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Metabolic syndrome in children

Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Lesław Bernard Lahuta, Magdalena Ligor, Waldemar Placek, Ryszard Józef Górecki, Bogusław Buszewski
INTRODUCTION: Myo -inositol and its derivatives cyclitols play an important role in the processes of cell regulation, signal transduction, osmoregulation, and ion channel physiology, and are a component of the cell membrane. Free cyclitols present in food or released during the degradation of galactosyl cyclitols by bacteria (in digestive tract) show some physiological benefits. AIM: The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the documented data about curative and healing properties of cyclitols...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Adriana Herrera Lizarazo, Michelle McLoughlin, Maria G Vogiatzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in men. Hypogonadism and testicular degeneration are almost universal. Truncal adiposity, metabolic syndrome and low bone mass occur frequently. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the pathogenesis and management of the endocrine abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome. It is expected that optimal endocrine management will improve outcomes and quality of life in Klinefelter syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: In Klinefelter syndrome, testosterone replacement is routinely prescribed despite lack of evidence on the optimal dose and time for initiation of therapy...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Rachel Whooten, Liya Kerem, Takara Stanley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent developments relating to the role of physical activity in improving insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: The current literature strengthens previous findings on the relationship between physical activity and metabolic health in children; suggests a protective role for physical activity in the setting of obesity; examines population-specific findings; addresses specific effects of different modalities of physical activity in improving health; reveals potential mediators in the relationship between physical activity and metabolic health; and suggests new markers of metabolic health that could potentially be used as outcomes in future physical activity studies...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sara Karjoo
Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) evaluated by ultrasound are non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis. Increased cIMT in adults has been correlated to early vascular damage. Several studies show similar correlations of elevated cIMT in children with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, several articles have correlated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with elevated cIMT, indicating early atherosclerosis. It is alarming that these vascular changes may be seen in children as young as 10 years of age...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
John Porter
Transfusion combined with chelation therapy for severe β thalassemia syndromes (transfusion-dependent thalassemia [TDT]) has been successful in extending life expectancy, decreasing comorbidities and improving quality of life. However, this puts lifelong demands not only on the patients but also on the health care systems that are tasked with delivering long-term treatment and comprehensive support. Prevention programs and curative approaches are therefore an important part of overall strategy. Curative treatments alter the dynamic of a patient's health care costs, from financial commitment over 50 years, into a potential "one-off" investment...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Shelly M Williams, Anthony A Killeen
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an acute, life-threatening disease among adults and children that is associated with the initiation of cytoreductive therapy in the treatment of malignancy. A pattern of metabolic derangements occurs as a result of a massive release of intracellular contents into the systemic circulation. Characteristic findings include hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, and uremia, all of which can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, seizures, renal failure, and sudden death...
November 30, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Mark L Dreher
Less than 10% of most Western populations consume adequate levels of whole fruits and dietary fiber with typical intake being about half of the recommended levels. Evidence of the beneficial health effects of consuming adequate levels of whole fruits has been steadily growing, especially regarding their bioactive fiber prebiotic effects and role in improved weight control, wellness and healthy aging. The primary aim of this narrative review article is to examine the increasing number of health benefits which are associated with the adequate intake of whole fruits, especially fruit fiber, throughout the human lifecycle...
November 28, 2018: Nutrients
Claudine Sculier, Nicolas Gaspard
PURPOSE: To summarize the clinical features, suggested work-up, treatment and prognosis of new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE), a condition recently defined as the occurrence of refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in a patient without active epilepsy, and without a clear acute or active structural, toxic or metabolic cause; and of the related syndrome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), also recently defined as a subgroup of NORSE preceded by a febrile illness between 2 weeks and 24 h prior to the onset of RSE...
September 29, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Katarzyna Anna Korzeniowska, Michal Brzezinski, Kamila Szarejko, Marcin Radziwiłł, Tomasz Anyszek, Leszek Czupryniak, Piotr Soszyński, Per-Olof Berggren, Malgorzata Mysliwiec
INTRODUCTION: Obesity has increased rapidly among children and adolescents during the last 30 years. Pediatric patients with a BMI >85th centile are more often diagnosed with increased TSH levels than children with proper body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 961 overweight and obese children, aged 13, recruited in four cities in Poland as part of PoZdro!, a two-year prophylactic program, were analysed to observe the relationship between serum TSH and fT4 concentration and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism parameters, as well as anthropometric parameters...
November 27, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor, Gerardo Mendoza-Lara, Gustavo Gutierrez-DelBosque, Mariana Peschard-Franco, Bianca Nieblas, Gerardo Garcia-Rivas
Exercise-induced irisin, a recently discovered myokine, has been linked to insulin resistance, obesity, and other diseases in adults; however, information in children is scarce and contradictory. We analyzed the limited evidence of irisin's effects in children and adolescents, and its association with body composition, exercise training, cardiovascular risk factors, and metabolic diseases, as well as the results of dietetic interventions. Both positive and negative correlations between irisin concentrations and body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, and other anthropometric parameters were found...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rebecca C Clawson, Leslie N Dela Cruz, Steven Allen, Tierney Wolgemuth, Amanda Maner, Anna Dorsett, Helen I'Anson
A large part of the daily intake of children in the U.S. consists of snacks, with the average child consuming three snacks per day. Despite this, little research has been conducted to determine the metabolic and behavioral effects of snacking. Using a developing female rat model, our studies aimed to determine the effects of snacking during development before the protective effects of estrogen on weight gain would be relevant. Additionally, to determine if snack composition is important, we created one healthy and one unhealthy snacking group provided with chow and three snacks each in addition to a chow-only group...
