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Swine influenza virus

L Martínez-Alarcón, A Ríos, G Ramis, J J Quereda, J M Herrero, L Mendonça, A Muñoz, A M Hernández, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
The pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) in 2009, which was initially associated with pigs (swine flu), could have had a negative influence on attitudes toward xenotransplantation (XT), particularly after the social alarm it caused. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of this pandemic on the acceptance of XT among veterinary science students. METHODS: A control group sample was taken of students registered in the veterinary degree course (academic year 2007-2008). For the study group, the study was repeated on the same students (year 2008-2009) after the pandemic (April 2009)...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Selina Traxler, Ann-Christin Bischoff, Radost Saß, Phillip Trefz, Peter Gierschner, Beate Brock, Theresa Schwaiger, Claudia Karte, Ulrike Blohm, Charlotte Schröder, Wolfram Miekisch, Jochen K Schubert
Influenza is one of the most common causes of virus diseases worldwide. Virus detection requires determination of Influenza RNA in the upper respiratory tract. Efficient screening is not possible in this way. Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath holds promise for non-invasive and fast monitoring of disease progression. Breath VOC profiles of 14 (3 controls and 11 infected animals) swine were repeatedly analyzed during a complete infection cycle of Influenza A under high safety conditions...
October 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Balvinder Kumar, Anju Manuja, B R Gulati, Nitin Virmani, B N Tripathi
Introduction: Zoonotic diseases are the infectious diseases that can be transmitted to human beings and vice versa from animals either directly or indirectly. These diseases can be caused by a range of organisms including bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. Viral diseases are highly infectious and capable of causing pandemics as evidenced by outbreaks of diseases like Ebola, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, West Nile, SARS-Corona, Nipah, Hendra, Avian influenza and Swine influenza...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Lisa Yon, J Paul Duff, Erik O Ågren, Károly Erdélyi, Ezio Ferroglio, Jacques Godfroid, Jean Hars, Gete Hestvik, Dan Horton, Thijs Kuiken, Antonio Lavazza, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, An Martel, Aleksija Neimanis, Frank Pasmans, Stephen Price, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis, Frederik Widén, Dolores Gavier-Widén
Many infectious diseases originating from, or carried by, wildlife affect wildlife conservation and biodiversity, livestock health, or human health. We provide an update on changes in the epidemiology of 25 selected infectious, wildlife-related diseases in Europe (from 2010-16) that had an impact, or may have a future impact, on the health of wildlife, livestock, and humans. These pathogens were selected based on their: 1) identification in recent Europe-wide projects as important surveillance targets, 2) inclusion in European Union legislation as pathogens requiring obligatory surveillance, 3) presence in recent literature on wildlife-related diseases in Europe since 2010, 4) inclusion in key pathogen lists released by the Office International des Epizooties, 5) identification in conference presentations and informal discussions on a group email list by a European network of wildlife disease scientists from the European Wildlife Disease Association, or 6) identification as pathogens with changes in their epidemiology during 2010-16...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jae Min Lee, Jong Ho Lee, Yu Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: With outbreaks of new respiratory viruses such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and swine-origin influenza A/H1N1, the nucleic acid-based amplification test was introduced to identify causative agents. Multiplex PCR, which can simultaneously detect various respiratory pathogens, is currently used worldwide. Recently, a new type of multiplexed molecular test using a fully automated workflow system was developed, which was also adapted to our laboratory. In this study, we assessed improvements in laboratory practice brought about by the implementation of the rapid test for the detection of respiratory viruses...
September 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
D Henritzi, B Hoffmann, S Wacheck, S Pesch, G Herrler, M Beer, T C Harder
BACKGROUND: Human- or avian-to-swine transmissions have founded several autonomously circulating influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in swine populations that cause economically important respiratory disease. Little is known on other human influenza virus types, like B (IBV) and C (ICV) in European swine, and of the recently detected novel animal influenza virus type D (IDV). OBJECTIVES: Development of a cost-effective diagnostic tool for large-scale surveillance programmes targeting all four influenza virus types...
