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Swine influenza virus

Michael A Zeller, Ganwu Li, Karen M Harmon, Jianqiang Zhang, Amy L Vincent, Tavis K Anderson, Phillip C Gauger
Two novel human-like H3N2 influenza A virus strains, A/swine/Oklahoma/65980/2017 (H3N2) and A/swine/Oklahoma/65260/2017 (H3N2), were isolated from porcine samples submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in the United States.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
E R Job, T Ysenbaert, A Smet, I Christopoulou, T Strugnell, E O Oloo, R P Oomen, H Kleanthous, T U Vogel, X Saelens
Split inactivated influenza vaccines remain one of the primary preventative strategies against severe influenza disease in the population. However, current vaccines are only effective against a limited number of matched strains. The need for broadly protective vaccines is acute due to the high mutational rate of influenza viruses and multiple strain variants in circulation at any one time. The neuraminidase (NA) glycoprotein expressed on the influenza virion surface has recently regained recognition as a valuable vaccine candidate...
2018: NPJ vaccines
Martha I Nelson, Michael Worobey
How influenza A viruses host-jump from animal reservoir species to humans, which can initiate global pandemics, is a central question in pathogen evolution. The zoonotic and spatial origins of the influenza virus associated with the "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918 have been debated for decades. Outbreaks of respiratory disease in US swine occurred concurrently with disease in humans, raising the possibility that the 1918 virus originated in pigs. Swine also were proposed as "mixing vessel" intermediary hosts between birds and humans during the 1957 Asian and 1968 Hong Kong pandemics...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Xiaojian Zhang, Hailiang Sun, Fred L Cunningham, Lei Li, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Matthew W Hopken, Jim Cooley, Li-Ping Long, John A Baroch, Tao Li, Brandon S Schmit, Xiaoxu Lin, Alicia K Olivier, Richard G Jarman, Thomas J DeLiberto, Xiu-Feng Wan
Genetic reassortment between influenza A viruses (IAVs) facilitate emergence of pandemic strains, and swine are proposed as a "mixing vessel" for generating reassortants of avian and mammalian IAVs that could be of risk to mammals, including humans. However, how a transmissible reassortant emerges in swine are not well understood. Genomic analyses of 571 isolates recovered from nasal wash samples and respiratory tract tissues of a group of co-housed pigs (influenza-seronegative, avian H1N1 IAV-infected, and swine H3N2 IAV-infected pigs) identified 30 distinct genotypes of reassortants...
December 3, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Kristen K Coleman, Tham T Nguyen, Su Yadana, Christophe Hansen-Estruch, William G Lindsley, Gregory C Gray
As a leading global city with a high population density, Singapore is at risk for the introduction of novel biological threats. This risk has been recently reinforced by human epidemics in Singapore of SARS coronavirus, 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus, and enterovirus 71. Other major threats to Singapore include MERS-coronavirus and various avian and swine influenza viruses. The ability to quickly identify and robustly track such threats to initiate an early emergency response remains a significant challenge...
November 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ziqing Yan, Ruyi Wang, Letian Zhang, Binger Shen, Ningning Wang, Qiuhua Xu, Wei He, Wanting He, Gairu Li, Shuo Su
The codon usage pattern can reveal the adaptive changes that allow virus survival and fitness adaptation to their particular host, as well as the external environment. Although still considered a novel influenza virus, there is an increasing number of influenza D viruses (IDV) reported. Considering the vital role of the hemagglutinin-esterase fusion (HEF) gene in in receptor binding, receptor degradation, and membrane fusion, we investigated the codon usage pattern of the IDV HEF gene to better understand its adaptive changes during evolution...
November 26, 2018: Virulence
Fabian Orlando Chamba Pardo, Adam Schelkopf, Matthew Allerson, Robert Morrison, Marie Culhane, Andres Perez, Montserrat Torremorell
Breed-to-wean pig farms play an important role in spreading influenza A virus (IAV) because suckling piglets maintain, diversify and transmit IAV at weaning to other farms. Understanding the nature and extent of which farm factors drive IAV infection in piglets is a prerequisite to reduce the burden of influenza in swine. We evaluated the association between IAV infection in piglets at weaning and farm factors including farm features, herd management practices and gilt- and piglet-specific management procedures performed at the farm...
