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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#1
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773016/is-cannabidiol-a-promising-substance-for-new-drug-development-a-review-of-its-potential-therapeutic-applications
#2
Nida Noreen, Faqir Muhammad, Bushra Akhtar, Farooq Azam, Muhammad Irfan Anwar
The pharmacological importance of cannabidiol (CBD) has been in study for several years. CBD is the major nonpsychoactive constituent of plant Cannabis sativa and its administration is associated with reduced side effects. Currently, CBD is undergoing a lot of research which suggests that it has no addictive effects, good safety profile and has exhibited powerful therapeutic potential in several vital areas. It has wide spectrum of action because it acts through endocannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2 and it also acts on other receptors, such as GPR18, GPR55, GPR 119, 5HT1A, and TRPV2...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#3
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768152/effect-of-cannabidiol-on-drop-seizures-in-the-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#4
Orrin Devinsky, Anup D Patel, J Helen Cross, Vicente Villanueva, Elaine C Wirrell, Michael Privitera, Sam M Greenwood, Claire Roberts, Daniel Checketts, Kevan E VanLandingham, Sameer M Zuberi
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol has been used for treatment-resistant seizures in patients with severe early-onset epilepsy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol added to a regimen of conventional antiepileptic medication to treat drop seizures in patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 30 clinical centers, we randomly assigned patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (age range, 2 to 55 years) who had had two or more drop seizures per week during a 28-day baseline period to receive cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of either 20 mg per kilogram of body weight (20-mg cannabidiol group) or 10 mg per kilogram (10-mg cannabidiol group) or matching placebo, administered in two equally divided doses daily for 14 weeks...
May 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766748/medical-cannabis-for-pediatric-moderate-to-severe-complex-motor-disorders
#5
Stephanie Libzon, Lihi Bar-Lev Schleider, Naama Saban, Luda Levit, Yulia Tamari, Ilan Linder, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Lubov Blumkin
A complex motor disorder is a combination of various types of abnormal movements that are associated with impaired quality of life (QOL). Current therapeutic options are limited. We studied the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of medical cannabis in children with complex motor disorder. This pilot study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Two products of cannabidiol (CBD) enriched 5% oil formulation of cannabis were compared: one with 0.25% δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 20:1 group, the other with 0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766540/gaps-in-predicting-clinical-doses-for-cannabinoids-therapy-overview-of-issues-for-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-modelling
#6
REVIEW
Zheng Liu, Jennifer H Martin
AIM: Model-based prediction on clinical doses for cannabinoids therapy is beneficial in the clinical setting, especially for seriously ill patients with both altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic responses. The objective of this article is to review the currently available PK and/or PD models of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and to highlight the major issues for modelling this complex therapeutic area. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE using the key words "cannabis", "cannabinoid", "tetrahydrocannabinol", "THC", "cannabidiol", "CBD", "pharmacokinetic model", "pharmacodynamics model" and their combinations...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766538/chronic-exposure-to-cannabidiol-induces-reproductive-toxicity-in-male-swiss-mice
#7
Renata K Carvalho, Monaliza L Santos, Maingredy R Souza, Thiago L Rocha, Francisco S Guimarães, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Renata Mazaro-Costa
Children and adults with frequent and severe episodes of epilepsy that do not respond to standard treatments (such as carbamazepine, phenytoin and valproate) have long been prescribed cannabidiol (CBD) as an anticonvulsant drug. However, the safety of its chronic use in relation to reproduction has not been fully examined. This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic CBD exposure on the male reproductive system. CBD was orally administered to 21-day-old male Swiss mice at doses of 15 and 30 mg kg-1 daily (CBD 15 and 30 groups, respectively), with a control group receiving sunflower oil, for 34 consecutive days...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-impulsivity-and-memory-during-abstinence-in-cigarette-dependent-smokers