September 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Sarah W Nelson, Christie T Hammons, Nola T Bliss, Sarah E Lauterbach, Michele M Zentkovich, Joshua N Lorbach, Jacqueline M Nolting, Andrew S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a zoonotic pathogen threatening animal and public health; therefore, detection and monitoring of IAV in animal populations are critical components of a surveillance program. Swine are important hosts of IAV, wherein the virus can undergo rapid evolution. Several methods (i.e., nasal swabs, nasal wipes, and oral fluids) have been used to collect samples from swine for IAV surveillance. We utilized nasal wipes made from cotton gauze and multiple, polyester or mixed polyester fabrics to compare performance in the molecular detection and isolation of IAV...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
I-Na Lu, Anna Kirsteina, Sophie Farinelle, Stéphanie Willieme, Kaspars Tars, Claude P Muller, Andris Kazaks
Long alpha helix (LAH) from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stem or stalk domain is one of the most conserved influenza virus antigens. Expression of N-terminally extended LAH in E. coli leads to assembly of α-h elical homotrimer which is structurally nearly identical to the corresponding region of post-fusion form of native HA. This novel tri-stalk protein was able to differentiate between group 1 and 2 influenza in ELISA with virus-infected mice sera. It was also successfully applied for enzyme-linked immunospot assay to estimate the number of HA stem-reactive antibody (Ab)-secreting cells in mice...
2018: PloS One
Amélie Chastagner, Séverine Hervé, Emilie Bonin, Stéphane Quéguiner, Edouard Hirchaud, Dinah Henritzi, Véronique Béven, Stéphane Gorin, Nicolas Barbier, Yannick Blanchard, Gaëlle Simon
The H1N1 influenza virus responsible for the most recent pandemic in 2009 (H1N1pdm) has spread to swine populations worldwide while it replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus in humans. In France, surveillance of swine influenza A viruses in pig herds with respiratory outbreaks led to the detection of 44 H1N1pdm strains between 2009 and 2017, regardless of the season, and findings were not correlated to pig density. From these isolates, 17 whole genome sequences were obtained as well as 6 additional HA/NA sequences, in order to perform spatial and temporal analyses of the genetic diversity, and to compare evolutionary patterns of H1N1pdm in pigs to patterns for human strains...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sophia Davidson
Influenza viruses (IVs) are a continual threat to global health. The high mutation rate of the IV genome makes this virus incredibly successful, genetic drift allows for annual epidemics which result in thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations. Moreover, the emergence of new strains through genetic shift (e.g., swine-origin influenza A) can cause devastating global outbreaks of infection. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently used to treat IV infection and act directly on viral proteins to halt IV spread...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fatima Etbaigha, Allan R Willms, Zvonimir Poljak
Influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is a pathogen that causes a threat to the health as well as to the production of swine. Moreover, swine can spread this virus to other species including humans. The virus persists in different types of swine farms as evident in a number of studies. The core objectives of this study are (i) to analyze the dynamics of influenza infection of a farrow-to-finish swine farm, (ii) to explore the reinfection at the farm level, and finally (iii) to examine the effectiveness of two control strategies: vaccination and reduction of indirect contact...
2018: PloS One
Mauro Delogu, Claudia Cotti, Gabriele Vaccari, Elisabetta Raffini, Matteo Frasnelli, Sandro Nicoloso, Vanessa Biacchessi, Arianna Boni, Emanuela Foni, Maria R Castrucci, Maria A De Marco
Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have been repeatedly demonstrated to circulate in wild boar ( Sus scrofa) populations, whereas no evidence of exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been described in wild boar. To better understand how different environments may influence the ecology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild suid populations, we examined biologic samples of wild boars from two study areas represented by an upland (UL) and a wetland (WL) in northern and central Italy, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 388 wild boars sampled in the UL, whereas both a serum sample and a nasal swab were obtained from each of 35 wild boars sampled in the WL...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Paul Santner, João Miguel da Silva Martins, Jonas S Laursen, Lars Behrendt, Leise Riber, Christian A Olsen, Isaiah T Arkin, Jakob R Winther, Martin Willemoës, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen
The M2 protein is an important target for drugs in the fight against the influenza virus. Because of the emergence of resistance against antivirals directed toward the M2 proton channel, the search for new drugs against resistant M2 variants is of high importance. Robust and sensitive assays for testing potential drug compounds on different M2 variants are valuable tools in this search for new inhibitors. In this work, we describe a fluorescence sensor-based assay, which we termed "pHlux", that measures proton conduction through M2 when synthesized from an expression vector in Escherichia coli...
