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Small field

Sven Rutkowski, Ling Mu, Tieyan Si, Meiyu Gai, Mengmeng Sun, Johannes Frueh, Qiang He
One of the most promising future applications of hydrogels is drug delivery. The hydrogels act as a biomedical cargo model to reach the target and release drugs to cure diseases. This application requires no side effects of the hydrogel and the ability to pass through porous media (e.g. membranes, interstitial tissue etc.) with nanoscaled channels. At the same time, the hydrogel must be mass-producible in an economic way. In this work, we show that hydrodynamic electrospray ionization jetting combined with ultrasound can fulfill these high requirements...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Uwe Niedermayer, Thilo Egenolf, Oliver Boine-Frankenheim, Peter Hommelhoff
The concept of dielectric-laser acceleration provides the highest gradients among breakdown-limited (nonplasma) particle accelerators. However, stable beam transport and staging have not been shown experimentally yet. We present a scheme that confines the beam longitudinally and in one transverse direction. Confinement in the other direction is obtained by a single conventional quadrupole magnet. Within the small aperture of 420 nm we find the matched distributions, which allow an optimized injection into pure transport, bunching, and accelerating structures...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Manon Azaïs, Stéphane Blanco, Richard Bon, Richard Fournier, Marie-Hélène Pillot, Jacques Gautrais
Monitoring small groups of sheep in spontaneous evolution in the field, we decipher behavioural rules that sheep follow at the individual scale in order to sustain collective motion. Individuals alternate grazing mode at null speed and moving mode at walking speed, so cohesive motion stems from synchronising when they decide to switch between the two modes. We propose a model for the individual decision making process, based on switching rates between stopped / walking states that depend on behind / ahead locations and states of the others...
2018: PloS One
Fanyu Zeng, Wendi Duan, Bin Zhu, Taotao Mu, Lianqing Zhu, Jinhong Guo, Xing Ma
With the advanced development of the miniaturized Raman spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has extended its applications into the field of Point of Care Testing (POCT) and demonstrated its great significance in virtue non-invasive property and capability of fingerprint identification. In the SERS-based analysis and/or sensing system, the preparation of low cost, high-performance SERS substrate is critically important. In this manuscript, vacuum filtration is utilized to fabricate the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded nylon filter membrane (ANFM) as flexible paper-based SERS chips...
December 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Christopher D L Johnson, Debmalya Ganguly, Jonathan M Zuidema, Thomas J Cardinal, Alexis M Ziemba, Kathryn R Kearns, Simon M McCarthy, Deanna M Thompson, Ganpati Ramanath, Diana-Andra Borca-Tasciuc, Silvio Dutz, Ryan J Gilbert
Magnetic electrospun fibers are of interest to biomaterial applications that strive to provide cell guidance that can be delivered using minimally invasive techniques. Magnetic electrospun fibers can be injected then magnetically positioned in situ, and the aligned fiber scaffolds provide consistent topographical guidance to cells. We developed and tested magnetically-responsive aligned poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) electrospun fiber scaffolds for neural applications. Incorporating oleic-acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles significantly increased neurite outgrowth, reduced the fiber alignment, and increased the surface nanotopography of the electrospun fibers...
December 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Linda Mileshkin, Catherine Dunn, Hannah Cross, Mary Duffy, Mark Shaw, Phillip Antippa, Paul Mitchell, Tim Akhurst, Matthew Conron, Melissa Moore, Jenny Philip, James Bartlett, Jon Emery, Belinda Zambello
INTRODUCTION: Clinical audit may improve practice in cancer service provision. The UK National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) collects data for all new cases of thoracic cancers. We aimed to collect similar data for our Victorian patients from six hospitals within the Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre (VCCC) and associated Western and Central Melbourne Integrated Cancer Service (WCMICS). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective audit of all newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma in 2013 across the 6 VCCC/WCMICS hospitals...
December 4, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Amy L Stiegler, Titus J Boggon
Pseudoenzymes generally lack detectable catalytic activity despite adopting the overall protein fold of their catalytically competent counterparts, indeed 'pseudo' family members seem to be incorporated in all enzyme classes. The small GTPase enzymes are important signaling proteins, and recent studies have identified many new family members with noncanonical residues within the catalytic cleft, termed pseudoGTPases. To illustrate recent discoveries in the field, we use the p190RhoGAP proteins as an example...