December 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
José Carlos Mancera Gracia, Silvie Van den Hoecke, Juergen A Richt, Wenjun Ma, Xavier Saelens, Kristien Van Reeth
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
November 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Santosh Dhakal, Xingguo Cheng, John Salcido, Sankar Renu, Kathy Bondra, Yashavantha Shaan Lakshmanappa, Christina Misch, Shristi Ghimire, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Bradley Hogshead, Steven Krakowka, Kenneth Carson, Joseph McDonough, Chang Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Background: Influenza (flu) is a constant threat to humans and animals, and vaccination is one of the most effective ways to mitigate the disease. Due to incomplete protection induced by current flu vaccines, development of novel flu vaccine candidates is warranted to achieve greater efficacy against constantly evolving flu viruses. Methods: In the present study, we used liposome nanoparticle (<200 nm diameter)-based subunit flu vaccine containing ten encapsulated highly conserved B and T cell epitope peptides to induce protective immune response against a zoonotic swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) H1N1 challenge infection in a pig model...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Edyta Mikuła, Cristiane Erdmann Silva, Edyta Kopera, Konrad Zdanowski, Jerzy Radecki, Hanna Radecka
BACKGROUND: In this work, we report an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies against the swine virus H1N1 present in mice sera immunized with mixture of His6 -H1 HA in monomeric and oligomeric form. The oriented immobilization of the recombinant His-tagged hemagglutinin (His6 -H1 HA) consists of: (i) formation of a mixed layer of 4-mercaptobutanol (MBT) and the thiol derivative of dipyrromethene (DPM); (ii) complexation of Cu (II) by DPM; (iii) immobilization of His6 -H1 HA via coordination bonds between Cu (II) sites from DPM-Cu (II) complex and imidazole nitrogen atoms of a histidine tag; (iv) filling free spaces with bovine serum albumin...
November 6, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Michael A Zeller, Tavis K Anderson, Rasna W Walia, Amy L Vincent, Phillip C Gauger
BACKGROUND: Influenza A Virus (IAV) causes respiratory disease in swine and is a zoonotic pathogen. Uncontrolled IAV in swine herds not only affects animal health, it also impacts production through increased costs associated with treatment and prevention efforts. The Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL) diagnoses influenza respiratory disease in swine and provides epidemiological analyses on samples submitted by veterinarians. DESCRIPTION: To assess the incidence of IAV in swine and inform stakeholders, the ISU FLUture website was developed as an interactive visualization tool that allows the exploration of the ISU VDL swine IAV aggregate data in the clinical diagnostic database...
November 1, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Shinji Saito, Mina Nakauchi, Ikuyo Takayama, Shiho Nagata, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama
From 2005 to July 6, 2018, a total of 435 swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant virus (H3N2v) human infections were reported in the USA. The largest H3N2v outbreak in the USA occurred in 2011-2012. This virus obtained the HA gene from human seasonal H3N2 influenza A viruses (seasonal H3N2) via human-to-swine transmission in the mid-1990s and was classified as Cluster IV H3N2v. For early detection of public health threats associated with Cluster IV H3N2v in distinction from seasonal H3N2, we developed highly specific and sensitive one-step real-time RT-PCR assays directly targeting the HA genes of Cluster IV H3N2v and seasonal H3N2...
October 31, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Himangshu Deka, Durbba Nath, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 has been a serious health issue across the globe with approximately 36 thousand annual casualties in the United States of America only. Co-circulation in avian, swine and human hosts has led to frequent mutations in the virus genome, due to which development of successful antivirals against the virus has become a formidable challenge. Recently, focussed research is being carried out targeting the matrix proteins of this strain as vaccine candidates. This study is carried out to unravel the key features of the genes encoding the matrix proteins that manoeuvre the codon usage profile in the H3N2 strains...
October 24, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Eric J Chow, C Todd Davis, Anwar Isa Abd Elal, Noreen Alabi, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, John Barnes, Lenee Blanton, Lynnette Brammer, Alicia P Budd, Erin Burns, William W Davis, Vivien G Dugan, Alicia M Fry, Rebecca Garten, Lisa A Grohskopf, Larisa Gubareva, Yunho Jang, Joyce Jones, Krista Kniss, Stephen Lindstrom, Desiree Mustaquim, Rachael Porter, Melissa Rolfes, Wendy Sessions, Calli Taylor, David E Wentworth, Xiyan Xu, Natosha Zanders, Jacqueline Katz, Daniel Jernigan
During May 20-October 13, 2018,* low levels of influenza activity were reported in the United States, with a mix of influenza A and B viruses circulating. Seasonal influenza activity in the Southern Hemisphere was low overall, with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 predominating in many regions. Antigenic testing of available influenza A and B viruses indicated that no significant antigenic drift in circulating viruses had emerged. In late September, the components for the 2019 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccine were selected and included an incremental update to the A(H3N2) vaccine virus used in egg-based vaccine manufacturing; no change was recommended for the A(H3N2) component of cell-manufactured or recombinant influenza vaccines...
