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Swine influenza virus

Matthew J Cummings, Rafal Tokarz, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, John Kayiwa, Timothy Byaruhanga, Nicholas Owor, Barbara Namagambo, Allison Wolf, Barun Mathema, Julius J Lutwama, Neil W Schluger, W Ian Lipkin, Max R O'Donnell
Background: Precision public health is a novel set of methods to target disease prevention and mitigation interventions to high-risk subpopulations. We applied a precision public health strategy to syndromic surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Uganda by combining spatiotemporal analytics with genomic sequencing to detect and characterize viral respiratory pathogens with epidemic potential. Methods: Using a national surveillance network we identified patients with unexplained, influenza-negative SARI from 2010-2015...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hong-Su Park, Guanqun Liu, Qiang Liu, Yan Zhou
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a pivotal role in modulating lung inflammation in response to the influenza A virus infection. We previously showed that the swine influenza virus (SIV) infection induced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), and we were interested in examining the upstream signaling events that are involved in this process. Here, we report that the SIV-infection led to dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) phosphorylation at serine 579 and mitochondrial fission in PAMs...
August 9, 2018: Viruses
Sébastien Grech-Angelini, Séverine Hervé, Nicolas Rose, Nicolas Barbier, François Casabianca, Oscar Maestrini, Alessandra Falchi, Gaëlle Simon
Corsica is a mountainous French island in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. It is a rural area, where pig farming is a major economic activity. Although no acute respiratory outbreaks due to swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) have ever been reported in this free-ranging pig breeding system, influenza A viruses (IAVs) could be circulating within this pig population. A serological study was conducted as a first approach to domestic pigs and wild boars. Serum samples from 543 pigs raised on 91 different farms were collected during the 2013-2014 slaughtering season, and 279 sera from wild boars were obtained over four hunting seasons (between 2009 and 2014)...
September 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
I D Grice, G L Mariottini
There remains today a critical need for new antiviral agents, particularly in view of the alarming increase in drug resistance and associated issues. The marine environment has been a prolific contributor towards the identification of novel therapeutic agents in the recent few decades. Added to this, glycans (or carbohydrate- or sugar-based compounds) have in very recent decades made outstanding contributions to the development of novel therapeutics. This review brings together these significant facets of modern drug discovery by presenting the reported literature on glycans derived from marine organisms that possess antiviral activity...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Bao-Yang Ruan, Feng Wen, Xiao-Qian Gong, Xiao-Min Liu, Qi Wang, Ling-Xue Yu, Shuai-Yong Wang, Peng Zhang, Hai-Ming Yang, Tong-Ling Shan, Hao Zheng, Yan-Jun Zhou, Wu Tong, Fei Gao, Guang-Zhi Tong, Hai Yu
Swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) causing outbreaks of acute, highly contagious respiratory disease in pigs also pose a potential threat to public health. European avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) SIVs are the predominant circulating viruses in pigs in China and also occasionally cause human infection. In this study, a high-growth reassortant virus (SH1/PR8), with HA and NA genes from a representative EA H1N1 isolate A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2014 (SH1) in China and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics and tested as a candidate seed virus for the preparation of inactivated vaccine...
August 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Xing Xie, Yuan Gan, Maoda Pang, Guoqing Shao, Lei Zhang, Beibei Liu, Qi Xu, Haiyan Wang, Yanyan Feng, Yanfei Yu, Rong Chen, Meng Wu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Lizhong Hua, Qiyan Xiong, Maojun Liu, Zhixin Feng
Primary porcine bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) are an ideal model to study the molecular and pathogenic mechanisms of various porcine respiratory pathogens. However, the short lifespan of primary PBECs greatly limit their application. Here, we isolated and cultured primary PBECs and established immortalized PBECs by transfecting primary PBECs with the pEGFP-hTERT recombinant plasmid containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Immortalized PBECs (hTERT-PBECs) retained the morphological and functional features of primary PBECs as indicated by cytokeratin 18 expression, telomerase activity assay, proliferation assays, karyotype analysis, and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hebah A Al Khatib, Asmaa A Al Thani, Hadi M Yassine
The emergence of swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) in 2009 invigorated extensive surveillance programs worldwide which have resulted in the deposition of large numbers of H1N1 sequences to Genbank. In the present study, we report on global evolution and dynamics of the pandemic H1N1 influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) protein in viruses isolated from three different continents (North America, Europe and Asia) during the period between April 2009 until April 2017. Close to 2000 HA full protein sequences were downloaded from the Influenza Research Database of the NCBI and analyzed using DNAStar to run an alignment, the web-based NetNglyc to predict N-Glycosylation sites and finally, the BEAST software package to calculate evolution and substitution rates...