October 3, 2018: Biochemistry
Sun-Young Sunwoo, Michael Schotsaert, Igor Morozov, Anne Sally Davis, Yuhao Li, Jinhwa Lee, Chester McDowell, Philip Meade, Raffael Nachbagauer, Adolfo García-Sastre, Wenjun Ma, Florian Krammer, Juergen A Richt
The antigenically conserved hemagglutinin stalk region is a target for universal influenza virus vaccines since antibodies against it can provide broad protection against influenza viruses of different subtypes. We tested a universal influenza virus vaccination regimen based on sequential immunization with chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) containing viruses in a swine influenza virus pig model with maternal antibodies against pandemic H1N1. Vaccines were administered as live attenuated virus or inactivated influenza virus split vaccine (+/- Emulsigen adjuvant)...
September 14, 2018: Vaccines
Marcus J Bolton, Eugenio J Abente, Divya Venkatesh, Jered A Stratton, Michael Zeller, Tavis K Anderson, Nicola S Lewis, Amy L Vincent
BACKGROUND: Six amino acid positions (145, 155, 156, 158, 159 and 189, referred to as the antigenic motif; H3 numbering) in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA1 domain) play an important role in defining the antigenic phenotype of swine Clade IV (C-IV) H3N2 IAV, containing an H3 from a late 1990s human-to-swine introduction. We hypothesized that antigenicity of a swine C-IV H3 virus could be inferred based upon the antigenic motif if it matched a previously characterized antigen with the same motif...
September 14, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
V Bourret
This paper reviews important aspects of infection of pigs with avian influenza viruses. Wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for influenza A viruses; other species, such as pigs, can be infected, but most avian strains are imperfectly adapted to replication and transmission in such new hosts. However, some avian-to-porcine host jumps have resulted in the emergence of stable swine influenza virus lineages, with major consequences for both animal and human health. Different categories of factors are involved in these cross-species adaptations, both epidemiological (relating to host-host interactions) and virological (relating to host-virus interactions)...
September 2018: Veterinary Journal
Yuhang Sun, Zixuan Liu, Dandan Liu, Jin Chen, Fang Gan, Kehe Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Swine influenza virus (SIV) is a major pathogen of both animals and humans. Afatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most common mycotoxins in feed and food. However, the central contribution of AFB1 to SIV infection remains unclear. METHODS: Here, TCID50 assays, fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, histopathological examination, flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy were performed to investigate the involvement and underlying mechanism of AFB1 in SIV infection in vivo and in vitro using mouse models and porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) models, respectively...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pavlos C Englezou, Cedric Sapet, Thomas Démoulins, Panagiota Milona, Thomas Ebensen, Kai Schulze, Carlos-Alberto Guzman, Florent Poulhes, Olivier Zelphati, Nicolas Ruggli, Kenneth C McCullough
Advances in RNA technology during the past two decades have led to the construction of replication-competent RNA, termed replicons, RepRNA, or self-amplifying mRNA, with high potential for vaccine applications. Cytosolic delivery is essential for their translation and self-replication, without infectious progeny generation, providing high levels of antigen expression for inducing humoral and cellular immunity. Synthetic nanoparticle-based delivery vehicles can both protect the RNA molecules and facilitate targeting of dendritic cells-critical for immune defense development...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Eugenio J Abente, Daniela S Rajao, Jefferson Santos, Bryan S Kaplan, Tracy L Nicholson, Susan L Brockmeier, Phillip C Gauger, Daniel R Perez, Amy L Vincent
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) circulating in the United States of America are phylogenetically and antigenically distinct. A human H3 hemagglutinin (HA) was introduced in the IAV-S gene pool in the late 1990s, sustained continued circulation, and evolved into five monophyletic genetic clades after 2009, H3 IVA-E. Across these phylogenetic clades, distinct antigenic clusters were identified, with three clusters (cyan, red and green) among the most frequently detected antigenic phenotypes. Although it was demonstrated that antigenic diversity of H3N2 IAV-S was associated with changes at a few amino acid positions in the head of the HA, the implications of this diversity on vaccine efficacy was not tested...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sarah E Lauterbach, Sarah N Nelson, Jacqueline M Nolting, Jessie D Trujillo, Jürgen A Richt, Andrew S Bowman
Rapid detection of influenza A virus (IAV) at swine exhibitions, where zoonotic transmission has occurred, can allow exhibition officials to quickly implement mitigation strategies and reduce public health risk. While laboratory diagnostic methods using PCR exist, pen-side detection of IAV can reduce lag time between sample collection and results. Portable insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) has been used for point-of-care pathogen detection in veterinary medicine. This study compared laboratory methods of real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) to RT-iiPCR to determine the potential effectiveness of RT-iiPCR for detection of IAV in swine in the field...
September 5, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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