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“High reliability”

Matthias M Dollinger, Susanna Behl, Wolfgang E Fleig
BACKGROUND: Although colonoscopy-based screening has proven to be highly effective in detecting colorectal cancer (CRC), participation rates remain disappointing. Development of CRC is associated with a number of genetic or somatic mutations. New, non-invasive stool tests are currently being developed based on the detection of these alterations. We investigated if a non-invasive stool assay can offer sufficient sensitivity and specificity to supplement colonoscopy-based screening. METHODS: We compared a combined stool assay, which incorporates fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), quantification of human DNA (hDNA) as well as detection of genetic mutations of KRAS and BRAF (Combined DNA stool assay), with commercially available FOBT and M2-PK tests in a multi-centric six-armed pre-clinical case cohort study...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Ramon Nazareno Menezes Andrade, Walbert de Andrade Vieira, Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Ademir Franco, Luiz Renato Paranhos
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the validity of palatal rugoscopy for sexual dimorphism in the casework routine of forensic dentistry. DESIGN: A systematic literature reviews was established following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane guidelines. Six electronic databases were searched as the primary source of information. "Grey literature" was included to avoid selection and publication bias...
October 11, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Sri H Kanuri, Joseph Ipe, Kameel Kassab, Hongyu Gao, Yunlong Liu, Todd C Skaar, Rolf P Kreutz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Variation in micro-RNA (miRNA) levels in blood has been associated with alterations of physiological functions of the cardiovascular system. Circulating miRNA have the potential to become reliable biomarkers for risk stratification and early detection of cardiovascular events. Recurrent thrombotic events in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) demonstrate the need for personalized approaches to secondary prevention, especially in light of recent novel treatment approaches...
October 3, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Yosuke Iyama, Hideyuki Sato, Yoshiki Seto, Satomi Onoue
This study aimed to verify the applicability of a proposed photosafety screening system based on a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and a cassette-dosing pharmacokinetic (PK) study to chemicals with wide structural diversity. The orally taken chemicals, erythromycin (ETM), gatifloxacin (GFX), 8-methoxypsoralen (MOP), pirfenidone (PFD), trifluoperazine (TFP), and voriconazole (VRZ), were selected as test compounds. The ROS assay was conducted to evaluate their photoreactivity, and all test compounds excluding ETM generated significant ROS under simulated sunlight exposure...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Isidro Cortés Ciriano, Andreas Bender
Deep learning architectures have proved versatile in a number of drug discovery applications, including the modelling of in vitro compound activity. While controlling for prediction confidence is essential to increase the trust, interpretability and usefulness of virtual screening models in drug discovery, techniques to estimate the reliability of the predictions generated with deep learning networks remain largely underexplored. Here, we present Deep Confidence, a framework to compute valid and efficient confidence intervals for individual predictions using the deep learning technique Snapshot Ensembling and conformal prediction...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Florent Olivon, Nicolas Elie, Gwendal Grelier, Fanny Roussi, Marc Litaudon, David Touboul
Molecular Networking (MN) is becoming a standard bioinformatics tool in the metabolomic community. Its paradigm is based on the observation that compounds with high chemical similarity share comparable MS² fragmentation pathways. To afford a clear separation between MS2 spectra clusters only the most relevant similarity scores are selected using dedicated filtering steps requiring time-consuming parameters optimization. Depending on the filtering values selected, some scores are arbitrarily deleted and a part of the information is ignored...
October 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Magnus B Arnli, Theo L Winther, Stian Lydersen, Sverre H Torp
INTRODUCTION: Among clinical challenges regarding human meningiomas is their propensity to recur even in cases with benign histology. Reliable biomarkers that can identify these cases are therefore highly desired. ErbB2/HER2 status is important in the medical management of patients with various human malignancies, whereas its clinical relevance in human meningiomas is ambiguous. For this reason, we wanted to investigate the expression of intra- and extracellular domains of ErbB2/HER2 as well as the level of activated receptor in these tumors...