#8
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, M Grabski, H Crudgington, A C Davies, J B Stroud, R K Das, W Lawn, C J A Morgan, H V Curran
Acute nicotine abstinence in cigarette smokers results in deficits in performance on specific cognitive processes, including working memory and impulsivity which are important in relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, has shown pro-cognitive effects and preliminary evidence has indicated it can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked in dependent smokers. However, the effects of CBD on cognition have never been tested during acute nicotine withdrawal. The present study therefore aimed to investigate if CBD can improve memory and reduce impulsivity during acute tobacco abstinence...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761015/the-influence-of-thc-cbd-oromucosal-spray-on-driving-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-related-spasticity
#9
Elisabeth G Celius, Carlos Vila
Background: Driving ability is a key function for the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) to help maintain daily interactions. Both physical and cognitive disability, as well as treatments, may affect the ability to drive. Spasticity is a common symptom associated with MS, and it may affect driving performance either directly or via the medications used to treat it. In this article, we review the evidence relating the antispasticity medicine, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex® ), and its potential impact on driving performance...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719417/pharmacotherapeutic-considerations-for-use-of-cannabinoids-to-relieve-pain-in-patients-with-malignant-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Marija Darkovska-Serafimovska, Tijana Serafimovska, Zorica Arsova-Sarafinovska, Sasho Stefanoski, Zlatko Keskovski, Trajan Balkanov
Purpose: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of cannabis preparations for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases, through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which were predominantly double-blind trials that compared cannabis preparation to a placebo. Methods: An electronic search of all literature published until June 2017 was made in MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and specific web pages devoted to cannabis...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718956/a-reliable-and-validated-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-quantification-of-4-cannabinoids-in-40-consumer-products
#11
Qingfang Meng, Beth Buchanan, Jonathan Zuccolo, Mathieu-Marc Poulin, Joseph Gabriele, David Charles Baranowski
In the past 50 years, Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) has gone from a substance essentially prohibited worldwide to one that is gaining acceptance both culturally and legally in many countries for medicinal and recreational use. As additional jurisdictions legalize Cannabis products and the variety and complexity of these products surpass the classical dried plant material, appropriate methods for measuring the biologically active constituents is paramount to ensure safety and regulatory compliance. While there are numerous active compounds in C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714034/cannabidiol-reverses-attentional-bias-to-cigarette-cues-in-a-human-experimental-model-of-tobacco-withdrawal
#12
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, M Grabski, J B Stroud, H Crudgington, A C Davies, R K Das, W Lawn, C J A Morgan, H V Curran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating cannabinoid, may be a promising novel smoking cessation treatment due to its anxiolytic properties, minimal side-effects and research showing it may modify drug cue salience. We used an experimental medicine approach with dependent cigarette smokers to investigate if (1) overnight nicotine abstinence, compared with satiety, will produce greater attentional bias (AB), higher pleasantness ratings of cigarette-related stimuli and increased craving and withdrawal; (2) CBD in comparison to placebo, would attenuate AB, pleasantness of cigarette-related stimuli, craving and withdrawal and not produce any side-effects...
May 1, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701252/cannabis-from-plant-to-pill
#13
REVIEW
Christopher P L Grof
The therapeutic application of Cannabis is attracting substantial public and clinical interest. The Cannabis plant has been described as a veritable 'treasure trove', producing more than a hundred different cannabinoids, although the focus to date has been on the psychoactive molecule delta-9-tetraydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Other numerous secondary metabolites of Cannabis the terpenes, some of which share the common intermediary geranyl diphosphate (GPP) with the cannabinoids, are hypothesised to contribute synergistically to their therapeutic benefits, an attribute that has been described as the 'entourage effect'...
