion of the gastrointestinal hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), in a dose-dependent manner...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Rie Yanagisawa, Eiko Koike, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe, Hirohisa Takano
Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is a brominated flame retardant used in plastic and textile articles. It has become a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, however; the relationship between decaBDE and obesity remains to be elucidated. We aimed to clarify if oral decaBDE exposure can be a factor in obesity and its related metabolic dysfuctions. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a normal (ND, 9.0 kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 62.2 kcal% fat) diet and treated with decaBDE (the equivalent of three doses of 0, 0...
November 20, 2018: Toxicology
Borja Martinez-Tellez, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Juan M A Alcantara, Francisco M Acosta, Francisco J Amaro-Gahete, Francisco J Osuna-Prieto, Alejandro Perez-Bey, David Jimenez-Pavon, Jose M Llamas-Elvira, Angel Gil, Concepcion M Aguilera, Patrick C N Rensen, Jonatan R Ruiz
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study?Some studies have performed biopsies of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the abdomen and they failed to find browning markers. Is abdomen the right place to take biopsies? What is the main finding and its importance?For first time, we observed that the glucose uptake in the SAT is higher in comparison to other SAT parts. ABSTRACT: Newborns have subcutaneous brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the dorsocervical area, and it is thought that these depots gradually disappear with age...
November 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Josep M Argilés, Britta Stemmler, Francisco J López-Soriano, Silvia Busquets
Cachexia is a systemic condition that occurs during many neoplastic diseases, such as cancer. Cachexia in cancer is characterized by loss of body weight and muscle and by adipose tissue wasting and systemic inflammation. Cancer cachexia is often associated with anorexia and increased energy expenditure. Even though the cachectic condition severely affects skeletal muscle, a tissue that accounts for ~40% of total body weight, it represents a multi-organ syndrome that involves tissues and organs such as white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, bone, brain, liver, gut and heart...
November 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Marcos C Carreira, Sara Andrade, Andrea Gonzalez-Izquierdo, Maria Amil, Cintia Folgueira, Mariana P Monteiro, Eduardo Sanz, Ana B Crujeiras, Felipe F Casanueva
The incidence of obesity has been increasing dramatically worldwide over the past decades, thus requiring novel and effective therapeutic approaches. OBEX is an oral nutritional supplement composed of antioxidants with antiobesity activity. The effects of OBEX have been tested in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, OBEX reduces weight gain by decreasing adiposity gain and increasing energy expenditure in high fat diet-fed mice through the activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) independent of eating behaviors...
November 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joseph Dempsey, Angela Zhang, Julia Yue Cui
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as regulators of tissue-specific cellular functions and have been shown to regulate transcriptional and translational processes, acting as signals, decoys, guides, and scaffolds. It has been suggested that some lncRNAs act in cis to regulate the expression of neighboring protein-coding genes (PCGs) in a mechanism that fine-tunes gene expression. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as a regulator of development, inflammation, host metabolic processes, and xenobiotic metabolism...
November 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
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