July 31, 2018: Archives of Virology
Jack Ferdman, Giuseppe Palladino, Hua-Xin Liao, M Anthony Moody, Thomas B Kepler, Giuseppe Del Giudice, Philip R Dormitzer, Stephen C Harrison, Ethan C Settembre, Pirada Suphaphiphat
During the height of the 2009 H1N1 swine-derived influenza pandemic, a clinical trial was conducted in which seven subjects were immunized using a monovalent, MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine, developed from an egg-passaged candidate vaccine virus (CVV), A/California/07/2009 X-181. Whole blood was collected prior to immunization and at 8, 22, and 202 days post-vaccination, and subjects' serological responses were evaluated. Here, we reconstruct and examine the longitudinal, influenza-specific circulating B cell repertoire of one subject in that study...
July 25, 2018: Vaccine
Rodrigo Tapia, Victoria García, Juan Mena, Sergio Bucarey, Rafael A Medina, Víctor Neira
Novel H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) were identified in commercial farms in Chile. These viruses contained H1, H3 and N2 sequences, genetically divergent from IAVs described worldwide, associated with pandemic internal genes. Guinea pigs were used as human surrogate to evaluate the infection dynamics of these reassortant viruses, compared with a pandemic H1N1 virus. All viruses replicated and were shed in the upper respiratory tract without prior adaptation although H1N2 viruses showed the highest shedding titers...
July 27, 2018: Veterinary Research
Jinhwa Jang, Se-Eun Bae
Influenza A virus subtypes are determined based on envelope proteins encoded by the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and the neuraminidase (NA) gene, which are involved in attachment to the host, pathogenicity, and progeny production. Here, we evaluated such differences through co-evolution analysis between the HA and NA genes based on subtype and host. Event-based cophylogeny analysis revealed that humans had higher cospeciation values than avian. In particular, the yearly ML phylogenetic trees for the H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in humans displayed similar topologies between the two genes in humans...
2018: Virology: Research and Treatment
Zhao Wang, Bing Huang, Milton Thomas, Chithra C Sreenivasan, Zizhang Sheng, Jieshi Yu, Ben M Hause, Dan Wang, David H Francis, Radhey S Kaushik, Feng Li
Using the Hemagglutinin (HA) protein peptide array of H1N1 pdm09 and a panel of swine antisera against various swine influenza H1 and H3 clusters, we identified three immunoreactive epitopes with one (peptide 15) located in HA1 (amino acids 57-71) and two (peptides 121 and 139) in HA2 (amino acids 481-495 and 553-566). Further analysis showed that all swine antisera of H1 clusters efficiently recognized two HA2 epitopes; peptides 121 and 139, with only a subset of antisera reactive to HA1-derived peptide 15...
September 2018: Virology
Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Kevin Chiem, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
In 2009, an H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV, pH1N1) emerged in the human population from swine causing a pandemic. Importantly, this virus is still circulating in humans seasonally. To analyze the evolution of pH1N1 in humans, we sequenced viral genes encoding for proteins inhibiting general gene expression (non-structural protein 1, NS1; and PA-X) from circulating seasonally viruses and compared them to the viruses isolated at the origin of the pandemic. Recent pH1N1 viruses contain amino acid changes in the NS1 protein (E55K, L90I, I123V, E125D, K131E and N205S), as previously described (1), and amino acid changes in the PA-X protein (V100I, N204S, R221Q and L229S)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yuguang Fu, Jie Tong, Fandan Meng, Doris Hoeltig, Guangliang Liu, Xiangping Yin, Georg Herrler
Porcine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were used to analyze the effect of the ciliary activity on infection of airway epithelial cells by influenza viruses. Treatment of slices with 2% NaCl for 30 min resulted in reversible ciliostasis. When PCLS were infected by a swine influenza virus of the H3N2 subtype under ciliostatic conditions, the viral yield was about twofold or threefold higher at 24 or 48 h post-infection, respectively, as compared to slices with ciliary activity. Therefore, the cilia beating not only transports the mucus out of the airways, it also impedes virus infection...
