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Magnesium arrhythmia

Sjoerd van den Berg, Margot L J Scheer, Nicole D Holman
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely used drugs around the globe. A growing body of literature, however, has reported numerous side effects, such as hypomagnesemia. Symptoms associated with hypomagnesaemia range from nausea, tetany and cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment of PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia involves discontinuation of the PPI and magnesium supplementation if needed. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 72-year-old female was admitted to the ICU with omeprazole-induced severe hypomagnesaemia twice during a one-year timespan, clinically manifested by tetany and respiratory failure due to acute decompensated heart failure following new onset atrial fibrillation...
August 3, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Tsung-Ming Lee, Nen-Chung Chang, Shinn-Zong Lin
The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality, however the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Superoxide has been implicated in the regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF), a mediator of sympathetic innervation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PPIs increase ventricular arrhythmias through magnesium-mediated superoxide production in infarcted rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive vehicle, omeprazole, omeprazole + magnesium sulfate, or famotidine treatment for 4 weeks starting 24 hours after the induction of myocardial infarction by ligating the coronary artery...
2018: PloS One
Jianshi Lou, Hong Wu, Lingfang Wang, Lin Zhao, Xin Li, Yi Kang, Ke Wen, Yongqiang Yin
Taurine-magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) exhibits antiarrhythmic effects in cesium-chloride-and ouabain-induced arrhythmias; however, the mechanism underlying these effects on arrhythmia remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of TMCC on aconitine-induced arrhythmia in vivo and the electrophysiological effects of this compound in rat ventricular myocytes in vitro. Aconitine was used to induce arrhythmias in rats, and the dosages required to produce ventricular premature contraction (VPC), ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and cardiac arrest (CA) were recorded...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Sandeep Prabhu, Hariharan Sugumar, Peter M Kistler
The interaction between arrhythmias and certain lifestyle factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption is well-established. There is significant public and professional interest in the role of various diets, vitamins, and minerals in cardiovascular health. However, many widely held beliefs are not supported by the literature. There is limited evidence for routine magnesium and omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids supplementation, while coffee, tea, nuts, antioxidant vitamins, and even chocolate may have some antiarrhythmic properties...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Anandhi D, Vinay R Pandit, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Soundaravally R, K N J Prakash Raju
BACKGROUND: Consumption of yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia) is a popular method of intentional self-harm in South India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify the cardiac arrhythmias and electrolyte abnormalities in yellow oleander poisoning and to identify the association between electrolyte abnormalities, cardiac glycoside concentrations at admission and the severity of cardiotoxicity. This study was also designed to identify clinical and biochemical parameters at presentation which predict serious arrhythmias and determinants of mortality...
August 3, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Rashmi Soori, Aanchal Dixit, Prabhat Tewari
Hypokalemia is defined as serum potassium level less than 3.5 mEq/L. When the serum level of potassium is less than 3 mEq/L, intravenous potassium supplementation is warranted. A 23 yr old adult female with complaints of dyspnoea (NYHA II) since 6 yrs, dyspnoea (NYHA III) and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea on and off since 2 months, diagnosed with severe mitral stenosis, was posted for mitral valve replacement. After the release of ACC, ECG revealed sine wave pattern, Transesophageal echocardiographic examination revealed global hypokinesia and ABG showed potassium of 2...
July 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Pamela L Lutsey, Lin Y Chen, Anne Eaton, Melanie Jaeb, Kyle D Rudser, James D Neaton, Alvaro Alonso
Low magnesium may increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. We conducted a double-blind pilot randomized trial to assess adherence to oral magnesium supplementation (400 mg of magnesium oxide daily) and a matching placebo, estimate the effect on circulating magnesium concentrations, and evaluate the feasibility of using an ambulatory heart rhythm monitoring device (ZioPatch) for assessing premature atrial contractions. A total of 59 participants were randomized; 73% were women, and the mean age was 62 years...