November 22, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Renya Rodriguez Mortera, Yasmin Bains, Alejandro Gugliucci
In this review, we highlight the specific metabolic effects of fructose consumption that are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with obesity. The specifics effects of fructose on the liver are particularly germane to the development of a vicious cycle that starts with liver steatosis driving insulin resistance. These effects include 1) increased de novo lipogenesis, 2) increased liver fat, 3) dyslipidemia 4) increased uric acid production which feeds back on increased fructose metabolism and, 5) increased methylglyoxal and Maillard reaction that may affect adenosyl-monophosphate-dependent kinase Fructose increases cortisol activation especially in visceral fat...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Hatice Altun, Ergül Belge Kurutaş, Nilfer Şahin, Olcay Güngör, Ebru Fındıklı
Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome with an increasingly prevalent etiology, yet not fully understood. It has been thought that vitamin D, complex B vitamin levels and homocysteine are associated with environmental factors and are important in ASD. The aim of this study was to examine serum vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folate levels in ASD. Methods: In this study, serum vitamin D and VDR, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12 and folate levels were determined in 60 patients with ASD (aged 3 to 12 years) and in 45 age-gender matched healthy controls...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hyun-Suk Lee, Won-Wook Jeong, Yu-Jeong Choi, Young-Gyun Seo, Hye-Mi Noh, Hong-Ji Song, Yu-Jin Paek, Yoon-Myung Kim, Hyun-Jung Lim, Hye-Ja Lee, Han-Byul Jang, Sang-Ick Park, Kyung-Hee Park
Background: This study aimed to investigate the association between physical fitness and cardiometabolic health of Korean children and adolescents. Methods: In total, 168 participants (89 boys and 79 girls) aged 10-16 years were recruited for the Intervention for Childhood and Adolescent Obesity via Activity and Nutrition Study in 2016. The subjects were categorized into two groups using the definition of metabolic syndrome by the International Diabetes Federation: metabolically unhealthy (with at least two of the five criteria) and healthy groups (with less than one criterion)...
November 23, 2018: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Edward Nehus, Mark Mitsnefes
Obesity is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease. Children with severe obesity have an increased prevalence of early kidney abnormalities and are at high risk to develop kidney failure in adulthood. The pathophysiology of obesity-related kidney disease is incompletely understood, although the postulated mechanisms of kidney injury include hyperfiltration, adipokine dysregulation, and lipotoxic injury. An improved understanding of the long-term effects of obesity on kidney health is essential treat the growing epidemic of obesity-related kidney disease...
February 2019: Pediatric Clinics of North America
John W Foreman
Fanconi syndrome, also known as the DeToni, Debré, Fanconi syndrome is a global dysfunction of the proximal tubule characterized by glucosuria, phosphaturia, generalized aminoaciduria, and type II renal tubular acidosis. Often there is hypokalemia, sodium wasting, and dehydration. In children, it typically is caused by inborn errors of metabolism, principally cystinosis. In adults, it is mainly caused by medications, exogenous toxins, and heavy metals. Treatment consists of treating the underlying cause and replacing the lost electrolytes and volume...
February 2019: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Robert Todd Alexander, Martin Bitzan
Renal tubular acidosis should be suspected in poorly thriving young children with hyperchloremic and hypokalemic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, with/without syndromic features. Further workup is needed to determine the type of renal tubular acidosis and the presumed etiopathogenesis, which informs treatment choices and prognosis. The risk of nephrolithiasis and calcinosis is linked to the presence (proximal renal tubular acidosis, negligible stone risk) or absence (distal renal tubular acidosis, high stone risk) of urine citrate excretion...
February 2019: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Marco Pozzi, Simone Pisano, Giuseppe Marano, Carla Carnovale, Carmela Bravaccio, Concetta Rafaniello, Annalisa Capuano, Francesco Rossi, Renata Rizzo, Renato Bernardini, Maria Nobile, Massimo Molteni, Emilio Clementi, Elia Biganzoli, Sonia Radice
OBJECTIVES: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase appetite and weight, leading toward a metabolic syndrome. Risperidone and aripiprazole, the most widely used pediatric SGAs, have been studied predominantly in short-term clinical trials, where risperidone leads to a rapid weight increase and aripiprazole to a slower one, while long-term effects are not yet elucidated. Factors that may influence weight gain are likewise not clarified, although baseline weight, previous SGA exposure, pubertal status, and type of SGA have been suggested as moderators...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Monika Krawczyk, Małgorzata Rumińska, Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak
The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) is a useful surrogate marker of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to assess the relationship between the TG/HDL-C ratio and insulin resistance (IR) and its usefulness in prediction of the metabolic syndrome (MS). This retrospective study involved 122 obese children with the mean age of 11.6±3 years and their 58 healthy lean peers. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, the plasma lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were analyzed...
November 19, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Kristen A Smith, Heidi R Flori
In caring for critically ill children, recognition and management often begins in the pediatric emergency department. A seamless transition in care is needed to ensure appropriate care to the sickest of children. This review covers the management of critically ill children in the pediatric emergency department beyond the initial stabilization for conditions such as acute respiratory failure and pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus, congenital heart disease, and metabolic emergencies...
December 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
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