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Cannabidiol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333097/effects-of-a-sativex-like-combination-of-phytocannabinoids-on-disease-progression-in-r6-2-mice-an-experimental-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#1
Sara Valdeolivas, Onintza Sagredo, Mercedes Delgado, Miguel A Pozo, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Several cannabinoids afforded neuroprotection in experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD). We investigated whether a 1:1 combination of botanical extracts enriched in either ∆⁸-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆⁸-THC) or cannabidiol (CBD), which are the main constituents of the cannabis-based medicine Sativex(®), is beneficial in R6/2 mice (a transgenic model of HD), as it was previously shown to have positive effects in neurotoxin-based models of HD. We recorded the progression of neurological deficits and the extent of striatal deterioration, using behavioral, in vivo imaging, and biochemical methods in R6/2 mice and their corresponding wild-type mice...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328019/dopant-assisted-direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry-with-argon-gas
#2
Robert B Cody, A John Dane
RATIONALE: Dopants used with Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (APPI) were examined with the Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART(®) ) ion source operated with argon gas. Charge-exchange and proton transfer reactions were observed by adding toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene and acetone to the DART gas stream, complementing the information obtained by helium DART. METHODS: Mass spectra were acquired with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with a DART ion source operated with argon gas...
May 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327344/direct-activation-of-ca-2-and-voltage-gated-potassium-channels-of-large-conductance-by-anandamide-in-endothelial-cells-does-not-support-the-presence-of-endothelial-atypical-cannabinoid-receptor
#3
Alexander I Bondarenko, Olga Panasiuk, Iryna Okhai, Fabrizio Montecucco, Karim J Brandt, Francois Mach
Endocannabinoid anandamide induces endothelium-dependent relaxation commonly attributed to stimulation of the G-protein coupled endothelial anandamide receptor. The study addressed the receptor-independent effect of anandamide on large conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels expressed in endothelial cell line EA.hy926. Under resting conditions, 10µM anandamide did not significantly influence the resting membrane potential. In a Ca(2+)-free solution the cells were depolarized by ~10 mV. Further administration of 10µM anandamide hyperpolarized the cells by ~8 mV...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293911/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol-oromucosal-spray-sativex-%C3%A2-a-review-in-multiple-sclerosis-related-spasticity
#4
Gillian M Keating
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (THC/CBD, Sativex(®), nabiximols) is available in numerous countries worldwide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related moderate to severe spasticity in patients who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity-related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy. Twelve weeks' therapy with THC/CBD improved MS-related spasticity in patients with an inadequate response to other anti-spasticity agents who had undergone a successful initial trial of THC/CBD therapy, according to the results of a pivotal phase 3 trial...
March 14, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289391/cannabidiol-affects-mk-801-induced-changes-in-the-ppi-learned-response-of-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-spp
#5
Patricia G Saletti, Rafael S Maior, Marilia Barros, Hisao Nishijo, Carlos Tomaz
There are several lines of evidence indicating a possible therapeutic action of cannabidiol (CBD) in schizophrenia treatment. Studies with rodents have demonstrated that CBD reverses MK-801 effects in prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruption, which may indicate that CBD acts by improving sensorimotor gating deficits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CBD on a PPI learned response of capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.). A total of seven monkeys were employed in this study. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the CBD (doses of 15, 30, 60 mg/kg, i...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286481/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-haemodynamic-effects-of-cannabidiol
#6
Salahaden R Sultan, Sophie A Millar, Timothy J England, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
Despite cannabidiol (CBD) having numerous cardiovascular effects in vitro, its haemodynamic effects in vivo are unclear. Nonetheless, the clinical use of CBD (Epidiolex) is becoming more widespread. The aim of this systematic review was to establish whether CBD is associated with changes in haemodynamics in vivo. Twenty-five studies that assessed the haemodynamic effects of CBD (from PubMed, Medline and EMBASE) were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. Data on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and blood flow (BF) were extracted and analyzed using random effects models...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276820/cannabinoids-for-treating-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go
#7
Carina Hasenoehrl, Martin Storr, Rudolf Schicho
Fifty years after the discovery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the psychoactive component of Cannabis, we are assessing the possibility of translating this herb into clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here, a discussion on the problems associated with a potential treatment is given. From first surveys and small clinical studies in patients with IBD we have learned that Cannabis is frequently used to alleviate diarrhea, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Single ingredients from Cannabis, such as THC and cannabidiol, commonly described as cannabinoids, are responsible for these effects...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268256/cannabidiol-regulation-of-emotion-and-emotional-memory-processing-relevance-for-treating-anxiety-related-and-substance-abuse-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Francisco S Guimarães, Carl W Stevenson
Learning to associate cues or contexts with potential threats or rewards is adaptive and enhances survival. Both aversive and appetitive memories are therefore powerful drivers of behaviour, but the inappropriate expression of conditioned responding to fear- and drug-related stimuli can develop into anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders respectively. These disorders are associated with abnormally persistent emotional memories and inadequate treatment, often leading to symptom relapse. Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT1A and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259650/can-we-make-cannabis-safer
#9
REVIEW
Amir Englund, Tom P Freeman, Robin M Murray, Philip McGuire
Cannabis use and related problems are on the rise globally alongside an increase in the potency of cannabis sold on both black and legal markets. Additionally, there has been a shift towards abandoning prohibition for a less punitive and more permissive legal stance on cannabis, such as decriminalisation and legalisation. It is therefore crucial that we explore new and innovative ways to reduce harm. Research has found cannabis with high concentrations of its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to be more harmful (in terms of causing the main risks associated with cannabis use, such as addiction, psychosis, and cognitive impairment) than cannabis with lower concentrations of THC...
