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Denise Vizziano-Cantonnet, André Lasalle, Santiago Di Landro, Christophe Klopp, Clémence Genthon
The sturgeon family includes many species that are lucrative for commercial caviar production, some of which face critical conservation problems. The purpose of this study was to identify genes involved in gonadal sex differentiation in sturgeons, contributing to our understanding of the biological cycle of this valuable species. A high-quality de novo Siberian sturgeon gonadal transcriptome was built for this study using gonadal samples from undifferentiated fish at 3, 5, and 6 months of age; recently sex-differentiated fish at 9 months of age; and immature males and females at 14-17 months of age...
August 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Yoshiyuki Kojima, Tomoyuki Koguchi, Kentaro Mizuno, Yuichi Sato, Seiji Hoshi, Junya Hata, Hidenori Nishio, Daiki Hashimoto, Shoko Matsushita, Kentaro Suzuki, Shinichi Miyagawa, Chi Chung Hui, Chizu Tanikawa, Yoshimori Murakami, Gen Yamada, Yutaro Hayashi, Koichi Matsuda
PURPOSE: We evaluated the association of hypospadias with 17 susceptibility loci previously identified by a European genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Japanese patients. We also examined the expression of candidate genes in male mouse embryos to discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 169 Japanese patients (mean age at surgery: 3.7 years) who underwent repair of hypospadias. Genotyping of 17 SNPs was performed by using a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) invader assay...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Urology
Xiang-Jun Sun, Ming-Chun Wang, Feng-Hua Zhang, Xiao Kong
Despite progress in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 5-year survival rates remain low. Thus, a more comprehensive approach to explore the mechanism of HCC is needed to provide new leads for targeted therapy. We performed an integrated analysis to discover the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DNA methylation and gene expression data for HCC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and differential analysis was performed...
July 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Tugce Boztepe, Sukru Gulec
Background: Dietary glucose consumption has increased worldwide. Long-term high glucose intake contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obese people tend to eat glucose-containing foods, which can lead to an addiction to glucose, increased glucose levels in the blood and intestine lumen, and exposure of intestinal enterocytes to high dietary glucose. Recent studies have documented a role for enterocytes in glucose sensing. However, the molecular and genetic relationship between high glucose levels and intestinal enterocytes has not been determined...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Andrea Shergalis, Armand Bankhead, Urarika Luesakul, Nongnuj Muangsin, Nouri Neamati
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, has a high mortality rate despite extensive efforts to develop new treatments. GBM exhibits both intra- and intertumor heterogeneity, lending to resistance and eventual tumor recurrence. Large-scale genomic and proteomic analysis of GBM tumors has uncovered potential drug targets. Effective and "druggable" targets must be validated to embark on a robust medicinal chemistry campaign culminating in the discovery of clinical candidates...
July 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
Abidan Ainiwaer, Adalibieke Adalibieke, Bing-Xue Huang, Y E Yekejiergeli, Ya-Lan Dou, Jie Wu, Jiang-Hong Dai
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between the prevalence of overweight/obesity and copy number variations (CNVs) among Han, Uyghur, and Kazak children in Xinjiang, China. METHODS: The kindergartens in Ili, Altay, and Karamay in Xinjiang were selected as research sites, and stratified cluster sampling was used to select the children aged 3-7 years. Body height and body weight were measured, and exfoliated buccal mucosa cells were collected. CNVplex® was used to measure the CNVs of FTO_1, IRX3_1, IRX3_2, MC4R_1, and MC4R_2...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Huizhen Hu, Ran Zhang, Zhangsheng Tao, Xukai Li, Yuyang Li, Jiangfeng Huang, Xinxin Li, Xiao Han, Shengqiu Feng, Guimin Zhang, Liangcai Peng
Cellulose is the most characteristic component of plant cell walls, and plays a central role in plant mechanical strength and morphogenesis. Despite the fact that cellulose synthase (CesA) mutants exhibit a reduction in cellulose level, much remains unknown about their impacts on cell growth (elongation and division) and cell wall integrity that fundamentally determine plant growth. Here, we examined three major types of AtCesA mutants (rsw1, an AtCesA1 mutant; prc1-1 and cesa6, AtCesA6-null mutants; and IRX3, an AtCesA7 mutant) and transgenic mutants that overexpressed AtCesA genes in the background of AtCesA6-null mutants...
June 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kentaro Mori, Harumi Nakamura, Hisanori Kurooka, Hitoshi Miyachi, Kota Tamada, Manabu Sugai, Toru Takumi, Yoshifumi Yokota
The cellular components and function of the gastrointestinal epithelium exhibit distinct characteristics depending on the region, e.g., stomach or intestine. How these region-specific epithelial characteristics are generated during development remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the involvement of the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2 in establishing the specific characteristics of the intestinal epithelium. Id2 -/- mice developed tumors in the small intestine. Histological analysis indicated that the intestinal tumors were derived from gastric metaplasia formed in the small intestine during development...
