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Cannabidiol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#1
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624721/assessing-the-role-of-serotonergic-receptors-in-cannabidiol-s-anticonvulsant-efficacy
#2
Madeline C Pelz, Kathleen D Schoolcraft, Chloe Larson, Mitchell G Spring, Hassan H López
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid that has demonstrated anticonvulsant efficacy in several animal models of seizure. The current experiment validated CBD's anticonvulsant effect using the acute pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model. Furthermore, it tested whether CBD reduces seizure activity by interacting with either the serotonergic 5HT1A or 5HT2A receptor. 120 male adolescent Wistar-Kyoto rats were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups in two consecutive experiments. In both experiments, subjects received either CBD (100mg/kg) or vehicle 60min prior to seizure testing...
June 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621765/epilepsy-cannabidiol-reduces-seizure-frequency-in-dravet-syndrome
#3
Charlotte Ridler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617940/quality-of-life-in-childhood-epilepsy-in-pediatric-patients-enrolled-in-a-prospective-open-label-clinical-study-with-cannabidiol
#4
Evan C Rosenberg, Jay Louik, Erin Conway, Orrin Devinsky, Daniel Friedman
Recent clinical trials indicate that cannabidiol (CBD) may reduce seizure frequency in pediatric patients with certain forms of treatment-resistant epilepsy. Many of these patients experience significant impairments in quality of life (QOL) in physical, mental, and social dimensions of health. In this study, we measured the caregiver-reported Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) in a subset of patients enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical study of CBD. Results from caregivers of 48 patients indicated an 8...
June 15, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614793/a-single-dose-of-cannabidiol-reduces-blood-pressure-in-healthy-volunteers-in-a-randomized-crossover-study
#5
Khalid A Jadoon, Garry D Tan, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid used in multiple sclerosis and intractable epilepsies. Preclinical studies show CBD has numerous cardiovascular benefits, including a reduced blood pressure (BP) response to stress. The aim of this study was to investigate if CBD reduces BP in humans. METHODS: Nine healthy male volunteers were given 600 mg of CBD or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Cardiovascular parameters were monitored using a finometer and laser Doppler...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611585/role-of-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht-in-sleep-wake-cycle-architecture-sleep-homeostasis-and-neurotransmitters-regulation
#6
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sergio Machado, Nuno B Rocha, André B Veras, Geraldo A M Neto, Henning Budde, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval
The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) in sleep has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601556/cannabidiol-upregulates-melanogenesis-through-cb1-dependent-pathway-by-activating-p38-mapk-and-p42-44-mapk
#7
Young Sun Hwang, Youn-Jung Kim, Mi Ok Kim, Mingyeong Kang, Sae Woong Oh, Youn Hwa Nho, See-Hyoung Park, Jongsung Lee
Melanogenesis plays a critical role in the protection of skin against external stresses such as ultraviolet irradiation and oxidative stressors. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on melanogenesis and its mechanisms of action in human epidermal melanocytes. We found that cannabidiol increased both melanin content and tyrosinase activity. The mRNA levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1, and TRP2 were increased following cannabidiol treatment...
June 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599319/regulation-of-human-glioblastoma-cell-death-by-combined-treatment-of-cannabidiol-%C3%AE-radiation-and-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-cell-signaling-pathways
#8
Vladimir N Ivanov, Jinhua Wu, Tom K Hei
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. The challenging problem in cancer treatment is to find a way to upregulate radiosensitivity of GBM while protecting neurons and neural stem/progenitor cells in the brain. The goal of the present study was upregulation of the cytotoxic effect of γ-irradiation in GBM by non-psychotropic and non-toxic cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD). We emphasized three main aspects of signaling mechanisms induced by CBD treatment (alone or in combination with γ-irradiation) in human GBM that govern cell death: 1) CBD significantly upregulated the active (phosphorylated) JNK1/2 and MAPK p38 levels with the subsequent downregulation of the active phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-AKT1 levels...