March 1, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254350/the-current-status-of-artisanal-cannabis-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-the-united-states
#10
Dustin Sulak, Russell Saneto, Bonni Goldstein
The widespread patient use of artisanal cannabis preparations has preceded quality validation of cannabis use for epilepsy. Neurologists and cannabinoid specialists are increasingly in a position to monitor and guide the use of herbal cannabis in epilepsy patients. We report the retrospective data on efficacy and adverse effects of artisanal cannabis in Patients with medically refractory epilepsy with mixed etiologies in Washington State, California, and Maine. Clinical considerations, including potential risks and benefits, challenges related to artisanal preparations, and cannabinoid dosing, are discussed...
February 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250664/potential-of-cannabidiol-for-the-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#11
Henry I C Lowe, Ngeh J Toyang, Wayne McLaughlin
Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) pose a major health problem globally and if untreated, both viruses lead to severe liver damage resulting in liver cirrhosis and cancer. While HBV has a vaccine, HCV has none at the moment. The risk of drug resistance, combined with the high cost of current therapies, makes it a necessity for cost-effective therapeutics to be discovered and developed. The recent surge in interest in Medical Cannabis has led to interest in evaluating and validating the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis and its metabolites against various diseases including viruses...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249817/the-direct-actions-of-cannabidiol-and-2-arachidonoyl-glycerol-at-gabaa-receptors
#12
T Bakas, P S van Nieuwenhuijzen, S O Devenish, I S McGregor, J C Arnold, M Chebib
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-intoxicating component of cannabis and possesses anti-epileptic, anxiolytic and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The mechanism of action of CBD in producing such effects remains unclear. Despite evidence that some endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids interact with GABAA receptors, no-one has yet investigated the effects of CBD. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of CBD with those of the major central endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on human recombinant GABAA receptors (synaptic α1-6βγ2 and extrasynaptic α4β2δ) expressed on Xenopus oocytes...
February 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245177/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-willingness-to-exert-cognitive-effort-in-male-rats
#13
Mason M Silveira, Wendy K Adams, Maria Morena, Matthew N Hill, Catharine A Winstanley
BACKGROUND: Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236578/social-correlates-of-health-status-quality-of-life-and-mood-states-in-patients-treated-with-cannabidiol-for-epilepsy
#14
Magdalena Szaflarski, Barbara Hansen, E Martina Bebin, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Social characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity, play a role in the treatment and outcomes of patients with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about how these factors affect patients receiving cannabidiol (CBD) to treat seizures. This exploratory study examined the sociodemographic profile of patients treated with CBD (n=80) and associations between social factors and patient-centered outcomes - overall health status, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-89 (QOLIE-89), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) - in this population...
February 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232276/cannabidiol-state-of-the-art-and-new-challenges-for-therapeutic-applications
#15
REVIEW
Simona Pisanti, Anna Maria Malfitano, Elena Ciaglia, Anna Lamberti, Roberta Ranieri, Gaia Cuomo, Mario Abate, Giorgio Faggiana, Maria Chiara Proto, Donatella Fiore, Chiara Laezza, Maurizio Bifulco
Over the past years, several lines of evidence support a therapeutic potential of Cannabis derivatives and in particular phytocannabinoids. Δ(9)-THC and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most abundant phytocannabinoids in Cannabis plants and therapeutic application for both compounds have been suggested. However, CBD is recently emerging as a therapeutic agent in numerous pathological conditions since devoid of the psychoactive side effects exhibited instead by Δ(9)-THC. In this review, we highlight the pharmacological activities of CBD, its cannabinoid receptor-dependent and -independent action, its biological effects focusing on immunomodulation, angiogenetic properties, and modulation of neuronal and cardiovascular function...
February 20, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230072/improved-social-interaction-recognition-and-working-memory-with-cannabidiol-treatment-in-a-prenatal-infection-poly-i-c-rat-model
#16
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Ilijana Babic, Xu-Feng Huang, Katrina Weston-Green
Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties, however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217094/in-vivo-evidence-for-therapeutic-properties-of-cannabidiol-cbd-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Georgia Watt, Tim Karl
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is affecting an increasing number of people. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Current AD treatments do not stop or reverse the disease progression, highlighting the need for new, more effective therapeutics. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that has demonstrated neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207408/evaluation-of-cannabinoids-concentration-and-stability-in-standardized-preparations-of-cannabis-tea-and-cannabis-oil-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Roberta Pacifici, Emilia Marchei, Francesco Salvatore, Luca Guandalini, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202406/cannabis-cultivation-methodological-issues-for-obtaining-medical-grade-product
#19
REVIEW
Suman Chandra, Hemant Lata, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Larry A Walker, David Potter
As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods...
February 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194850/cannabidiol-reduces-ethanol-consumption-motivation-and-relapse-in-mice
#20
Adrián Viudez-Martínez, María S García-Gutiérrez, Carmen María Navarrón, María Isabel Morales-Calero, Francisco Navarrete, Ana Isabel Torres-Suárez, Jorge Manzanares
This study evaluated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on ethanol reinforcement, motivation and relapse in C57BL/6 J mice. The effects of CBD (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on blood ethanol concentration, hypothermia and handling-induced convulsions associated to acute ethanol administration were evaluated. The two-bottle choice paradigm was performed to assess the effects of CBD (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg/day, i.p.) on ethanol intake and preference. In addition, an oral ethanol self-administration experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of CBD [a single s...
February 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
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