April 27, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689453/cross-talk-of-cannabinoid-and-endocannabinoid-metabolism-is-mediated-via-human-cardiac-cyp2j2
#14
William R Arnold, Austin T Weigle, Aditi Das
Phytocannabinoids have well-known cardiovascular implications. For instance, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the principal component of cannabis, induces tachycardia in humans. In order to understand the impact of phytocannabinoids on human cardiovascular health, there is a need to study the metabolism of phytocannabinoids by cardiac cytochromes p450 (CYPs). CYP2J2, the primary CYP of cardiomyocytes, is responsible for the metabolism of the endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), into cardioprotective epoxides (EET-EAs)...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688878/dispensary-cannabidiol-marijuana-and-first-episode-mania
#15
Zahinoor Ismail
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688694/in-situ-determination-of-illegal-drugs-in-oral-fluid-by-portable-capillary-electrophoresis-with-deep-uv-excited-fluorescence-detection
#16
Piret Saar-Reismaa, Enn Erme, Merike Vaher, Maria Kulp, Mihkel Kaljurand, Jekaterina Mazina-Scaron Inkar
The present study demonstrates the potential of a portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument, coupled to deep UV fluores-cence detector (FD) with a 230-255 nm excitation wavelength range, for the determination of the abuse of illegal drugs in oral fluids in situ. CE was introduced in this study due its exceptional power of separation and resolution, short analysis time and abil-ity for miniaturization for on-site assessment of different substances. The deep UV fluorescence detector was equipped with five interchangeable emission filters, in the emission wavelength range from 278 to 600 nm, and was successfully employed for deter-mination of natively fluorescing illegal drugs, such as cocaine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxeamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), para-methoxy-N-methylamphetamine (PMMA), amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD)...
April 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686308/unique-treatment-potential-of-cannabidiol-for-the-prevention-of-relapse-to-drug-use-preclinical-proof-of-principle
#17
Gustavo Gonzalez-Cuevas, Remi Martin-Fardon, Tony M Kerr, David G Stouffer, Loren H Parsons, Dana C Hammell, Stan L Banks, Audra L Stinchcomb, Friedbert Weiss
Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, has received attention for therapeutic potential in treating neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Recently, CBD has also been explored for potential in treating drug addiction. Substance use disorders are chronically relapsing conditions and relapse risk persists for multiple reasons including craving induced by drug contexts, susceptibility to stress, elevated anxiety, and impaired impulse control. Here, we evaluated the "anti-relapse" potential of a transdermal CBD preparation in animal models of drug seeking, anxiety and impulsivity...
March 22, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683408/palatability-and-oral-cavity-tolerability-of-thc-cbd-oromucosal-spray-and-possible-improvement-measures-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-resistant-spasticity-a-pilot-study
#18
Giacomo Lus, Roberto Cantello, Maura Chiara Danni, Agusto Rini, Paola Sarchielli, Tiziana Tassinari, Elisabetta Signoriello
AIM: Complaints about Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex® ; GW Pharma Ltd, Sailsbury, UK) in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity include unpleasant taste and oral mucosal anomalies. This pilot study assessed the use of sugar-free chewing gum and/or a refrigerated bottle of THC:CBD oromucosal spray to mitigate these effects. MATERIALS & METHODS: Patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity (n = 52) at six sites in Italy who were receiving THC:CBD oromucosal spray and had associated oral mucosal effects were randomized into Group A (chewing gum; n = 15); Group B (cold bottle; n = 20); and Group C (cold bottle + chewing gum; n = 17)...
April 23, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682609/prolonged-cannabidiol-treatment-effects-on-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-in-current-cannabis-users
#19
Camilla Beale, Samantha J Broyd, Yann Chye, Chao Suo, Mark Schira, Peter Galettis, Jennifer H Martin, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij
Introduction: Chronic cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While adverse impacts of cannabis use are generally attributed to Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, emerging naturalistic evidence suggests cannabidiol (CBD) is neuroprotective and may ameliorate brain harms associated with cannabis use, including protection from hippocampal volume loss. This study examined whether prolonged administration of CBD to regular cannabis users within the community could reverse or reduce the characteristic hippocampal harms associated with chronic cannabis use...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679372/paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-yo-antibody-alters-mitochondrial-calcium-buffering-capacity
#20
Debabrata Panja, Christian A Vedeler, Manja Schubert
AIM: Neurodegeneration is associated with dysfunction of calcium buffering capacity and thereby sustained cellular and mitochondrial calcium overload. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), characterized by progressive Purkinje neuron degeneration following paraneoplastic Yo antibody internalisation and binding to cerebellar degeneration-related protein CDR2 and CDR2L, has been linked to intracellular calcium homeostasis imbalance due to calbindin D28k malfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that Yo antibody internalisation affects not only calbindin calcium binding capacity but also calcium-sensitive mitochondrial-associated signalling, causing mitochondrial calcium overload and thereby Purkinje neuron death...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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