May 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595684/marijuana-use-in-the-elderly-implications-and-considerations
#9
Tracy D Mahvan, Michelle L Hilaire, Allison Mann, Antoinette Brown, Becky Linn, Taylor Gardner, Beryen Lai
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on the use of marijuana in the elderly. Pharmacists play an important role in the management of medications including drug use of potentially illegal drugs, including marijuana. The use of both recreational and medical marijuana has grown exponentially in the general population, including in older adults. As of 2017, marijuana for medical use is legal in 26 states and the District of Columbia. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Internet search using the following terms: marijuana, cannabis, delta-9-tetrhydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabinoid, elderly, geriatric, and pharmacology...
June 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588483/plastic-and-neuroprotective-mechanisms-involved-in-the-therapeutic-effects-of-cannabidiol-in-psychiatric-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Alline C Campos, Manoela V Fogaça, Franciele F Scarante, Sâmia R L Joca, Amanda J Sales, Felipe V Gomes, Andreza B Sonego, Naielly S Rodrigues, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Francisco S Guimarães
Beneficial effects of cannabidiol (CBD) have been described for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, psychosis, and depression. The mechanisms responsible for these effects, however, are still poorly understood. Similar to clinical antidepressant or atypical antipsychotic drugs, recent findings clearly indicate that CBD, either acutely or repeatedly administered, induces plastic changes. For example, CBD attenuates the decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and dendrite spines density induced by chronic stress and prevents microglia activation and the decrease in the number of parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons in a pharmacological model of schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582498/microorganism-design-for-heterologous-biosynthesis-of-cannabinoids
#11
Carvalho Ângela, Esben Halkjær Hansen, Oliver Kayser, Simon Carlsen, Felix Stehle
During the last decade the use of medical Cannabis has expanded globally and legislation is getting more liberal in many countries, facilitating the research on cannabinoids. The unique interaction of cannabinoids with the human endocannabinoid system make these compounds an interesting target to be studied as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of several medical conditions. However, currently there are important limitations in the study, production and use of cannabinoids as pharmaceutical drugs. Besides the main constituent tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, the structurally related compound cannabidiol is of high interest as drug candidate...
June 4, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580227/does-cannabis-composition-matter-differential-effects-of-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-cannabidiol-on-human-cognition
#12
REVIEW
Marco Colizzi, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The lack of clarity about the effect of cannabis use on cognition may be attributable to the considerable heterogeneity among studies in terms of cannabis composition. This article selectively reviews studies examining the distinctive effects of cannabinoids on human cognition, particularly those of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). RECENT FINDINGS: Research indicates that ∆9-THC administration acutely impairs cognition, particularly memory and emotional processing...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579491/recommendation-to-reconsider-examining-cannabis-subtypes-together-due-to-opposing-effects-on-brain-cognition-and-behavior
#13
Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Mette Buhl Callesen, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Cannabis use represents a major public health issue throughout the globe. Yet, we still lack the most fundamental knowledge on long-term effects of cannabis on neural, cognitive, and behavioral function. Part of this stems from how cannabis has been measured historically. To this end, most empirical examinations of cannabis have consolidated all types of cannabis collectively. However, this approach obscures differences in how cannabinoids operate. In this commentary, we address the contrasting properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and their opposing effects on cognitive function...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572770/in-vivo-cannabidiol-treatment-improves-endothelium-dependent-vasorelaxation-in-mesenteric-arteries-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#14
Amanda J Wheal, Khalid Jadoon, Michael D Randall, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
Background and purpose: We have shown that in vitro treatment with cannabidiol (CBD, 2 h) enhances endothelial function in arteries from Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, partly due to a cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated mechanism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether treatment with CBD in vivo would also enhance endothelial function. Experimental approach: Male ZDF rats, or ZDF Lean rats, were treated for 7 days (daily i.p. injection) with either 10mg/kg CBD or vehicle (n = 6 per group). Sections of mesenteric resistance arteries, femoral arteries and thoracic aortae were mounted on a wire myograph, and cumulative concentration-response curves to endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh, 1 nM-100 μM) or endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP, 1 nM-100 μM) agents were constructed...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571738/gpr3-and-gpr6-novel-molecular-targets-for-cannabidiol
#15
Alyssa S Laun, Zhao-Hui Song
GPR3 and GPR6 are members of a family of constitutively active, Gs protein-coupled receptors. Previously, it has been reported that GPR3 is involved in Alzheimer's disease whereas GPR6 plays potential roles in Parkinson's disease. GPR3 and GPR6 are considered orphan receptors because there are no confirmed endogenous agonists for them. However, GPR3 and GPR6 are phylogenetically related to the cannabinoid receptors. In this study, the activities of endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids were tested on GPR3 and GPR6 using a β-arrestin2 recruitment assay...