July 10, 2018: Nutrients
Shirvan Salaminia, Fatemeh Sayehmiri, Parvin Angha, Koroush Sayehmiri, Morteza Motedayen
BACKGROUND: Atrial and ventricular cardiac arrhythmias are one of the most common early complications after cardiac surgery and these serve as a major cause of mortality and morbidity after cardiac revascularization. We want to evaluate the effect of magnesium sulfate administration on the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias after cardiac revascularization by doing this systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The search performed in several databases (SID, Magiran, IranDoc, IranMedex, MedLib, PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar) for published Randomized controlled trials before December 2017 that have reported the association between Magnesium consumption and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias...
June 28, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Kamonwan Tangvoraphonkchai, Andrew Davenport
Magnesium is the most abundant intracellular divalent cation and essential for maintaining normal cellular physiology and metabolism, acting as a cofactor of numerous enzymes, regulating ion channels and energy generation. In the heart, magnesium plays a key role in modulating neuronal excitation, intracardiac conduction, and myocardial contraction by regulating a number of ion transporters, including potassium and calcium channels. Magnesium also has a role in regulating vascular tone, atherogenesis and thrombosis, vascular calcification, and proliferation and migration of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Dingchao He, Nimisha Aggarwal, David Zurakowski, Richard A Jonas, Charles I Berul, Sridhar Hanumanthaiah, Jeffrey P Moak
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative arrhythmias are common in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. We evaluated whether intraoperative administration of magnesium was associated with a reduced occurrence of specific postoperative arrhythmias, as has been described previously, or had a broader effect on multiple arrhythmia types, and whether there existed a dose-effect of intraoperative magnesium. METHODS: We used a historical prospective observational cohort study...
August 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Pietro E Lazzerini, Iacopo Bertolozzi, Francesco Finizola, Maurizio Acampa, Mariarita Natale, Francesca Vanni, Rosella Fulceri, Alessandra Gamberucci, Marco Rossi, Beatrice Giabbani, Michele Caselli, Ilaria Lamberti, Gabriele Cevenini, Franco Laghi-Pasini, Pier L Capecchi
Background: Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a life-threatening ventricular tachycardia occurring in long QT-syndrome patients. It usually develops when multiple QT-prolonging factors are concomitantly present, more frequently drugs and electrolyte imbalances. Since proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs)-associated hypomagnesemia is an increasingly recognized adverse event, PPIs were recently included in the list of drugs with conditional risk of TdP, despite only few cases of TdP in PPI users have been reported so far...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Byunghyun Kim, Kyung Su Kim
Atazanavir is a protease inhibitor approved for use in combination with other antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Atazanavir and other protease inhibitors can sometimes induce corrected QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia. A 40-year-old man with no comorbidities, except human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection, presented with palpitations 3 days after an overdose of 150 caps of atazanavir, with suicidal intent. His initial electrocardiogram showed monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, and hyperbilirubinemia was observed in his initial blood test...
June 2018: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
Kenichi Tanaka, Hiroko Mori, Rieko Sakamoto, Shirou Matsumoto, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Masanori Iwai
BACKGROUND: Neonatal nonoliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) is a metabolic abnormality that occurs in extremely premature neonates at approximately 24 h after birth and is mainly due to the immature functioning of the sodium (Na+ )/potassium (K+ ) pump. Magnesium sulfate is frequently used in obstetrical practice to prevent preterm labor and to treat preeclampsia; this medication can also cause hypermagnesemia and hyperkalemia by a mechanism that is different from that of NOHK. Herein, we report the first case of very early-onset neonatal hyperkalemia induced by maternal hypermagnesemia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Peter Biesenbach, Johan Mårtensson, Eduardo Osawa, Glenn Eastwood, Salvatore Cutuli, Jessica Fairley, George Matalanis, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Intravenous magnesium is routinely administered in intensive care units (ICU) to treat arrhythmias after cardiothoracic surgery. There are no data on the pharmacokinetics of continuous magnesium infusion therapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of continuous magnesium infusion, focusing on serum and urinary magnesium concentration, volume of distribution and half-life. METHODS: We administered a 10 mmol bolus of magnesium-sulfate followed by a continuous infusion of 3 mmol/h for 12 h in twenty cardiac surgery patients...
