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"brown adipose"

Mark Christian
Brown adipocytes are the key cell type in brown adipose tissue (BAT) that express the genes required for heat production through the process of thermogenesis. Brown adipocyte cell culture models are important for researching the molecular pathways that control cell autonomous processes. In vitro tools for the study of brown adipocytes include BAT explant cultures and BAT primary cultures that are first proliferated and then differentiated. A number of stable brown preadipocyte cell lines have been generated by the expression transforming factors such as SV40 T antigen...
October 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Sara Castro-Barquero, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Mónica Doménech, Ramon Estruch
Obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease defined by excess of adipose mass and constitutes a serious health problem. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting a wide range of inflammatory adipocytokines, which leads to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high phenolic-rich foods intake, including extra-virgin olive oil, nuts, red wine, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole-grain cereals. Evidence for polyphenols' effect on obesity and weight control in humans is inconsistent and the health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Nicholas Milcik, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf ( Prop1df ) mice possess a loss-of-function mutation that results in deficiency of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, as well as exceptional longevity. Work in other laboratories suggests that increased respiration and lipid utilization are important for maximizing mammalian longevity. Interestingly, these phenotypes are observed in Ames dwarf mice. We recently demonstrated that Ames dwarf mice have hyperactive brown adipose tissue (BAT), and hypothesized that this may in part be due to their increased surface to mass ratio leading to increased heat loss and an increased demand for thermogenesis...
October 18, 2018: Aging
Aliki Perdikari, Germán Gastón Leparc, Miroslav Balaz, Nuno D Pires, Martin E Lidell, Wenfei Sun, Francesc Fernandez-Albert, Sebastian Müller, Nassila Akchiche, Hua Dong, Lucia Balazova, Lennart Opitz, Eva Röder, Holger Klein, Patrik Stefanicka, Lukas Varga, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen, Tarja Niemi, Markku Taittonen, Gottfried Rudofsky, Jozef Ukropec, Sven Enerbäck, Elia Stupka, Heike Neubauer, Christian Wolfrum
Recruitment and activation of thermogenic adipocytes have received increasing attention as a strategy to improve systemic metabolic control. The analysis of brown and brite adipocytes is complicated by the complexity of adipose tissue biopsies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of pure brown, brite, and white adipocyte transcriptomes. By combining mouse and human transcriptome data, we identify a gene signature that can classify brown and white adipocytes in mice and men. Using a machine-learning-based cell deconvolution approach, we develop an algorithm proficient in calculating the brown adipocyte content in complex human and mouse biopsies...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Julio Sevillano, María Gracia Sánchez-Alonso, Begoña Zapatería, María Calderón, Martín Alcalá, María Limones, Jimena Pita, Esther Gramage, Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Daniel Horrillo, Gema Medina-Gómez, María Jesús Obregón, Marta Viana, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Gonzalo Herradón, María Pilar Ramos-Álvarez
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pleiotrophin, a developmentally regulated and highly conserved cytokine, exerts different functions including regulation of cell growth and survival. Here, we hypothesise that this cytokine can play a regulatory role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we performed a longitudinal study characterising the metabolic profile (circulating variables and tissue mRNA expression) of gene-targeted Ptn-deficient female mice and their corresponding wild-type counterparts at different ages from young adulthood (3 months) to older age (15 months)...
October 16, 2018: Diabetologia
Yi-Lin Chi, Jung-Chun Lin
Brown adipocytes (BAs) exhibit an energy-expending signature that is important in balancing metabolic homeostasis. In this study, results of transcriptome analyses revealed the reprogrammed splicing profile of the PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) gene, a key transcription factor involved in brown adipogenesis, throughout development of wild-type brown adipose tissues (BATs). Moreover, discriminative splicing patterns of PRDM16 transcripts were noted in embryonic and postnatal RBM4a-/- BATs. Overexpression of RBM4a enhanced the relative levels of PRDM16-ex 16 transcripts by simultaneously interacting with exonic and intronic CU elements, which encoded the PRDM16S isoform containing a distinct C-terminus...
