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Zhou Wan-Li, Tao Jun, Zhang Yu-Dong, Shuang Fei, Han Zhijian, Wu Chen-Jiang, Wang Zijie, Li Yongjun, Que Hongliang, Huang Zhengkai, Wang Zengjun, Tan Ruoyun, Gu Min
BACKGROUND: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a preferred indicator of allograft renal function, but direct measurement of GFR remains complicated. PURPOSE: To prospectively compare dynamic contrast-enhanced MR renography (DCE-MRR) with 99m Tc-DTPA-based single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for determination of allograft renal function. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: Seventy kidney-transplant recipients FIELD STRENGTH: A low-dose DCE-MRR with a 3...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Deobrat Singh, Sanjeev K Gupta, Yogesh Sonvane, Tanveer Hussain, Rajeev Ahuja
Recently, a two-dimensional (2D) Si2BN monolayer material made of silicon, boron and nitrogen, was theoretically predicated and has attracted interest in the scientific community. Due to its 2D planar nature with high formation energy, Si2BN monolayers can be flexible and strong like graphene and also exhibit captivating properties like those of other 2D materials. Motivated by this fascinating graphene-like monolayer of Si2BN, we have investigated its structural and electronic properties based on first-principles calculations...
August 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Morgan R McPherson, Peng Wang, Ellen L Marsh, Robert B Mitchell, Daniel P Schachtman
Plant and soil microbiome studies are becoming increasingly important for understanding the roles microorganisms play in agricultural productivity. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide detail on how to rapidly sample soil, rhizosphere, and endosphere of replicated field trials and analyze changes that may occur in the microbial communities due to sample type, treatment, and plant genotype. The experiment used to demonstrate these methods consists of replicated field plots containing two, pure, warm-season grasses (Panicum virgatum and Andropogon gerardii) and a low-diversity grass mixture (A...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
A Manduca, T L Rossman, D S Lake, K J Glaser, A Arani, S P Arunachalam, P J Rossman, J D Trzasko, R L Ehman, D Dragomir-Daescu, P A Araoz
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is increasingly being applied to thin or small structures in which wave propagation is dominated by waveguide effects, which can substantially bias stiffness results with common processing approaches. The purpose of this work was to investigate the importance of such biases and artifacts on MRE inversion results in: (i) various idealized 2D and 3D geometries with one or more dimensions that are small relative to the shear wavelength; and (ii) a realistic cardiac geometry...
August 13, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Maria J Capitán, Jesus Alvarez, Felix Yndurain
We performed a systematic study of electron-acceptor molecules in two closely related organometallic solids, namely, CuTCNQ and AgTCNQ. These studies were performed using both an experimental approach, via the use of electron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS), and a theoretical approach, via the use of ab initio DFT calculations. From these results, a complete description of the electronic structure of these molecular solid-films could be given, identifying the characteristic electronic and structural features of each part of the molecules and their contribution to the final electronic structure...
August 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yifan Zhou, Luis Alejandro Mur, Arwyn Edwards, John Davies, Jiwan Han, Huawei Qin, Ying Ye
Freshwater quality detection is important for pollution control. Three important components of water quality are pH, ammonia and dissolved H2 S and there is an urgent need for a high-precision sensor for simultaneous and continuous measurement. In this study, all-solid-state electrodes of Eh, pH, NH4 + and S2- were manufactured and mounted to a wireless chemical sensor with multiple parameters. Calibration indicated that the pH electrode had a Nernst response with slope of 53.174 mV; the NH4 + electrode had a detection limit of 10-5 mol/L (Nernst response slope of 53...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
John A Kalapurakal, Mahesh Gopalakrishnan, Matthew Mille, Irene Helenowski, Susan Peterson, Cynthia Rigsby, Fran Laurie, Jae Won Jung, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Choonsik Lee
PURPOSE: This pilot study was done to determine the feasibility and accuracy of University of Florida/National Cancer Institute (UF/NCI) phantoms and Monte Carlo (MC) retrospective dosimetry and had two aims: (1) to determine the anatomic accuracy of UF/NCI phantoms by comparing 3D organ doses in National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) patient-matched UF/NCI phantoms to organ doses in corresponding patient-matched CT scans and (2) to compare infield and out-of-field organ dosimetry using two dosimetry methods-standard radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning systems (TPS) and MC dosimetry in these two anatomic models...