July 18, 2018: Veterinary Research
Long-Bai Wang, Qiu-Yong Chen, Xue-Min Wu, Yong-Liang Che, Cheng-Yan Wang, Ru-Jing Chen, Lun-Jiang Zhou
We isolated an influenza strain named A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2) from a pig suspected to be infected with swine flu. The results of electron microscopy, hemagglutination (HA) assay, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, and whole genome sequencing analysis suggest that it was a reassortant virus of swine (H1N1 subtype), human (H3N2 subtype), and avian influenza viruses. To further study the genetic evolution of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2), we cloned its whole genome fragments using RT-PCR and performed phylogenetic analysis on the eight genes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ching-Ping Tsai, Hsiang-Jung Tsai
BACKGROUND: Influenza B viruses (IBVs) have never been isolated from natural-infected pigs in clinical cases, although the susceptibility of domestic pigs to experimental IBV infections had been confirmed as well as IBV-specific antibodies were detected from pigs under natural and experimental conditions. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess and investigate the activities for infection and circulation of IBVs in pigs. METHODS: Annual active surveys for influenza have been implemented on swine populations in Taiwan since July 1998...
July 11, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Shuhua Fan, Yongli Wang, Xian Wang, Li Huang, Yunxia Zhang, Xiaomeng Liu, Wenshuai Zhu
In vitro refolding assays can be used to investigate the affinity and stability of the binding of epitope peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which are key factors in the presentation of peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The recognition of peptide epitopes by CTLs is crucial for protection against influenza A virus (IAV) infection. The peptide-binding motif of the swine SLA-3*hs0202 molecule has been previously reported and partly overlaps with the binding motif of the most abundant human MHC allele, HLA-A*0201...
July 10, 2018: Immunogenetics
Sandhya Bangaru, Heng Zhang, Iuliia M Gilchuk, Thomas G Voss, Ryan P Irving, Pavlo Gilchuk, Pranathi Matta, Xueyong Zhu, Shanshan Lang, Travis Nieusma, Juergen A Richt, Randy A Albrecht, Hillary A Vanderven, Robin Bombardi, Stephen J Kent, Andrew B Ward, Ian A Wilson, James E Crowe
The high rate of antigenic drift in seasonal influenza viruses necessitates frequent changes in vaccine composition. Recent seasonal H3 vaccines do not protect against swine-origin H3N2 variant (H3N2v) strains that recently have caused severe human infections. Here, we report a human VH 1-69 gene-encoded monoclonal antibody (mAb) designated H3v-47 that exhibits potent cross-reactive neutralization activity against human and swine H3N2 viruses that circulated since 1989. The crystal structure and electron microscopy reconstruction of H3v-47 Fab with the H3N2v hemagglutinin (HA) identify a unique epitope spanning the vestigial esterase and receptor-binding subdomains that is distinct from that of any known neutralizing antibody for influenza A H3 viruses...
July 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the local innate immune response to the swine influenza virus (SIV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection in pigs. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 37 seven-week-old pigs, divided into four groups: App-infected (n=11), App+SIV-infected (n=11), SIV-infected (n=11), and control (n=4). Lung samples were collected, following euthanasia, on the 2nd and 4th dpi (three piglets per inoculated group) and on the 10th dpi (remaining inoculated and control pigs)...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Research
Eugénie Baudon, Daniel K W Chu, Dao Duy Tung, Pham Thi Nga, Hoang Vu Mai Phuong, Nguyen Le Khanh Hang, Le Thi Thanh, Nguyen Thanh Thuy, Nguyen Cong Khanh, Lê Quynh Mai, Nguyen Viet Khong, Benjamin J Cowling, Marisa Peyre, Malik Peiris
Swine are an important intermediate host for emergence of pandemic influenza. Vietnam is the largest swine producer in South East Asia. Systematic virological and serological surveillance of swine influenza viruses was carried out in Northern Vietnam from May 2013 to June 2014 with monthly sampling of pigs in local and large collective slaughterhouses and in a live pig market. Influenza A seroprevalence in the local slaughterhouses and in the large collective slaughterhouse was 48.7% and 29.1%, respectively...
July 2, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Fanwen Zeng, Yuexiao Lian, Xiangnan Liu, Manlin Luo, Pengju Guo, Jingyun Ma
A novel swine acute diarrhea syndrome Coronavirus (SADS-CoV) that causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets was identified in southern China in 2017. A simple and rapid detection test was developed for this virus using real-time RT-LAMP based on the conserved N gene of the virus. The method had a detection limit of 1.0 × 101 copies/μL with no cross-reactions with classical swine fever virus, porcine and respiratory syndrome virus NA, porcine and respiratory syndrome virus EU, transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, foot and mouth disease virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (S-INDEL and non-S-INDEL), swine influenza virus subtype H1N1, porcine circovirus type 2, seneca valley virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine deltacoronavirus and rotavirus...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
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