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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326408/analytical-epigenetics-single-molecule-optical-detection-of-dna-and-histone-modifications
#1
REVIEW
Christian Heck, Yael Michaeli, Ilko Bald, Yuval Ebenstein
The field of epigenetics describes the relationship between genotype and phenotype, by regulating gene expression without changing the canonical base sequence of DNA. It deals with molecular genomic information that is encoded by a rich repertoire of chemical modifications and molecular interactions. This regulation involves DNA, RNA and proteins that are enzymatically tagged with small molecular groups that alter their physical and chemical properties. It is now clear that epigenetic alterations are involved in development and disease, and thus, are the focus of intensive research...
October 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325374/tuning-nanostructured-surfaces-with-hybrid-wettability-areas-to-enhance-condensation
#2
Shan Gao, Wei Liu, Zhichun Liu
Vapor condensation is widespread in natural and industrial applications. Rapid and efficient condensation plays an essential role in improving energy efficiency. Despite numerous efforts over the past few decades, the fundamental mechanism of condensation and the microscopic features of condensed droplets are not well understood. Moreover, designing a nanostructured surface with wetting contrast to enhance dropwise condensation remains unclear. Herein, through molecular dynamics simulation, we characterized the condensation processes on various nanopillar surfaces, including the nucleation, growth and coalescence of nanodroplets...
October 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324571/exosomes-in-perspective-a-potential-surrogate-for-stem-cell-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Ke Ren
Exosomes as a unique subtype of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years in the fields of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) research. Studies have confirmed that exosomes derived from MSCs preserve immunosuppressive phenotype and can mimic therapeutic benefits of their parent cells. This review briefly summarizes most recent findings on the potential of exosomes as an alternative of therapeutic MSCs, focusing on the role of MSCs and their secreted exosomes in regulation of immune cells, preclinical and clinical evidence of therapeutic outcomes of MSC exosomes, and the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile of systemically administered exosomes...
October 15, 2018: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324420/novel-clinical-findings-in-autosomal-recessive-nr2e3-related-retinal-dystrophy
#4
Vittoria Murro, Dario Pasquale Mucciolo, Andrea Sodi, Ilaria Passerini, Dario Giorgio, Gianni Virgili, Stanislao Rizzo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical phenotype of autosomal recessive NR2E3-related retinal dystrophy. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 11 patients carrying out at least 2 NR2E3 mutations; they had undergone comprehensive ophthalmological examination, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, electrophysiological testing, and visual field at the Regional Reference Center for Hereditary Retinal Degenerations of the Eye Clinic in Florence. RESULTS: Five females and six males with a diagnosis of NR2E3-related retinal dystrophy were included in the study...
October 15, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324417/angiostoma-namekuji-n-sp-nematoda-angiostomatidae-from-terrestrial-slugs-on-oshiba-island-in-the-seto-inland-sea-japan
#5
Tsukasa Waki, Akina Hino, Kousuke Umeda
A new species of nematode, Angiostoma namekuji n. sp. (Angiostomatidae: Rhabditida), is described from the intestinal lumen of the terrestrial slug Philomycidae gen. sp. collected from Oshiba Island in the Seto Inland Sea, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The new species is recognized by the following characteristics: body length 2,782-3,599 (mean 3,240) μm (male); 4,666-5,532 (5,030) μm (female); lateral field present; pharyngeal corpus with valves in the bulb; male with short tail, c = 35-57 (48), with one denticle; and seven pairs of genital papillae arranged as 1+2/3+1; female with tail having small denticles on distal tip; uterus c...
October 15, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324305/sampl6-challenge-results-from-formula-see-text-predictions-based-on-a-general-gaussian-process-model
#6
Caitlin C Bannan, David L Mobley, A Geoffrey Skillman
A variety of fields would benefit from accurate [Formula: see text] predictions, especially drug design due to the effect a change in ionization state can have on a molecule's physiochemical properties. Participants in the recent SAMPL6 blind challenge were asked to submit predictions for microscopic and macroscopic [Formula: see text]s of 24 drug like small molecules. We recently built a general model for predicting [Formula: see text]s using a Gaussian process regression trained using physical and chemical features of each ionizable group...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324303/absolute-binding-free-energies-for-the-sampl6-cucurbit-8-uril-host-guest-challenge-via-the-amoeba-polarizable-force-field
#7
Marie L Laury, Zhi Wang, Aaron S Gordon, Jay W Ponder
As part of the SAMPL6 host-guest blind challenge, the AMOEBA force field was applied to calculate the absolute binding free energy for a cucurbit[8]uril host complexed with 14 diverse guests, ranging from small, rigid structures to drug molecules. The AMOEBA results from the initial submission prompted an investigation into aspects of the methodology and parameterization employed. Lessons learned from the blind challenge include: a double annihilation scheme (electrostatics and van der Waals) is needed to obtain proper sampling of guest conformations, annihilation of key torsion parameters of the guest are recommended for flexible guests, and a more thorough analysis of torsion parameters is warranted...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324065/an-overlooked-but-effective-wound-care-methodology-hydromechanical-therapy-revisited
#8
Haley Desjardins, Lifei Guo
Chronic wounds are frequently difficult, expensive to treat, and pose a significant burden on both the patient's quality of life and health care system. Their recalcitrance to treatment stems from multiple factors, particularly the presence of bacterial biofilms within the wound bed. However, a commonly overlooked modality in the field of wound care, pressurized irrigation, offers an inexpensive mechanical debridement force capable of dislodging these biofilms that contribute to delayed healing of chronic wounds...