May 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570781/the-effect-of-antioxidants-on-the-long-term-stability-of-thc-and-related-cannabinoids-in-sampled-whole-blood
#16
Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
The stability of cannabinoids is complex, and crucial for the assessment of impaired driving caused by cannabis. Therefore, the effect of antioxidants on the long-term stability of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), 11-hydroxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood samples preserved with fluoride citrate (FC) and fluoride oxalate (FX) mixtures was investigated at different temperatures. The measured concentrations of the cannabinoids in authentic whole blood preserved solely with FC or FX mixtures decreased significantly during prolonged storage at -20°C...
June 1, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564654/high-dose-cannabidiol-induced-hypotension-after-global-hypoxia-ischemia-in-piglets
#17
Håvard T Garberg, Rønnaug Solberg, Jon Barlinn, Jose Martinez-Orgado, Else-Marit Løberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is considered a promising neuroprotectant after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We have previously studied the effects of CBD 1 mg/kg in the early phase after global HI in piglets. In contrast to prior studies, we found no evidence of neuroprotection and hypothesized that higher doses might be required to demonstrate efficacy in this animal model. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and potential neuroprotective effects of high-dose CBD...
June 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560402/anticancer-effects-of-phytocannabinoids-used-with-chemotherapy-in-leukaemia-cells-can-be-improved-by-altering-the-sequence-of-their-administration
#18
Katherine A Scott, Angus G Dalgleish, Wai M Liu
Phytocannabinoids possess anticancer activity when used alone, and a number have also been shown to combine favourably with each other in vitro in leukaemia cells to generate improved activity. We have investigated the effect of pairing cannabinoids and assessed their anticancer activity in cell line models. Those most effective were then used with the common anti-leukaemia drugs cytarabine and vincristine, and the effects of this combination therapy on cell death studied in vitro. Results show a number of cannabinoids could be paired together to generate an effect superior to that achieved if the components were used individually...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556310/variation-in-cannabis-potency-and-prices-in-a-newly-legal-market-evidence-from-30-million-cannabis-sales-in-washington-state
#19
Rosanna Smart, Jonathan P Caulkins, Beau Kilmer, Steven Davenport, Greg Midgette
AIMS: To (1) assess trends and variation in the market share of product types and potency sold in a legal cannabis retail market, and (2) estimate how potency and purchase quantity influence price variation for cannabis flower. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of publicly available data from Washington State's cannabis straceability system spanning July 7, 2014 to September 30, 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions assessed variation and trends in cannabis product variety and potency...
May 27, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553229/inverted-u-shaped-dose-response-curve-of-the-anxiolytic-effect-of-cannabidiol-during-public-speaking-in-real-life
#20
Antonio W Zuardi, Natália P Rodrigues, Angélica L Silva, Sandra A Bernardo, Jaime E C Hallak, Francisco S Guimarães, José A S Crippa
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in humans follows the same pattern of an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve observed in many animal studies. Sixty healthy subjects of both sexes aged between 18 and 35 years were randomly assigned to five groups that received placebo, clonazepam (1 mg), and CBD (100, 300, and 900 mg). The subjects were underwent a test of public speaking in a real situation (TPSRS) where each subject had to speak in front of a group formed by the remaining participants...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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