2018: PloS One
Camilla Rodrigues de Souza Silva, André Dos Santos Costa, Taciano Rocha, Diogo Arruda Martins de Lima, Tamires do Nascimento, Sílvia Regina Arruda de Moraes
Muscle architecture parameters performed using ultrasound serve as an aid to monitor muscle changes derived from diseases, however there are no studies that determine the reliability and applicability of this evaluation in individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2). Three raters captured three images of measurements of thickness of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus intermedius and anterior quadriceps, RF muscle cross-sectional area, RF pennation angle in 17 individuals with DM2 above 50 and sedentary. Intra and inter-raters analysis showed reliability from high to very high for the three raters (ICC> 0...
2018: PloS One
Marian V Lea, John Syring, Tara Jennings, Richard Cronn, Leo P Bruederle, Jennifer Ramp Neale, Diana F Tomback
Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) is a widely-distributed but rapidly declining high elevation western North American tree and a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our objectives were to develop reliable nuclear microsatellite markers that can be used to assess within-population genetic diversity as well as seed and pollen migration dynamics, and to validate markers using two geographically proximal P. albicaulis populations. We identified 1,667 microsatellite-containing sequences from shotgun DNA libraries of P...
2018: PloS One
Peng Shu, Jianping Wu, Yao Tong, Chunxia Xu, Xingguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The identification of high-risk colorectal cancer (CRC) patient is key to individualized treatment after surgery and reliable prognostic biomarkers are needed identifying high-risk CRC patients. METHODS: We developed a gene pair based prognostic signature that could can the prognosis risk in patients with CRC. This study retrospectively analyzed 4 public CRC datasets, and 1123 patients with CRC were divided into a training cohort (n = 300) and 3 independent validation cohorts (n = 507, 226, and 90 patients)...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vladimir R Vukomanovic, Milovan Matovic, Mirjana Doknic, Vesna Ignjatovic, Ivana Simic Vukomanovic, Svetlana Djukic, Miodrag Peulic, Aleksandar Djukic
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral uptake and ability to diagnose pituitary adenoma (PA) using tumor-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and to provide a semiquantitative analysis of tracer uptake in the pituitary region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 33 (13 hormonally active and 20 nonfunctioning) patients with PA and 45 control participants without pituitary involvement. All patients (n=78) underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with technetium-99m-labeled EDDA-hydrazinonicotinyl-tyr-octreotide (Tc-HYNIC-TOC), Tc(V)-DMSA and technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-MIBI)...
October 16, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Olle Ten Cate, Glenn Regehr
Objectivity in the assessment of students and trainees has been a hallmark of quality since the introduction of multiple-choice items in the 1960s. In medical education, this has extended to the structured examination of clinical skills and workplace-based assessment. Competency-based medical education, a pervasive movement that started roughly around the turn of the century, similarly calls for rigorous, objective assessment to ensure that all medical trainees meet standards to assure quality of health care...
October 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Hoda S Hashemi, Stefanie Fallone, Mathieu Boily, Anna Towers, Robert D Kilgour, Hassan Rivaz
Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a consequence of a malfunctioning lymphatic drainage system resulting from surgery or some other form of treatment. In the initial stages, minor and reversible increases in fluid volume of the arm are evident. As the stages progress over time, the underlying pathophysiology dramatically changes with an irreversible increase in arm volume most likely due to a chronic local inflammation leading to adipose tissue hypertrophy and fibrosis. Clinicians have subjective ways to stage the degree and severity such as the pitting test which entails manually comparing the elasticity of the affected and unaffected arms...
October 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Frank Kowalzik, Harald Binder, Daniela Zöller, Margarita Riera-Montes, Ralf Clemens, Thomas Verstraeten, Fred Zepp
We estimated numbers of hospitalizations for norovirus gastroenteritis (NGE) and associated medical costs in Germany, where norovirus testing is high because reimbursement is affected. We extracted aggregate data for patients hospitalized with a primary or secondary code from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), NGE diagnosis during 2007-2012 from the German Federal Statistics Office. We assessed reliability of the coding system in patient records from a large academic hospital...