August 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324060/video-super-microsurgery-amplified-using-close-up-lens-filter-on-the-operative-field-camera-preliminary-report
#9
Motoi Kato, Shoji Watanabe, Azusa Watanabe, Hiroki Utsunomiya, Takayuki Yokoyama, Taro Watanabe
Background: Super-microsurgery has widely spread due to the improvement of high magnification microscopes. The cost of multiple microscopes is high. Furthermore, the microscope heads are too large to fit in multiple surgical fields for pediatric patients. We adapted a 2-dimensional magnification system for performing lymphatic venous anastomosis on pediatric lymphedema cases. Methods: We attached a close-up lens filter to the suspended camera (CHZ-1,360-PTR camera, Carina system, Tokyo, Japan) in the operative field...
August 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323940/rare-and-rarer-co-occurrence-of-stroke-like-migraine-attacks-after-radiation-therapy-and-charles-bonnet-syndromes
#10
Pierre-Nicolas Boyer, Michael Devlin, Mike Boggild
A 30-year-old man presented with new onset severe headache and homonymous hemianopia, with a subsequent seizure, on a background of a right parietal astrocytoma resected at age 5 with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed post-surgical and radiotherapy changes only and a clinical diagnosis of Stroke-like Migraine Attacks after Radiation Therapy (SMART) syndrome was made. Vision subsequently recovered gradually over a 6-week period, however, during the recovery phase he reported well formed hallucinations in the affected hemi-field consisting of small mammals, particularly possums, which gradually became less distinct as vision recovered; a phenomenon which was felt likely to represent the Charles Bonnet syndrome...
October 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323925/substructure-imaging-of-heterogeneous-nanomaterials-with-enhanced-refractive-index-contrast-by-using-a-functionalized-tip-in-photoinduced-force-microscopy
#11
Junghoon Jahng, Heejae Yang, Eun Seong Lee
The opto-mechanical force response from light-illuminated nanoscale materials has been exploited in many tip-based imaging applications to characterize various heterogeneous nanostructures. Such a force can have two origins: thermal expansion and induced dipoles. The thermal expansion reflects the absorption of the material, which enables one to chemically characterize a material at the absorption resonance. The induced dipole interaction reflects the local refractive indices of the material underneath the tip, which is useful to characterize a material in the spectral region where no absorption resonance occurs, as in the infrared (IR)-inactive region...
2018: Light, Science & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323924/photonic-waveguide-to-free-space-gaussian-beam-extreme-mode-converter
#12
Sangsik Kim, Daron A Westly, Brian J Roxworthy, Qing Li, Alexander Yulaev, Kartik Srinivasan, Vladimir A Aksyuk
Integration of photonic chips with millimeter-scale atomic, micromechanical, chemical, and biological systems can advance science and enable new miniaturized hybrid devices and technology. Optical interaction via small evanescent volumes restricts performance in applications such as gas spectroscopy, and a general ability to photonically access optical fields in large free-space volumes is desired. However, conventional inverse tapers and grating couplers do not directly scale to create wide, high-quality collimated beams for low-loss diffraction-free propagation over many millimeters in free space, necessitating additional bulky collimating optics and expensive alignment...
