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Cardiac remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224256/echocardiographic-estimates-of-right-ventricular-systolic-function-in-dogs-with-myxomatous-mitral-valve-disease
#1
E H Chapel, B A Scansen, K E Schober, J D Bonagura
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction independently predicts outcomes in human myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). There is limited information regarding RV systolic function in dogs with MMVD. HYPOTHESIS: Right ventricular systolic function differs among stages of disease, decreasing in decompensated MMVD. ANIMALS: Thirty-sixclient-owned dogs with MMVD not receiving oral cardiovascular medications. METHODS: Prospective clinical study...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223542/interval-exercise-training-increases-lif-expression-and-prevents-myocardial-infarction-induced-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-rats
#2
Dandan Jia, Mengxin Cai, Yue Xi, Shaojun Du, ZhenjunTian
AIMS: Myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly associated with body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy. Studies have shown that exercise training could give beneficial effects on skeletal muscle growth. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a key regulator of muscle growth and regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interval exercise training (IET) on the expression of LIF and the MI-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish the MI model by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222864/effects-of-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-after-inferior-myocardial-infarction-on-secondary-mitral-regurgitation-and-mitral-valve-geometry
#3
Christos G Mihos, Evin Yucel, Romain Capoulade, Mary P Orencole, Gaurav A Upadhyay, Orlando Santana, Jagmeet P Singh, Michael H Picard
BACKGROUND: The effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on secondary mitral regurgitation (MR), and mitral valve (MV) and left ventricular (LV) geometry, in patients with prior inferior myocardial infarction is not clearly defined. We assessed these outcomes utilizing 2-dimensional echocardiography, and analyzed echocardiographic geometric variables that may correlate with follow-up MR severity. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2012, 229 CRT were implanted. Twenty-two had prior inferior myocardial infarction, ≥ mild MR at baseline, and serial echocardiography...
December 9, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222390/sodium-channel-remodeling-in-subcellular-microdomains-of-murine-failing-cardiomyocytes
#4
Mathilde R Rivaud, Esperanza Agullo-Pascual, Xianming Lin, Alejandra Leo-Macias, Mingliang Zhang, Eli Rothenberg, Connie R Bezzina, Mario Delmar, Carol Ann Remme
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sodium channel (NaV1.5) dysfunction contributes to arrhythmogenesis during pathophysiological conditions. Nav1.5 localizes to distinct subcellular microdomains within the cardiomyocyte, where it associates with region-specific proteins, yielding complexes whose function is location specific. We herein investigated sodium channel remodeling within distinct cardiomyocyte microdomains during heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were subjected to 6 weeks of transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=32) to induce heart failure...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218093/p2x7-receptor-regulates-sympathoexcitatory-response-in-myocardial-infarction-rats-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways
#5
Qin Wu, Hongtao Xu, Ling Hao, Guifang Ma, Jinxia Sun, Xianghe Song, Fengyun Ding, Nan Wang
Previous studies have provided evidence for the regulatory effect of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) on cardiovascular activities. Our study focused on exploring the function and fundamental mechanism of microglial P2X7R in controlling sympathoexcitatory response using rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Coronary artery ligation was used in rats to cause AMI. And before that, rats were administrated with P2X7R siRNA that targeted P2X7R mRNA into paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or BBG (Brilliant Blue G, a P2X7 receptor antagonist)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218016/synergistic-anti-arrhythmic-effects-in-human-atria-with-combined-use-of-sodium-blockers-and-acacetin
#6
Haibo Ni, Dominic G Whittaker, Wei Wang, Wayne R Giles, Sanjiv M Narayan, Henggui Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Developing effective and safe anti-AF drugs remains an unmet challenge. Simultaneous block of both atrial-specific ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium (K+) current (IKur) and the Na+ current (INa) has been hypothesized to be anti-AF, without inducing significant QT prolongation and ventricular side effects. However, the antiarrhythmic advantage of simultaneously blocking these two channels vs. individual block in the setting of AF-induced electrical remodeling remains to be documented...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217479/distinct-lipidomic-profiles-in-models-of-physiological-and-pathological-cardiac-remodeling-and-potential-therapeutic-strategies
#7
Yow Keat Tham, Kevin Huynh, Natalie A Mellett, Darren C Henstridge, Helen Kiriazis, Jenny Y Y Ooi, Aya Matsumoto, Natalie L Patterson, Junichi Sadoshima, Peter J Meikle, Julie R McMullen