August 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Kalin V Staykov, Dimitar Popchev, Daniela D Doneva, Stoytcho S Yazadjiev
Binary pulsar observations and gravitational wave detections seriously constrained scalar-tensor theories with massless scalar field allowing only small deviations from general relativity. If we consider a nonzero mass of the scalar field, though, significant deviations from general relativity are allowed for values of the parameters that are in agreement with the observations. In the present paper we extend this idea and we study scalar-tensor theory with massive field with self-interaction term in the potential...
2018: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Wilson J E M Costa, Pedro F Amorim, José Leonardo O Mattos
A great diversity of animal species adapted to life in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil, including seasonal killifishes, has been reported in the last three decades. More recently, field and molecular data have shown a high occurrence of cryptic species. The killifish group herein analysed, the Hypsolebiasmagnificus species complex, is endemic to the middle and southern portion of the Caatinga, occupying about 120 km along the floodplains of the middle São Francisco River and some adjacent tributaries...
2018: ZooKeys
Niloufar Zarghami, Alexandre A Khrapitchev, Francisco Perez-Balderas, Manuel Sarmiento Soto, James R Larkin, Luca Bau, Nicola R Sibson
Background: Molecular MRI is an evolving field of research with strong translational potential. Selection of the appropriate MRI sequence, field strength and contrast agent depend largely on the application. The primary aims of the current study were to: 1) assess the sensitivity of different MRI sequences for detection of iron oxide particles in mouse brain; 2) determine the effect of magnetic field strength on detection of iron oxide particles in vivo; and 3) compare the sensitivity of targeted microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) or ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) for detection of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in vivo...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Megan Greally, Ciara M Kelly, Andrea Cercek
Despite advances in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) the 5-year survival of patients with this disease remains low. A small proportion of CRCs overexpress the HER2 oncogene and the effective targeting of this pathway in other malignancies such as breast and gastric cancer has led to efforts to determine if it can also be exploited as a target in CRC. Activation of the HER2 pathway as a bypass signalling pathway has been identified as a mechanism of resistance for antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in both the first line and salvage settings...
July 19, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Mengmeng Pan, Yurui Wang, Haiwei Yin, Xuyue Pan, Weijie Mu, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Xinpeng Fan, Xuming Pan
In recent years, Tetrahymena species have been used as model organisms for research in a wide range of fields, highlighting the need for a fuller understanding of the taxonomy of this group. It is in this context that this paper uses living observation and silver staining methods to investigate the morphology and infraciliature of one Tetrahymena species, T. setosa (Schewiakoff, 1892) McCoy, 1975, the senior subjective synonym of T. setifera Holz and Corliss, 1956, isolated from a freshwater pond in Harbin, north-eastern China...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Marcelo Lattarulo Campos, Camila Maurmann de Souza, Kamila Botelho Sampaio de Oliveira, Simoni Campos Dias, Octávio Luiz Franco
Selective pressure imposed by millions of years of relentless enemy attack has led to the development of an extraordinary array of defense strategies in plants. Among these, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) stand out as one of the most prominent components of the plant immune system. These small and overall basic peptides are deployed as a generalist defense strategy that grants direct and durable resistance against biotic stress. Even though their name implies function against microbes, the range of plant-associated organisms affected by these peptides is much broader...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lauran M Liggan, Patrick T Martone
Maintaining buoyancy with gas-filled floats (pneumatocysts) is essential for some subtidal kelps to achieve an upright stature and compete for light used for photosynthesis. However, as these kelps grow up through the water column, pneumatocysts are exposed to substantial changes in hydrostatic pressure, which could cause complications as internal gases may expand or contract, potentially causing them to rupture, flood, and lose buoyancy. In this study, we investigate how pneumatocysts of Nereocystis luetkeana resist biomechanical stress and maintain buoyancy as they develop across a hydrostatic gradient...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Phycology
A L M Tavy, A F J de Bruin, K van der Sloot, E C Boerma, C Ince, P G Noordzij, D Boerma, M van Iterson
BACKGROUND: The effect of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) on splanchnic blood flow during abdominal surgery remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the hemodynamic effects of TEA resulted in microcirculatory alterations to the intestinal serosa, which was visualized using incident dark-field (IDF) videomicroscopy. METHODS: An observational cohort study was performed. In 18 patients, the microcirculation of the intestinal serosa was visualized with IDF...