November 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Paul de Goede, Satish Sen, Yan Su, Ewout Foppen, Vincent-Joseph Poirel, Etienne Challet, Andries Kalsbeek
Restricted feeding is well known to affect expression profiles of both clock and metabolic genes. However, it is unknown whether these changes in metabolic gene expression result from changes in the molecular clock or in feeding behavior. Here we eliminated the daily rhythm in feeding behavior by providing 6 meals evenly distributed over the light/dark-cycle. Animals on this 6-meals-a-day feeding schedule retained the normal day/night difference in physiological parameters including body temperature and locomotor activity...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Itay Ayalon, Hui Shen, Lauren Williamson, Keith Stringer, Basilia Zingarelli, Jennifer M Kaplan
Severe sepsis and septic shock are the biggest cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Obesity today is one of the world's greatest health challenges. Little is known about the extent of involvement of the white adipose tissue (WAT) in sepsis and how it is being modified by obesity. We sought to explore the involvement of the WAT in sepsis. We hypothesize that sepsis induces browning of the WAT and that obesity alters the response of WAT to sepsis. Six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomized to a high-fat diet to induce obesity (obese group) or control diet (nonobese group)...
November 2018: Shock
Ziye Xu, Wenjing You, Fengqin Wang, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues, function as energy metabolism and endocrine organ, are closely associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism and cell growth in adipose tissue. Our recent study generated an adipocyte-specific Lkb1 and mTOR double knockout (DKO) mouse model and found that DKO of Lkb1 and mTOR caused reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) mass but increase of liver mass...
October 14, 2018: Adipocyte
Pierre-Gilles Blanchard, Rafael J Moreira, Érique de Castro, Alexandre Caron, Marie Côté, Maynara L Andrade, Tiago E Oliveira, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Albert S Peixoto, France Anne Dias, Yves Gélinas, Renata Guerra-Sá, Yves Deshaies, William T Festuccia
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether PPARγ modulates adipose tissue BCAA metabolism, and whether this mediates the attenuation of obesity-associated insulin resistance induced by pharmacological PPARγ activation. METHODS: Mice with adipocyte deletion of one or two PPARγ copies fed a chow diet and rats fed either chow, or high fat (HF) or HF supplemented with BCAA (HF/BCAA) diets treated with rosiglitazone (30 or 15 mg/kg/day, 14 days) were evaluated for glucose and BCAA homeostasis...
October 11, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for LCN2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or ‘beige’ adipocytes. We found LCN2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2 −/− mice...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Ismael González-García, Cristina Contreras, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Francisco Ruíz-Pino, Benoit Colsh, Iván Pensado, Laura Liñares-Pose, Eva Rial-Pensado, Pablo B Martínez de Morentin, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Hervé Le Stunff, Christophe Magnan, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Miguel López
Compelling evidence has shown that, besides its putative effect on the regulation of the gonadal axis, estradiol (E2) exerts a dichotomic effect on the hypothalamus to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The anorectic effect of E2 is mainly mediated by its action on the arcuate nucleus (ARC), whereas its effects on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis occur in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH). Here, we demonstrate that central E2 decreases hypothalamic ceramide levels and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
October 9, 2018: Cell Reports
Rachel A H Davis, Sarah E Deemer, Jonathan M Bergeron, Jason T Little, Jonathan L Warren, Gordon Fisher, Daniel L Smith, Kevin R Fontaine, Stephanie L Dickinson, David B Allison, Eric P Plaisance
The dietary R-3-hydroxybutyrate- R-1,3-butanediol monoester increases resting energy expenditure (REE) and markers of brown and white adipose thermogenesis in lean mice. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the ketone ester, R, S-1,3-butanediol diacetoacetate (BD-AcAc2 ), increases energy expenditure and markers of adipose tissue thermogenesis in the context of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Thirty-five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on an ad libitum HFD (45% kcal) for 10 wk...