Cardiac myocyte membranes contain lipids which remodel dramatically in response to heart growth and remodeling. Lipid species have both structural and functional roles. Physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling have very distinct phenotypes, and the identification of molecular differences represent avenues for therapeutic interventions. Whether the abundance of specific lipid classes is different in physiological and pathological models was largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether distinct lipids are regulated in settings of physiological and pathological remodeling, and if so, whether modulation of differentially-regulated lipids could modulate heart size and function...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217432/transverse-tubular-network-structures-in-the-genesis-of-intracellular-calcium-alternans-and-triggered-activity-in-cardiac-cells
#8
Zhen Song, Michael B Liu, Zhilin Qu
RATIONALE: The major role of a transverse-tubular (TT) network in a cardiac cell is to facilitate effective excitation-contraction coupling and signaling. The TT network structures are heterogeneous within a single cell, and vary between different types of cells and species. They are also remodeled in cardiac diseases. However, how different TT network structures predispose cardiac cells to arrhythmogenesis remains to be revealed. OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate the roles of TT network structure and the underlying mechanisms in the genesis of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) alternans and triggered activity (TA)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216983/atrial-infarction-and-ischemic-mitral-regurgitation-contribute-to-post-mi-remodeling-of-the-left-atrium
#9
Jaume Aguero, Carlos Galan-Arriola, Rodrigo Fernandez-Jimenez, Javier Sanchez-Gonzalez, Nina Ajmone, Victoria Delgado, Jorge Solis, Gonzalo J Lopez, Antonio de Molina-Iracheta, Roger J Hajjar, Jeroen J Bax, Valentin Fuster, Borja Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) remodeling after an acute myocardial infarction (MI) is poorly characterized regarding its determinants or its effect on ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) development. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was: 1) to compare LA structural remodeling in experimental MI swine models recapitulating the effects of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, ischemic MR, and left atrial infarction (LAI); and 2) to analyze how LA remodeling influences ischemic MR development...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216285/myocardial-adaption-to-hi-r-t-in-previously-untrained-men-with-a-randomized-longitudinal-cardiac-mr-imaging-study-physical-adaptions-in-untrained-on-strength-and-heart-trial-push-trial
#10
Michael Scharf, Derya Oezdemir, Axel Schmid, Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von Stengel, Matthias S May, Michael Uder, Michael M Lell
OBJECTIVE: Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance) training (HI(R)T) induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(R)T-group (n = 40; 43...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216197/shift-toward-greater-pathologic-post-myocardial-infarction-remodeling-with-loss-of-the-adaptive-hypertrophic-signaling-of-alpha1-adrenergic-receptors-in-mice
#11
Che-Chung Yeh, Yanying Fan, Yanchun Xu, Yi-Lin Yang, Paul C Simpson, Michael J Mann
RATIONALE: We have hypothesized that post-infarction cardiac remodeling can be influenced by shifts in the balance between intracellular mediators of "pathologic" and "physiologic" hypertrophy. Although alpha1 adrenergic receptors (alpha1-ARs) mediate pro-adaptive hypertrophy during pressure overload, little is known about their role or downstream mediators after myocardial infarction. METHODS: We performed loss-of-function experiments via coronary ligation in alpha1A-AR knockout (AKO) mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214319/electrocardiographic-findings-in-national-basketball-association-athletes
#12
Marc P Waase, R Kannan Mutharasan, William Whang, Marco R DiTullio, John P DiFiori, Lisa Callahan, Jimmie Mancell, Dermot Phelan, Allan Schwartz, Shunichi Homma, David J Engel
Importance: While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. Objective: To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213128/complement-5a-receptor-deficiency-does-not-influence-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-after-pressure-overload-in-mice
#13
Judith J de Haan, Lena Bosch, Anouska Borgman, Marissa Bastemeijer, Maike A D Brans, Sander M van de Weg, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Joost P G Sluijter, Hamid El Azzouzi, Saskia C A de Jager
Hypertension is one of the most common risk factors for the development heart failure in the general population. Inflammation plays a central role in this adverse remodeling and eventually to the development of heart failure. Circulating levels of Complement factor 5a (C5a) are increased in hypertensive patients and the C5a receptor is associated with the presence of cardiac fibrosis and inflammation in an experimental hypertension model. To test if C5aR is involved in adverse cardiac remodeling following pressure-overload, we induced transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in wildtype and C5a receptor deficient mice (C5aR-/-)...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212850/endothelial-transcriptomics-reveals-activation-of-fibrosis-related-pathways-in-hypertension
#14
Jonathan William Nelson, Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus, James A McCormick, Jessica Minnier, Sanjiv Kaul, David H Ellison, Anthony Paul Barnes
Hypertension poses a significant challenge to vasculature homeostasis and stands as the most common cardiovascular disease in the world. Its effects are especially profound on endothelial cells that form the inner lining of the vasculature and are directly exposed to the effects of excess pressure. Here, we characterize the in vivo transcriptomic response of cardiac endothelial cells to hypertension by rapidly isolating these cells from the spontaneous hypertension mouse model BPH/2J and its normotensive BPN/3J control strain and performing and RNA sequencing on both...