October 26, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Monique M Duwell, David Blythe, Michael W Radebaugh, Erin M Kough, Brian Bachaus, David A Crum, Keith A Perkins, Lenee Blanton, C Todd Davis, Yunho Jang, Amy Vincent, Jennifer Chang, Dianna E Abney, Lisa Gudmundson, Meenakshi G Brewster, Larry Polsky, David C Rose, Katherine A Feldman
On September 17, 2017, the Maryland Department of Agriculture (MDA) was notified by fair and 4-H officials of ill swine at agricultural fair A, held September 14-17. That day, investigation of the 107 swine at fair A revealed five swine with fever and signs of upper respiratory tract illness. All five respiratory specimens collected from these swine tested positive for influenza A virus at the MDA Animal Health Laboratory, and influenza A(H3N2) virus was confirmed in all specimens by the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL)...
October 26, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Dominik Dornfeld, Philipp P Petric, Ebrahim Hassan, Roland Zell, Martin Schwemmle
To cross the human species barrier, influenza A viruses (IAV) of avian origin have to overcome the interferon-induced host restriction factor MxA by acquiring distinct mutations in their nucleoprotein (NP). We recently demonstrated that North American classical swine IAV are able to escape MxA restriction partially. Here, we investigated whether the Eurasian avian-like swine IAV lineage currently circulating in European swine would likewise evade restriction by human MxA. We found that the NP of the isolate A/swine/Belzig/2/2001 (Belzig) exerts increased MxA escape similar in extent to human IAV NPs...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jefferson J S Santos, Eugenio J Abente, Adebimpe O Obadan, Andrew J Thompson, Lucas Ferreri, Ginger Geiger, Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche, Nicola S Lewis, David F Burke, Daniela S Rajão, James C Paulson, Amy L Vincent, Daniel R Perez
The hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein on the surface of influenza A virus (IAV), initiates the virus life cycle by binding to terminal sialic acid (SA) residues on host cells. The HA gradually accumulates amino acid (aa) substitutions that allow IAV to escape immunity through a mechanism known as antigenic drift. We recently confirmed that a small set of aa residues are largely responsible for driving antigenic drift in swine-origin H3 IAV. All identified residues are located adjacent to the HA receptor binding site (RBS), suggesting that substitutions associated with antigenic drift may also influence receptor binding...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yuhang Sun, Jiarui Su, Zixuan Liu, Dandan Liu, Fang Gan, Xingxiang Chen, Kehe Huang
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), which alters immune responses to mammals, is one of the most common mycotoxins in feeds and food. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is a major pathogen of both animals and humans. However, there have been few studies about the relationship between AFB1 exposure and SIV replication. Here, for the first time, we investigated the involvement of AFB1 in SIV replication in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying mechanism using multiple cell lines and mouse models. In vitro studies demonstrated that low concentrations of AFB1 (0...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Holly R Hughes, Susan L Brockmeier, Crystal L Loving
Intranasally administered live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines provide significant protection against heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge. However, LAIV administration can modify the bacterial microbiota in the upper respiratory tract, including alterations in species that cause pneumonia. We sought to evaluate the effect of Bordetella bronchiseptica colonization on LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy in swine, and the impact of LAIV and IAV challenge on B. bronchiseptica colonization and disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
L Martínez-Alarcón, A Ríos, G Ramis, J J Quereda, J M Herrero, L Mendonça, A Muñoz, A M Hernández, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
The pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) in 2009, which was initially associated with pigs (swine flu), could have had a negative influence on attitudes toward xenotransplantation (XT), particularly after the social alarm it caused. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of this pandemic on the acceptance of XT among veterinary science students. METHODS: A control group sample was taken of students registered in the veterinary degree course (academic year 2007-2008). For the study group, the study was repeated on the same students (year 2008-2009) after the pandemic (April 2009)...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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