October 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Leixuri Aguirre, Usune Etxeberria, Fermin I Milagro, J Alfredo Martínez, Maria P Portillo
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of mild energy restriction and resveratrol on thermogenic and oxidative capacity in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and in skeletal muscle. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for six weeks, and divided into four experimental groups fed a standard diet: a control group, a resveratrol-treated group, an energy-restricted group and an energy-restricted group treated with resveratrol. Weights of IBAT, gastrocnemius muscle and fat depots were measured...
October 6, 2018: Nutrients
Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Juan M A Alcantara, Francisco M Acosta, Borja Martinez-Tellez, Francisco J Amaro-Gahete, Lourdes Ortiz-Alvarez, Marie Löf, Idoia Labayen, Jonatan R Ruiz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Since the discovery of active brown adipose tissue in human adults, non-shivering cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) has been regarded as a promising tool to combat obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the method of choice to analyze indirect calorimetry data from a CIT study. We analyzed the impact of methods for data selection and methods for data analysis on measures of cold-induced energy expenditure (EE) and nutrient oxidation rates. METHODS: Forty-four young healthy adults (22...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Drew McCallister, Le Zhang, Alex Burant, Laurence Katz, Rosa Tamara Branca
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility differences between fat and water can cause changes in the water-fat frequency separation that can negatively affect the accuracy of fat fraction techniques. This may be especially relevant for brown adipose tissue, as MRI fat fraction techniques have been proposed for its detection. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of microscopic magnetic susceptibility gradients on the water-fat frequency separation and its impact on chemical-shift-based fat fraction quantification techniques in the supraclavicular fat, where brown adipose tissue is commonly found in humans...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Liping Qiao, Samuel Lee, Amanda Nguyen, William W Hay, Jianhua Shao
To determine the role of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in controlling maternal metabolic adaptation to pregnancy, energy metabolism of C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and Ucp1 gene knockout (Ucp1-/- ) mice was studied during pregnancy. With the progression of pregnancy, maternal energy expenditure rates (EERs), expression of UCP1 and core body temperature steadily declined in WT dams. Despite no significant alterations in core body temperature and weight gain during pregnancy, Ucp1-/- dams exhibited lower rates in EER decline...
October 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Erika Hoppela, Tove J Grönroos, Anne M Saarikko, Tomi V Tervala, Susanna Kauhanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Katri Kivinen, Pauliina Hartiala
Background: Fat grafting is commonly used when treating soft-tissue defects. However, much of the basic biology behind fat transfer is still uncovered. Adipocytes can be divided into energy storing white and energy burning brown adipose cells. It is now well known, that also adult humans have metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) within white adipose tissue (WAT). Previously our group showed that transfer of metabolically inactive WAT into a new environment increased the metabolic activity of the fat grafts to resemble the activity in the recipient site and that different WAT depots have variation in the metabolic activity...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Stefanie Worsch, Mathias Heikenwalder, Hans Hauner, Bernhard L Bader
Background: We previously reported on the anti-obesogenic and anti-inflammatory effects associated with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in our diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. Two isocaloric high-fat diets (HFDs; 48 kJ% fat), HFD (HF) and n-3 LCPUFA-enriched HFD (HF/n-3), and a control diet (C; 13 kJ% fat) were used. The underlying mechanisms however have largely remained unclear. Here, we assessed whether the reduced fat mass reflected n-3 LCPUFA-induced expression changes in lipid metabolism of the intestine, liver, and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), as well as increased iBAT thermogenic capacity...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Ziyi Song, Alus M Xiaoli, Fajun Yang
De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is a complex and highly regulated process in which carbohydrates from circulation are converted into fatty acids that are then used for synthesizing either triglycerides or other lipid molecules. Dysregulation of DNL contributes to human diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the lipogenic pathway may provide a new therapeutic opportunity for combating various pathological conditions that are associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism. Hepatic DNL has been well documented, but lipogenesis in adipocytes and its contribution to energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity are less studied...
September 29, 2018: Nutrients
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