December 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212672/cardiovascular-response-to-prescribed-detraining-among-recreational-athletes
#15
Charles Richard Pedlar, Marcel G Brown, Robert E Shave, James M Otto, Aimee Drane, Jennifer Michaud-Finch, Miranda Contursi, Meagan M Wasfy, Adolph Hutter, Michael H Picard, Gregory D Lewis, Aaron L Baggish
Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR) and the attendant myocardial adaptations characteristic of the athlete's heart may regress during periods of exercise reduction or abstinence. The time course and mechanisms underlying this reverse remodeling, specifically the impact of concomitant plasma volume (PV) contraction on cardiac chamber size, remain incompletely understood. We therefore studied recreational runners (n=21, aged 34 ± 7 years; 48% male) who completed an 18-week training program (~7 h.w-1) culminating in the 2016 Boston Marathon after which total exercise exposure was confined to <2 h...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211855/a-rabbit-model-of-progressive-chronic-right-ventricular-pressure-overload
#16
Sara Roldan Ramos, Guido Pieles, Wei Hui, Cameron Slorach, Andrew N Redington, Mark K Friedberg
OBJECTIVES: Right ventricular (RV) failure from increased pressure loading is a frequent consequence of acquired and congenital heart diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in their pathophysiology are still unclear, and few data exist on RV pressure-loading models and early versus late effects on RV and left ventricular responses. We characterized a rabbit model of chronic RV pressure overload and early-late effects on biventricular function. METHODS: Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups: (i) sham, (ii) pulmonary artery (PA) banding (PAB) for 3 weeks (PAB3W) and (iii) PAB for 6 weeks (PAB6W)...
December 2, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209776/hyperoxia-induced-cardiotoxicity-and-ventricular-remodeling-in-type-ii-diabetes-mice
#17
Jennifer Leigh Rodgers, Eva Samal, Subhra Mohapatra, Siva Kumar Panguluri
Hyperoxia, or supplemental oxygen, is regularly used in the clinical setting for critically ill patients in ICU. However, several recent studies have demonstrated the negative impact of this treatment in patients in critical care, including increased rates of lung and cardiac injury, as well as increased mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the predisposition for arrhythmias and electrical remodeling in a type 2 diabetic mouse model (db/db), as a result of hyperoxia treatment. For this, db/db and their heterozygous controls were treated with hyperoxia (> 90% oxygen) or normoxia (normal air) for 72-h...
December 5, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208679/the-time-trial-effect-of-timing-of-stem-cell-delivery-following-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-on-the-recovery-of-global-and-regional-left-ventricular-function-final-2-year-analysis
#18
Jay H Traverse, Timothy D Henry, Carl J Pepine, James T Willerson, Atul R Chugh, Phillip C Yang, David Zhao, Stephen G Ellis, John R Forder, Emerson C Perin, Marc S Penn, Antonis K Hatzopoulos, Jeffrey W Chambers, Kenneth Baran, Ganesh Raveendran, Adrian P Gee, Doris A Taylor, Lem Moyé, Ray F Ebert, Robert D Simari
Rationale: The TIME trial was the first cell therapy trial sufficiently powered to determine if timing of cell delivery following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) affects recovery of left ventricular (LV) function. Objective: To report the 2-year clinical and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) results and their modification by microvascular obstruction (MVO). Methods and Results: TIME was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing 150 million bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) vs...
December 5, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208458/inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-reverts-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-in-t-cruzi-infected-cardiac-spheroids
#19
Patrícia M Ferrão, Líndice M Nisimura, Otacílio C Moreira, Marcelo G Land, Mirian C Pereira, Leila de Mendonça-Lima, Tania C Araujo-Jorge, Mariana C Waghabi, Luciana R Garzoni
Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CC) is the main manifestation of Chagas Disease (CD). CC is a progressive dysfunctional illness, in which transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays a central role in fibrogenesis and hypertrophy. In the present study, we tested in a three-dimensional (3D) model of cardiac cells culture (named cardiac spheroids), capable of mimicking the aspects of fibrosis and hypertrophy observed in CC, the role of TGF-β pathway inhibition in restoring extracellular matrix (ECM) balance disrupted by T...
December 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207045/effect-of-atractylodes%C3%A2-macrocephala-rhizoma-on-isoproterenol%C3%A2-induced-ventricular-remodeling-in-rats
#20
Xiao-Hua Cui, Hui-Lin Wang, Rong Wu, Ping-An Yao, Ke-Zhao Wei, Jian-Ping Gao
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the primary cause of ventricular remodeling (VR). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma (AMR) on VR induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal control, ISO‑induced and AMR groups. Rats in the ISO‑induced and AMR groups were subcutaneously injected with 85 mg/kg/day ISO for two consecutive days. Compared with the ISO‑induced group, AMR normalized the levels of hemodynamic parameters, markedly attenuated myocardial pathological damage, decreased the level of N‑terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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