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Riccardo Marin, Artiom Skripka, Lucas V Besteiro, Antonio Benayas, Zhiming Wang, Alexander O Govorov, Patrizia Canton, Fiorenzo Vetrone
Among the foreseeable therapeutic approaches at the cellular level, nanoplatform-driven photothermal therapy is a thriving tool for the selective eradication of malignant tissues with minimal side effects to healthy ones. Hence, chemically versatile, near-infrared absorbing plasmonic nanoparticles are distinctly appealing and most sought after as efficient photothermal agents. In this work, a straightforward method to synthesize monodisperse PEGylated copper sulfide nanoparticles of pure covellite (CuS) phase, featuring strong localized surface plasmonic resonance absorption in the near-infrared and flexible surface chemistry, imparted by monomethyl ether polyethylene glycol molecules, is developed and optimized...
October 17, 2018: Small
Rudolf A Werner, Xinyu Chen, Steven P Rowe, Constantin Lapa, Mehrbod S Javadi, Takahiro Higuchi
The heart failure epidemic continues to rise with coronary artery disease as one of its main causes. Novel concepts for risk stratification to guide the referring cardiologist towards revascularization procedures are of significant value. Myocardial perfusion imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) agents has demonstrated high accuracy for the detection of clinically relevant stenoses. With positron emission tomography (PET) becoming more widely available, mainly due to its diagnostic performance in oncology, perfusion imaging with that modality is more practical than in the past and overcomes existing limitations of SPECT MPI...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Mona M Savran, Anders Bo Nielsen, Bente Baekholm Poulsen, Poul Bak Thorsen, Lars Konge
BACKGROUND: Hysteroscopy is a technically challenging procedure. Specialty curricula of obstetrics and gynaecology appraise hysteroscopy for trainees but there is no present evidence-based training program that certifies the fundamental technical skills before performance on patients. The objectives of this study were to develop and gather validity evidence for a simulation-based test that can ensure basic competence in hysteroscopy. METHODS: We used the virtual-reality simulator HystMentor™...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Oguzhan Ekizoglu, Ercan Inci, Suna Ors, Elif Hocaoglu, Ismail Ozgur Can, Can Doruk Basa, Ismail Eralp Kacmaz, Elena F Kranioti
The most commonly used radiological method for age estimation of living individuals is X-ray. Computed tomography is not commonly used due to high radiation exposure, which raises ethical concerns. This problem can be solved with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which avoids the use of ionizing radiation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of MRI analysis of the proximal humeral epiphyses for forensic age estimations of living individuals. In this study, 395 left proximal humeral epiphyses (patient age 12-30 years) were evaluated with fast-spin-echo proton density-weighted image (FSE PD) sequences in a coronal oblique orientation on shoulder MRI images...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Shujing Li, Jianping Zhou, Yu Wang, Keqin Zhang, Junjie Yang, Xinling Zhang, Chunmei Wang, Hongbo Ma, Ji Zhou, Ellen He, Sven Skog
The aim of the present was to assess whether serum thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) concentration is a useful biomarker for the screening of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate malignancy. Serum samples were collected from 123 patients with prostate carcinoma prior to surgery, biopsy or androgen deprivation therapy and at 3, 6 and 10 months following the procedure. A total of 205 patients with BPH and 266 healthy controls were also utilized. STK1 concentration and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were measured in patient serum by use of commercial assays...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Frank Koopmans, Nikhil J Pandya, Sigrid K Franke, Ingrid H C M H Phillippens, Iryna Paliukhovich, Ka Wan Li, August B Smit
Key to the human brain's unique capacities are a myriad of neural cell types, specialized molecular expression signatures, and complex patterns of neuronal connectivity. Neurons in the human brain communicate via well over a quadrillion synapses. Their specific contribution might be key to the dynamic activity patterns that underlie primate-specific cognitive function. Recently, functional differences were described in transmission capabilities of human and rat synapses. To test whether unique expression signatures of synaptic proteins are at the basis of this, we performed a quantitative analysis of the hippocampal synaptic proteome of four mammalian species, two primates, human and marmoset, and two rodents, rat and mouse...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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