August 10, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Giulia Prete, Luca Tommasi
Split-brain patients constitute a small subpopulation of epileptic patients who have received the surgical resection of the callosal fibers in an attempt to reduce the spread of epileptic foci between the cerebral hemispheres. The study of callosotomy patients allowed neuropsychologists to investigate the effects of the hemispheric disconnection, shedding more light on the perceptual and cognitive abilities of each hemisphere in isolation. This view that callosotomy completely isolates the hemispheres has now been revised, in favor of the idea of a dynamic functional reorganization of the two sides of the brain; however, the evidence collected from split-brain patients is still a milestone in the neurosciences...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Clément Jailin, Stéphane Roux
The motion of a sample while being scanned in a tomograph prevents its proper volume reconstruction. In the present study, a procedure is proposed that aims at estimating both the kinematics of the sample and its standard 3D imaging from a standard acquisition protocol (no more projection than for a rigid specimen). The proposed procedure is a staggered two-step algorithm where the volume is first reconstructed using a "Dynamic Reconstruction" technique, a variant of Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) compensating for a "frozen" determination of the motion, followed by a Projection-based Digital Volume Correlation (P-DVC) algorithm that estimates the space/time displacement field, with a "frozen" microstructure and shape of the sample...
August 9, 2018: Materials
Aryn Lisitza, Gregor Wolbring
EcoHealth is an emerging field that examines the complex relationships among humans, animals, and the environment, and how these relationships affect the health of each of these domains. The different types of determinants of health greatly influence human health and well-being. Therefore, EcoHealth's ability to improve human, animal, and environmental health and well-being is, in part, influenced by its ability to acknowledge and integrate the determinants of health. However, our previous research demonstrates that the academic EcoHealth literature had a low, uneven engagement with the determinants of health...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Roberto Barbieri, Barbara Cavalazzi
Small-scale terracing (microterracettes) is a surface geomorphic feature that recurs under a range of environmental settings, such as those existing in high to low temperature geothermal springs and evaporitic environments, through the single or combined action of physicochemical agents and microbiological processes. Such morphology can also be observed in a confined sector of the Sabkha Oum Dba, which is an inland sabkha of the Western Sahara (Morocco), where field and laboratory investigations revealed that they primarily depend on the accumulation of naviculoid diatoms...
August 10, 2018: Astrobiology
Prashanth S Venkataram, Jan Hermann, Alexandre Tkatchenko, Alejandro W Rodriguez
Thermal radiative phenomena can be strongly influenced by the coupling of phonons and long-range electromagnetic fields at infrared frequencies. Typically employed macroscopic descriptions of thermal fluctuations often ignore atomistic effects that become relevant at nanometric scales, whereas purely microscopic treatments ignore long-range, geometry-dependent electromagnetic effects. We describe a mesoscopic framework for modeling thermal fluctuation phenomena among molecules near macroscopic bodies, conjoining atomistic treatments of electronic and vibrational fluctuations obtained from density functional theory in the former with continuum descriptions of electromagnetic scattering in the latter...
July 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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