April 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Carmela Coppola, Anna Rienzo, Giovanna Piscopo, Antonio Barbieri, Claudio Arra, Nicola Maurea
The side effects of anticancer drugs still play a critical role in survival and quality of life. Although the recent progresses of cancer therapies have significantly improved the prognosis of oncologic patients, side effects of antineoplastic treatments are still responsible for the increased mortality of cancer survivors. Cardiovascular toxicity is the most dangerous adverse effect induced by anticancer therapies. A survey conducted by the National Health and Nutrition Examination, showed that 1807 cancer survivors followed up for seven years: 51% died of cancer and 33% of heart disease (Vejpongsa and Yeh, 2014)...
February 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Anhua Wei, Jinlan Peng, Zhichun Gu, Juan Li
RATIONALE: Drug-induced prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc) may lead to serious and potentially life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia, such as torsades de pointes (Tdp), which is worthy of clinical attention. Here, we report 1 case of Tdp after a coadministration of fluoxetine and amiodarone. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 62-year-old Chinese male who placed with the implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) appeared the QTc prolongation and Tdp after the concurrent administration of fluoxetine and amiodarone...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Peter Biesenbach, Johan Mårtensson, Luca Lucchetta, Ravi Bangia, Jessica Fairley, Irmelin Jansen, George Matalanis, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of a 20 mmol magnesium bolus in regards to serum and urinary magnesium concentration, volume of distribution, and half-life. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. SETTING: A university-affiliated teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty consecutive cardiac surgery patients treated with magnesium bolus therapy for prevention of arrhythmia. INTERVENTIONS: A 20-mmol bolus of magnesium sulfate was administered intravenously...
June 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Synne Semb, Frederik Helgstrand, Flemming Hjørne, Peter Bytzer
Magnesium deficiency can cause a variety of symptoms, including potentially life-threatening complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and secondary electrolyte disturbances. Hypomagnesemia can be a serious adverse effect to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, which is worrying due to the widespread use of PPIs. Current evidence suggest that the mechanism of PPI induced hypomagnesemia is impaired intestinal magnesium absorption. In this report, we present the case of a long-term PPI user with persistent hypomagnesemia with severe symptoms at presentation...
October 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Meng-Yao An, Kai Sun, Yan Li, Ying-Ying Pan, Yong-Qiang Yin, Yi Kang, Tao Sun, Hong Wu, Wei-Zhen Gao, Jian-Shi Lou
Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a genetic arrhythmogenic disease that can cause malignant arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. The current therapies for SQTS have application restrictions. We previously found that Mg· (NH2 CH2 CH2 SO3 )2· H2 O, a taurine-magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) exerted anti-arrhythmic effects with low toxicity. In this study we established 3 different models to assess the potential anti-arrhythmic effects of TMCC on type 2 short QT syndrome (SQT2). In Langendorff guinea pig-perfused hearts, perfusion of pinacidil (20 μmol/L) significantly shortened the QT interval and QTpeak and increased rTp-Te (P<0...
March 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Patrick H Pun, John P Middleton
One of the fundamental goals of the hemodialysis prescription is to maintain serum potassium levels within a narrow normal range during both the intradialytic and interdialytic intervals. Considering the extraordinarily high rate of cardiovascular mortality in the hemodialysis population, clinicians are obligated to explore whether factors related to dialytic potassium removal can be modified to improve clinical outcomes. Observational studies and circumstantial evidence suggest that extreme concentrations of serum and dialysate potassium can trigger cardiac arrest...
December 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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