December 4, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Jouni Havukainen, Jaana Hiltunen, Liisa Puro, Mika Horttanainen
Determining the chemical properties of waste is crucial to ensure the most effective utilization of waste. The standard laboratory measurements can produce accurate results, but analysis is labor- and time-consuming. The variety of elements that field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FPXRF) can detect from selected waste materials was studied, including how the results compared with those of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements. The selected materials were fine fraction reject from solid recovered fuel production, fly ash, biowaste, and compost...
January 2019: Waste Management
Weiwei Cong, Weimin Gao, Christopher J Garvey, Ludovic F Dumée, Juan Zhang, Ben Kent, Guang Wang, Fenghua She, Lingxue Kong
The alignment of nanostructures in materials such as lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) templated materials has the potential to significantly improve their performances. However, accurately characterising and quantifying the alignment of such fine structures remains very challenging. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics were employed for the first time to understand the hexagonal LLC alignment process with magnetic nanoparticles under a magnetic field. The enhanced alignment has been illustrated from the distribution of azimuthal intensity in the samples exposed to magnetic field...
December 2, 2018: Membranes
Natalia Komarova, Mariia Andrianova, Sergey Glukhov, Alexander Kuznetsov
Furaneol is an aroma compound which occurs naturally in foods and is used as an artificial flavor. Detection of furaneol is required in food science and food processing industry. Capture- Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) protocol was applied for the isolation of an aptamer binding to furaneol, a small volatile organic substance contributing to the flavor of various products. Thirteen cycles of selection were performed. The resulting DNA pool was cloned, using blunt-end cloning, and ninety-six plasmids were sequenced and analyzed...
November 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marie Vanstalle, Julie Constanzo, Christian Finck
PURPOSE: The lack of evidence of biomarkers identifying patients that would benefit from proton therapy has driven the emergence of preclinical proton irradiation platforms using advanced small-animal models to mimic clinical therapeutic conditions. This study aims to determine the optimal physical parameters of the proton beam with a high radiation targeting accuracy, since small-animal tumors can reach millimetric dimensions at a maximum depth of about 2 cm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Several treatment plans, simulated using Geant4, were generated with different proton beam features to assess the optimal physical parameters for small volume irradiations...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Camila Zanette, Caitlin Colleen Bannan, Christopher I Bayly, Josh Fass, Michael K Gilson, Michael R Shirts, John Damon Chodera, David L Mobley
Molecular mechanics force fields define how the energy and forces in a molecular system are computed from its atomic positions, thus enabling the study of such systems through computational methods like molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Despite progress toward automated force field parameterization, considerable human expertise is required to develop or extend force fields. In particular, human input has long been required to define atom types, which encode chemically unique environments that determine which parameters will be assigned...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Nicholson Jeke, Francis Zvomuya
Managing biosolids from end-of-life municipal lagoons is a major challenge for many small communities where landfilling or spreading of biosolids on farmland is restricted. Contaminant removal via phytoextraction may be a viable remediation option for end-of-life lagoons in such communities. This study examined the effect of harvest frequency (once or twice per season) on cattail ( L.) biomass yield and N and P removal under a terrestrial phytoremediation system designed to treat the dewatered secondary cell of a municipal lagoon in Manitoba, Canada...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Daniele Martella, Sara Nocentini, Filippo Micheletti, Diederik S Wiersma, Camilla Parmeggiani
Light represents a very versatile stimulus and its use to control the deformation in shape-changing polymers can take advantage of multiple parameters (such as wavelength, intensity and polarization) to be explored in order to obtain differentiated responses. Polymers with selected color responsiveness are commonly prepared by using different dyes, while a polarization-dependent control can be introduced exploiting trans-cis isomerization of azobenzenes. As shape-changing polymers driven by a photothermal effect are gaining more and more attention in many application fields, exploring polarization to modulate their response could enlarge the tuning parameter space and provide an insight into the material optical properties...