February 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Tim D D Somerville, Fabrizio Simeoni, John A Chadwick, Emma L Williams, Gary J Spencer, Katalin Boros, Christopher Wirth, Eleni Tholouli, Richard J Byers, Tim C P Somervaille
The Iroquois homeodomain transcription factor gene IRX3 is expressed in the developing nervous system, limb buds, and heart, and transcript levels specify obesity risk in humans. We now report a functional role for IRX3 in human acute leukemia. Although transcript levels are very low in normal human bone marrow cells, high IRX3 expression is found in ∼30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ∼50% with T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and ∼20% with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, frequently in association with high-level HOXA gene expression...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Sanjana Negi, Himanshu Tak, T R Ganapathi
Secondary-wall deposition in xylem vessel elements is regulated by vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). We show that three banana VNDs (MusaVND1, MusaVND2 and MusaVND3) directly regulate multiple secondary-wall associated genes by binding to their 5'-upstream regulatory region. Transgenic banana harboring either PMusaVND1 :GUS, PMusaVND2 :GUS or PMusaVND3 :GUS showed specific GUS staining in lignified tissues. MusaVND1, MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 encodes transcriptional-activators as its C-terminal region drive expression of reporter genes in vivo in yeast...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
M E Akbari, M Gholamalizadeh, S Doaei, F Mirsafa
OBJECTIVES: This review focused on the possible mediatory role of the FTO in the association between obesity and breast cancer. METHOD: All articles published in English from June 1990 to January 2017 were studied. The search terms used were FTO gene, FTO polymorphism, breast cancer, and obesity. Inclusion criteria consisted of assessment of the relationship between FTO polymorphisms and/or FTO expression level with obesity and/or breast cancer as a primary outcome...
January 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Nozomu Takata, Eriko Sakakura, Mototsugu Eiraku, Takeya Kasukawa, Yoshiki Sasai
The neuroectoderm is patterned along a rostral-caudal axis in response to localized factors in the embryo, but exactly how these factors act as positional information for this patterning is not yet fully understood. Here, using the self-organizing properties of mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC), we report that ESC-derived neuroectoderm self-generates a Six3+ rostral and a Irx3+ caudal bipolarized patterning. In this instance, localized Fgf signaling performs dual roles, as it regulates Six3+ rostral polarization at an earlier stage and promotes Wnt signaling at a later stage...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
Yaoyu Zou, Peng Lu, Juan Shi, Wen Liu, Minglan Yang, Shaoqian Zhao, Na Chen, Maopei Chen, Yingkai Sun, Aibo Gao, Qingbo Chen, Zhiguo Zhang, Qinyun Ma, Tinglu Ning, Xiayang Ying, Jiabin Jin, Xiaxing Deng, Baiyong Shen, Yifei Zhang, Bo Yuan, Sophie Kauderer, Simin Liu, Jie Hong, Ruixin Liu, Guang Ning, Weiqing Wang, Weiqiong Gu, Jiqiu Wang
BACKGROUND: IRX3 was recently reported as the effector of the FTO variants. We aimed to test IRX3's roles in the browning program and to evaluate the association between the genetic variants in IRX3 and human obesity. METHODS: IRX3 expression was examined in beige adipocytes in human and mouse models, and further validated in induced beige adipocytes. The browning capacity of primary preadipocytes was assessed with IRX3 knockdown. Luciferase reporter analysis and ChIP assay were applied to investigate IRX3's effects on UCP1 transcriptional activity...
October 2017: EBioMedicine
Takeshi Inagaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: EBioMedicine
Yuling Zhou, Brett D Hambly, Craig S McLachlan
This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
Marta Sobalska-Kwapis, Aleksandra Suchanecka, Marcin Słomka, Anna Siewierska-Górska, Ewa Kępka, Dominik Strapagiel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many loci associated with body mass index (BMI) in many different populations. Variants in the FTO locus are reported to be one of the strongest genetic predictors of obesity. Recent publications pointed also to a topologically associated domain (TAD) which is identified as a novel region affecting BMI. The TAD area encompasses the IRXB cluster (IRX3, IRX5, IRX6), FTO and RPGRIP1L genes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between variation of the FTO and IRX genes and obesity in Poles...
2017: PloS One
Beth A Firulli, Hannah Milliar, Kevin P Toolan, Jade Harkin, Robyn K Fuchs, Alex G Robling, Anthony B Firulli
The morphogenesis of the vertebrate limbs is a complex process in which cell signaling and transcriptional regulation coordinate diverse structural adaptations in diverse species. In this study, we examine the consequences of altering Hand1 dimer choice regulation within developing vertebrate limbs. Although Hand1 deletion via the limb-specific Prrx1 -Cre reveals a non-essential role for Hand1 in mouse limb morphogenesis, altering Hand1 phosphoregulation, and consequently Hand1 dimerization affinities, results in a severe truncation of proximal-anterior limb elements...
July 1, 2017: Development
Qingyun Yang, Tiancun Xiao, Jiao Guo, Zhengquan Su
In the 21st century, obesity has become a serious problem because of increasing obese patients and numerous metabolic complications. The primary reasons for this situation are environmental and genetic factors. In 2007, FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) was the first gene identified through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) associated with obesity in humans. Subsequently, a cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the first intron of the FTO gene was discovered to be associated with BMI and body composition...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Yoshitaka Kimura, Takeshi Aiba, Tetsuo Sasano, Tetsushi Furukawa, Kengo Kusano, Wataru Shimizu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: HeartRhythm Case Reports
Shigetoshi Yokoyama, Soichi Furukawa, Shoya Kitada, Masaki Mori, Takeshi Saito, Koichi Kawakami, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Yoshiaki Ito, Tempei Sato, Hiroshi Asahara
Limb bud patterning, outgrowth, and differentiation are precisely regulated in a spatio-temporal manner through integrated networks of transcription factors, signaling molecules, and downstream genes. However, the exact mechanisms that orchestrate morphogenesis of the limb remain to be elucidated. Previously, we have established EMBRYS, a whole-mount in situ hybridization database of transcription factors. Based on the findings from EMBRYS, we focused our expression pattern analysis on a selection of transcription factor genes that exhibit spatially localized and temporally dynamic expression patterns with respect to the anterior-posterior axis in the E9...
2017: PloS One
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