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Metabolic syndrome in children

Parminder Singh
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition. Bone diseases such as rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults are related with vitamin D insufficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Vibeke Naeser, Andreas Hjelm Brandt, Bo Nyhuus, Lise Borgwardt, Marianne Hørby Jørgensen, Allan Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases is well described after adult liver transplantation, whereas the risk in the pediatric population still is discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pediatric liver transplant recipients and whether measurements of carotid intima media thickness and pulse wave velocity were increased compared to healthy controls. METHODS: We included 42 pediatric liver transplantation recipients and examined them for markers of metabolic syndrome, liver fibrosis measured by shear wave velocity, body fat measured by DXA scans and carotid intima-media thickness, and pulse wave velocity (n = 41 for the carotid scans)...
October 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Ludwig Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Cristina Oana Mǎrginean, Claudiu Mǎrginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ
Introduction: Childhood obesity is occurring at alarming rates in both developed and developing countries. "Obesogenic" environmental factors must be associated with variants of different risk alleles to determine polygenic or common obesity, and their impact depends on different developmental stages.The interaction between obesogenic environment and genetic susceptibility results in the so-called polygenic forms of obesity. In contrast, monogenic and syndromic obesity are not influenced by environmental events...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Ana Carolina Reyes, Raquel Chaves, Adam D G Baxter-Jones, Olga Vasconcelos, Go Tani, José Maia
BACKGROUND: There is a renewed interest in longitudinal studies which link children's growth, motor and cognition development. This is important for both educational outcomes and identification of children who are at risk. AIM: To identify cross-sectional sex-differences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In total, 1166 Portuguese children, aged 4-11 years, were recruited into the Growth, Motor Development and Cognition Study (GMDC-Vouzela study). Measures included: anthropometry, gestational development, motor coordination, cognitive performance, laterality, physical fitness, metabolic syndrome risk, lifestyle characteristics and environmental exposures...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Serkan Özsoylu, Başak Nur Akyıldız, Adem Dursun
Özsoylu S, Akyıldız BN, Dursun A. Ogilvie syndrome presenting with septic shock. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 225-227. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is also known as Ogilvie`s. We report a 10-year-old child with an unremarkable past history who presented with septic shock including hypotension, prolonged capillary refill time, decreased urine output ( < 0.5 ml/kg/h), metabolic acidosis, liver failure, respiratory failure. The symptoms resolved with supportive therapy. In our patient septic shock contributed to Ogilvie syndrome...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Korhan Kılıç, Muhammed Sedat Sakat, Atilla Çayır
Objective: The frequency of metabolic syndrome is increasing in both children and adults. In addition to metabolic complications such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome may affect all systems of the body. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome on hearing in childhood. Methods: A prospective, controlled study was performed on 38 obese children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and 34 healthy children...
September 2018: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Yunkoo Kang, Sowon Park, Seung Kim, Hong Koh
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide in adolescents. Metabolic syndrome is a systemic disease that is likely to be associated with other diseases. Studies have shown a relationship between muscle strength, muscle quality, and metabolic syndrome. Handgrip strength is known as a simple tool to measure muscle strength. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between handgrip strength and metabolic syndrome and each metabolic syndrome features in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1050 adolescents (574 boys, 476 girls; age 10-18 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Naresh P Shanmugam, Joseph J Valamparampil, Mettu Srinivas Reddy, Khoula Julenda Al Said, Khalid Al-Thihli, Nadia Al-Hashmi, Emtithal Al-Jishi, Hasan Mohamed Ali Isa, Anil B Jalan, Mohamed Rela
PURPOSE: Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) in metabolic liver disease (MLD) has the advantage of correcting the metabolic defect, preserving the native liver for gene therapy in the future with the possibility of withdrawal of immunosuppression. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of safety and efficacy of APOLT in correcting the underlying defect and its impact on neurological status of children with MLD. RESULTS: A total of 13 APOLT procedures were performed for MLD during the study period...
October 12, 2018: JIMD Reports
Bahar Azemati, Roya Kelishadi, Zeinab Ahadi, Gita Shafiee, MajZoubeh Taheri, Hasan Ziaodini, Mostafa Qorbani, Ramin Heshmat
AIMS: Only a few studies have attempted to assess the relationship between junk food consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian children and adolescents; therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the association between junk food intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in this population. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 14,400 students were selected from 30 provinces of Iran using multistage, stratified cluster sampling method...
October 11, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Hadeel A Al-Rawaf
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as valuable biomarkers yielded important insights into the pathogenesis of obesity. AIM: This study aimed to describe the circulating miRNA profile for adolescences and its association with the circulating levels leptin and adiponectin according to specific degree of obesity. METHODS: RT-PCR and immunoassy analysis were used to study circulating miRNA profile, adipokines; adiponectin (A), leptin (L), and L/A ratio as well as other factors of metabolic syndrome (MS) in 250 adolescents with severe obesity...
September 25, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kemal Sarica
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of urolithiasis has shown a prominent increase in the last two to three decades and evidence-based data have clearly indicated the certain role of obesity and overweight in both children and adults. As a certain component of metabolic syndrome, 'obesity' has been found to have a significant impact on the urinary metabolic risk factors which may be important in stone formation. In this present review article, we aimed to evaluate the possible association between obesity and urolithiasis and related risk factors...