December 4, 2018: Soft Matter
Renaud Ciappuccini, Cédric Desmonts, Idlir Licaj, Cécile Blanc-Fournier, Stéphane Bardet, Nicolas Aide
BACKGROUND: 18 FDG PET/CT is crucial before neck surgery for nodal recurrence localization in iodine-refractory differentiated or poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC/PDTC). A dedicated head-and-neck (HN) acquisition performed with a thin matrix and point-spread-function (PSF) modelling in addition to the whole-body PET study has been shown to improve the detection of small cancer deposits. Different protocols have been reported with various acquisition times of HN PET/CT. We aimed to compare two reconstruction algorithms for disease detection and to determine the optimal acquisition time per bed position using the Siemens Biograph6 with extended field-of-view...
December 3, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Severin Hennemann, Sylvia Farnsteiner, Lasse Sander
Background: Mental disorders are characterized by a high likelihood of recurrence. Thus, aftercare and follow-up interventions aim to maintain treatment gains and to prevent relapse. Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) may represent promising instruments in tertiary prevention. This systematic review summarizes and evaluates the research on the efficacy of IMIs as aftercare or follow-up interventions for adults with mental health issues. Methods: A systematic database search (PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CENTRAL) was conducted and studies selected according to predefined eligibility criteria (RCTs, adult population, clinical symptoms/disorder, assessed with validated instruments, clinical-psychological intervention rationale, aftercare/follow-up intervention, web-/mobile-based, minimum follow-up measurement of three months, inclusion of a control group)...
December 2018: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
Anja Pecman, Denis Kutnjak, Nataša Mehle, Magda Tušek Žnidarič, Ion Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Patricija Pirnat, Ian Adams, Neil Boonham, Maja Ravnikar
High-throughput sequencing has dramatically broadened the possibilities for plant virus research and diagnostics, enabling discovery of new or obscure viruses, and virus strains and rapid sequencing of their genomes. In this research, we employed high-throughput sequencing to discover a new virus infecting tomato, Henbane mosaic virus (Potyvirus , Potyviridae ), which was first discovered at the beginning of 20th century in the United Kingdom in cultivated henbane. A field tomato plant with severe necrotic symptoms of unknown etiology was sampled in Slovenia and high-throughput sequencing analysis using small RNA and ribosomal RNA depleted total RNA approaches revealed a mixed infection with Potato virus M ( Carlavirus , Betaflexiviridae ), Southern tomato virus ( Amalgavirus , Amalgamaviridae ) and henbane mosaic virus in the sample...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chen Lu, Xu Huang, Hong-Li Lu, Shao-Hua Liu, Jing-Yu Zang, Yu-Jia Li, Jie Chen, Wen-Xie Xu
AIM: To investigate the distribution and function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α positive (PDGFRα+ ) cells in the proximal and distal colon. METHODS: The comparison of colonic transit in the proximal and distal ends was performed by colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs). The tension of the colonic smooth muscle was examined by smooth muscle spontaneous contractile experiments with both ends of the smooth muscle strip tied with a silk thread...
November 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hendrik Dapper, Iván Rodríguez, Stefan Münch, Jan C Peeken, Kai Borm, Stephanie E Combs, Daniel Habermehl
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant radio- or chemoradiation (nIRT) therapy is the standard treatment for loco-regional advanced rectal cancer patients of the lower or middle third. Currently, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is not the recommended radiation technique even though IMRT has advantages compared to 3D-radiation regarding dose sparing to organs at risk like small bowel and urinary bladder. So far, the benefit of IMRT concerning the anal sphincter complex is not examined. With this study we intended to evaluate the dose distribution on the anal sphincters of rectal cancer patients treated with IMRT in comparison with 3D-techniques...
December 3, 2018: Radiation Oncology
M Augugliaro, G Marvaso, D Ciardo, D Zerini, G Riva, E Rondi, S Vigorito, S Comi, O De Cobelli, R Orecchia, B Alicja Jereczek-Fossa
The aim of our study was to retrospectively report on radiotherapy (RT) in the oligometastastic recurrence of bladder cancer. Thirteen patients treated for low-volume metastatic transitional cell urinary bladder carcinoma (TCC) were reviewed. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of RT, proposed as an alternative to systemic treatment and/or to defer the start of a systemic therapy. Inclusion criteria for our retrospective study were as follows: patients that received RT (without other local/systemic therapy) for oligometastatic TCC with lymph node, bone, lung lesions or local recurrence...
September 4, 2018: Neoplasma
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