2018: Light, Science & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323823/pesticidal-plant-extracts-improve-yield-and-reduce-insect-pests-on-legume-crops-without-harming-beneficial-arthropods
#13
Yolice Tembo, Angela G Mkindi, Prisila A Mkenda, Nelson Mpumi, Regina Mwanauta, Philip C Stevenson, Patrick A Ndakidemi, Steven R Belmain
In the fight against arthropod crop pests using plant secondary metabolites, most research has focussed on the identification of bioactive molecules. Several hundred candidate plant species and compounds are now known to have pesticidal properties against a range of arthropod pest species. Despite this growing body of research, few natural products are commercialized for pest management whilst on-farm use of existing botanically-based pesticides remains a small, but growing, component of crop protection practice...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323683/occurrence-of-primary-brain-tumors-in-cochlear-implant-patients-in-sweden-between-1989-and-2014
#14
Henrik Smeds, Jeremy Wales, Tiit Mathiesen, Mats Talbäck, Maria Feychting
Purpose: Cochlear implants are widely used for hearing rehabilitation of deaf children with congenital deafness or adults with acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. The sound processor antenna creates a radio frequency-electromagnetic field transmitting the sound signal to the implant, similar to that in a mobile phone. A recent case report suggested a relationship between cochlear implants and malignant glioma, and some epidemiological studies have suggested an increased glioma and acoustic neuroma risk associated with long hours of mobile phone use...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321454/parent-mediated-interventions-for-promoting-communication-and-language-development-in-young-children-with-down-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Ciara O'Toole, Alice S-Y Lee, Fiona E Gibbon, Anne K van Bysterveldt, Nicola J Hart
BACKGROUND: Communication and language development are areas of particular weakness for young children with Down syndrome. Caregivers' interaction with children influences language development, so many early interventions involve training parents how best to respond to their children and provide appropriate language stimulation. Thus, these interventions are mediated through parents, who in turn are trained and coached in the implementation of interventions by clinicians. As the interventions involve a considerable commitment from clinicians and families, we undertook this review to synthesise the evidence of their effectiveness...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320783/deep-line-temporal-focusing-with-high-axial-resolution-and-a-large-field-of-view-using-intracavity-control-and-incoherent-pulse-shaping
#16
Kai Lou, Bo Wang, Ah-Young Jee, Steve Granick, François Amblard
Line-temporal focusing has been recognized as an elegant strategy that provides two-photon microscopy with an effective means for fast imaging through parallelization, together with an improved resilience to scattering for deep imaging. However, the axial resolution remains sub-optimal, except when using high NA objectives and a small field-of-view. With the introduction of an intracavity control of the spectral width of the femtosecond laser to adaptively fill the back aperture of the objective lens, line-temporal focusing two-photon microscopy is demonstrated to reach near-diffraction-limited axial resolution with a large back-aperture objective lens, and improved immunity to sample scattering...
October 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320559/rapid-clinical-assessment-of-the-sublingual-microcirculation-visual-scoring-using-microvas-in-comparison-to-standard-semi-automated-analysis
#17
Joel Sardinha, Sean MacKinnon, Christian Lehmann
RATIONALE: Alterations in human microcirculation occur in many disease states leading to morbidity and mortality, however assessing the microcirculation is not standard clinical practice. Standard microcirculation analysis using semi-automated analysis is expensive, time consuming, and expertise dependent making it unfeasible. We proposed a novel visual scoring system (microVAS) for the analysis of microcirculation videos that can be performed at the patient bedside in real time. OBJECTIVE: Validate our microVAS score by training health professionals unfamiliar with the microcirculation field to use our microVAS score and compare their scores to the standard method of semi-automated analysis using AVA3 software...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320466/monotherapy-laser-photocoagulation-for-diabetic-macular-oedema
#18
REVIEW
Eliane C Jorge, Edson N Jorge, Mayra Botelho, Joyce G Farat, Gianni Virgili, Regina El Dib
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a complication of diabetic retinopathy and one of the most common causes of visual impairment in people with diabetes. Clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO) is the most severe form of DMO. Intravitreal antiangiogenic therapy is now the standard treatment for DMO involving the centre of the macula, but laser photocoagulation is still used in milder or non-central DMO. OBJECTIVES: To access the efficacy and safety of laser photocoagulation as monotherapy in the treatment of diabetic macular oedema...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320438/family-therapy-approaches-for-anorexia-nervosa
#19
REVIEW
Caroline A Fisher, Sonja Skocic, Kathleen A Rutherford, Sarah E Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterised by a failure to maintain a normal body weight due to a paucity of nutrition, an intense fear of gaining weight or behaviour that prevents the individual from gaining weight, or both. The long-term prognosis is often poor, with severe developmental, medical and psychosocial complications, high rates of relapse and mortality. 'Family therapy approaches' indicate a range of approaches, derived from different theories, that involve the family in treatment...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320055/designing-an-interactive-field-epidemiology-case-study-training-for-public-health-practitioners
#20
Amy L Nelson, Lauren Bradley, Pia D M MacDonald
Globally, public health practitioners are called upon to respond quickly and capably to mitigate a variety of immediate and incipient threats to the health of their communities, which often requires additional training in new or updated methodologies or epidemiologic phenomena. Competing public health priorities and limited training resources can present challenges in developed and developing countries alike. Training provided to front-line public health workers by ministries of health, donors and/or partner organizations should be delivered in a way that is effective, adaptable to local conditions and culture, and should be an experience perceived as a job benefit...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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