October 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Norma Cecilia Serrano, Adriana Robles Silva, Diana Paola Suárez, Edna Magaly Gamboa-Delgado, Doris Cristina Quintero-Lesmes
INTRODUCTION: exclusive breastfeeding (EB) is a protective factor against the development of insulin resistance (IR) as mainstay of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: the objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between EB during the first six months of life and the development of IR through the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) indexes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a population-based cohort study included 494 adolescent participants, from whom socio-demographic, anthropometric, and cardiometabolic variables were assessed using the HOMA-IR and QUICKI indexes to determine the degree of association between EB and the development IR...
October 5, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Marco Zaffanello, Franco Antoniazzi, Laura Tenero, Luana Nosetti, Michele Piazza, Giorgio Piacentini
Childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by anatomical and functional upper airway abnormalities as pathophysiological determinants, and clinical symptoms are frequently clear. OSAS is widely described in rare genetic disorders, such as achondroplasia, Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Pierre Robin sequence, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Craniofacial and upper airway involvement is frequently morbid conditions. In children with genetic diseases, the clinical symptoms of OSAS are often slight or absent, and related morbidities are usually more severe and can be observed at any age...
September 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Luis R Macias-Kauffer, Hugo Villamil-Ramírez, Paola León-Mimila, Leonor Jacobo-Albavera, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Blanca E López-Contreras, Sofía Morán-Ramos, Sandra Romero-Hidalgo, Víctor Acuña-Alonzo, Blanca E Del-Río-Navarro, Maria-Cátira Bortolini, Carla Gallo, Gabriel Bedoya, Francisco Rothhammer, Rolando González-Jose, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Christopher R Stephens, Rafael Velazquez-Cruz, Cecilia Fernández Del Valle-Laisequilla, Juan G Reyes-García, Lina M Barranco Garduño, Miriam Del C Carrasco-Portugal, Francisco J Flores-Murrieta, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Teresa Villarreal-Molina, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) is a heritable trait associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD). Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genes associated with SUA, mainly in European populations. However, to date there are few GWAS in Latino populations, and the role of SUA-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cardiovascular disease has not been studied in the Mexican population. METHODS: We performed genome-wide SUA association study in 2153 Mexican children and adults, evaluated whether genetic effects were modified by sex and obesity, and used a Mendelian randomization approach in an independent cohort to study the role of SUA modifying genetic variants in premature CAD...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Mélanie Henderson, Andraea Van Hulst, Julia E Von Oettingenn, Andrea Benedetti, Gilles Paradis
BACKGROUND: Normal weight metabolically unhealthy (NWMU) adults are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease, however little is known regarding NWMU children. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between existing definitions of NWMU in children aged 8-10 years and insulin sensitivity (IS) and secretion 2 years later. METHODS: Data stem from the QUALITY cohort of 630 Caucasian youth, 8-10 years old at baseline, with at least one obese biological parent...
October 8, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Mehwish Anwer, Muhammad J Iqbal
Objectives: Obesity in children can lead to morbidity and mortality due to metabolic and inflammatory comorbidities. Aims: The objective of the study was to investigate the alterations in acute inflammatory markers, serum amyloid P (SAP) and cortisol, and endocrine markers, leptin and insulin, in obese children. Materials and Methods: Serum leptin, insulin, cortisol, and amyloid P concentrations were measured in obese (BMI percentile >85, n = 17) and nonobese (BMI percentile < 75, n = 20) children using ELISA and Bio-Plex Bead-based assay...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Richard Pierce, Weizhen Ji, Eunice C Chan, Zhihui Xie, Lauren M Long, Mustafa Khokha, Saquib Lakhani, Kirk M Druey
OBJECTIVE: Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disorder that presents with episodes of hypovolemic shock. The extent to which genetic abnormalities contribute to SCLS is unknown. We identified pediatric and adult cohorts with characteristic clinical courses. We sought to describe the clinical characteristics of both cohorts, identify a possible genetic contribution to SCLS, and demonstrate that whole exome sequencing (WES) may be conducted by critical care providers. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of WES of nine adult and eight pediatric SCLS patients and available unaffected first-degree relatives...
October 4, 2018: Shock
Merlin G Butler, Waheeda A Hossain, Robert Tessman, Partha C Krishnamurthy
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem disorder because of errors in genomic imprinting with severe hypotonia, decreased muscle mass, poor suckling, feeding problems and failure to thrive during infancy, growth and other hormone deficiency, childhood-onset hyperphagia, and subsequent obesity. Decreased energy expenditure in PWS is thought to contribute to reduced muscle mass and physical activity but may also relate to cellular metabolism and disturbances in mitochondrial function. We established fibroblast cell lines from six children and adults with PWS and six healthy controls for mitochondrial assays...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Asal Ataie-Jafari, Nazli Namazi, Shirin Djalalinia, Pouria Chaghamirzayi, Mohammad Esmaeili Abdar, Sara Sarrafi Zadehe, Hamid Asayesh, Maryam Zarei, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Morteza Mansourian, Mostafa Qorbani
Background: Recently, neck circumference (NC) has been used to predict the risk of cardiometabolic factors. This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine: (i) the sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of NC to predict cardiometabolic risk factors and (ii) the association between NC and the risk of cardiometabolic parameters. Methods: A systematic search was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Institute of Scientific Information, and Scopus, until 2017 based on the search terms of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardio metabolic risk factors...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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