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Metabolic response to injury

Francesca Riuzzi, Guglielmo Sorci, Roberta Sagheddu, Sara Chiappalupi, Laura Salvadori, Rosario Donato
Emerging evidence suggests that the signalling of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) is critical for skeletal muscle physiology controlling both the activity of muscle precursors during skeletal muscle development and the correct time of muscle regeneration after acute injury. On the other hand, the aberrant re-expression/activity of RAGE in adult skeletal muscle is a hallmark of muscle wasting that occurs in response to ageing, genetic disorders, inflammatory conditions, cancer, and metabolic alterations...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Lijuan Cheng, Daniela Cortese, Martin M Monti, Fuyan Wang, Francesco Riganello, Francesco Arcuri, Haibo Di, Caroline Schnakers
Objectives: Considering sensory stimulation programs (SSP) as a treatment for disorders of consciousness is still debated today. Previous studies investigating its efficacy were affected by various biases among which small sample size and spontaneous recovery. In this study, treatment-related changes were assessed using time-series design in patients with disorders of consciousness (i.e., vegetative state-VS and minimally conscious state-MCS). Methods: A withdrawal design (ABAB) was used. During B phases, patients underwent a SSP (3 days a week, including auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory stimulation)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Wassim A Basheer, Ying Fu, Daisuke Shimura, Shaohua Xiao, Sosse Agvanian, Diana M Hernandez, Tara C Hitzeman, TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Connexin 43 (Cx43), a product of the GJA1 gene, is a gap junction protein facilitating intercellular communication between cardiomyocytes. Cx43 protects the heart from ischemic injury by mechanisms that are not well understood. GJA1 mRNA can undergo alternative translation, generating smaller isoforms in the heart, with GJA1-20k being the most abundant. Here, we report that ischemic and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries upregulate endogenous GJA1-20k protein in the heart, which targets to cardiac mitochondria and associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Ryu Watanabe, Marc Hilhorst, Hui Zhang, Markus Zeisbrich, Gerald J Berry, Barbara B Wallis, David G Harrison, John C Giacomini, Jörg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
BACKGROUND: In inflammatory blood vessel diseases, macrophages represent a key component of the vascular infiltrates and are responsible for tissue injury and wall remodeling. METHODS: To examine whether inflammatory macrophages in the vessel wall display a single distinctive effector program, we compared functional profiles in patients with either coronary artery disease (CAD) or giant cell arteritis (GCA). RESULTS: Unexpectedly, monocyte-derived macrophages from the 2 patient cohorts displayed disease-specific signatures and differed fundamentally in metabolic fitness...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Elizabeth M Badley, Margot Shields, Siobhan O'Donnell, Wendy E Hovdestad, Lil Tonmyr
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether there is a relationship between the frequency and severity of different types of childhood maltreatment and adulthood arthritis. METHODS: Analysis of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH): 21,889 respondents aged ≥18 years. Severity and frequency of childhood physical abuse (CPA), and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and the frequency of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (CEIPV) were assessed by asking about "things that may have happened to you before you were 16 in your school, in your neighborhood, or in your family"...
October 17, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Ali Yurtseven, Mümine Türksoylu, Pınar Yazıcı, Bülent Karapınar, Eylem Ulaş Saz
Yurtseven A, Türksoylu M, Yazıcı P, Karapınar B, Saz EU. A `glue sniffer` teenager with anuric renal failure and hepatitis. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 206-209. `Inhalant abuse` is a common form of volatile drug abuse throughout the world especially in developing countries. This substance mainly contains toluene. Acute toluene inhalation produces a biphasic response with an initial central nervous system (CNS) excitation followed by CNS depression as well as various metabolic alterations. Chronic inhalational abuse is associated with muscular weakness, gastrointestinal symptoms, renal and hepatic injury...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Stefania Filosa, Francesco Di Meo, Stefania Crispi
Increasing evidence suggests that food ingested polyphenols can have beneficial effects in neuronal protection acting against oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. Moreover, polyphenols have been reported to promote cognitive functions. Biotransformation of polyphenols is needed to obtain metabolites active in brain and it occurs through their processing by gut microbiota. Polyphenols metabolites could directly act as neurotransmitters crossing the blood-brain barrier or indirectly by modulating the cerebrovascular system...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Andriy O Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Tetyana Y Korol, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term disabilities and devastating chronic neurological complications including problems with cognition, motor function, sensory processing, as well as behavioral deficits and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, personality change and social unsuitability. Clinical data suggest that disruption of the thalamo-cortical system including anatomical and metabolic changes in the thalamus following TBI might be responsible for some chronic neurological deficits following brain trauma...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Xenophon Theodoridis, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Eleni-Maria Stamouli, Myrsini-Eleni Mavrantoni, Theodore Dardavessis, Dimitrios P Bogdanos
BACKGROUND: Severe burns are associated with a plethora of profound metabolic, immunologic, and physiologic responses, demanding prompt and adequate management. The objective of the present study was to review, compare, and critically appraise medical nutrition therapy guidelines for adult patients with severe burns, and produce salient points for the future update of relevant guidelines. METHODS: A total of 8 clinical practice guidelines developed by the American Burn Association (ABA), the European Burn Association (EBA), the European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN), the Midlands National Health Service, the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units and Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, the Indian Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (IAPEN), and the International Society for Burn Injury regarding medical nutrition therapy in burn patients was independently reviewed by a team of 4 multidisciplinary researchers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument...
October 15, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Saisai Cheng, Xin Ma, Shijie Geng, Xuemei Jiang, Yuan Li, Luansha Hu, Jianrong Li, Yizhen Wang, Xinyan Han
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is one of the most effective ways to regulate the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated the effect of exogenous fecal microbiota on gut function from the perspective of analysis of the mucosal proteomes in a piglet model. A total of 289 differentially expressed proteins were annotated with 4,068 gene ontology (GO) function entries in the intestinal mucosa, and the levels of autophagy-related proteins in the forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling pathway were increased whereas the levels of proteins related to inflammation response were decreased in the recipient...
September 2018: MSystems
Jingyun Luan, Dianwen Ju
Inflammasomes have emerged as critical innate sensors of host immune that defense against pathogen infection, metabolism syndrome, cellular stress and cancer metastasis in the liver. The assembly of inflammasome activates caspase-1, which promotes the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18), and initiates pyroptotic cell death (pyroptosis). IL-18 exerts pleiotropic effects on hepatic NK cells, priming FasL-mediated cytotoxicity, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-dependent responses to prevent the development of liver diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chong-Jin Zhong, Miao-Miao Chen, Ming Lu, Jian-Hua Ding, Ren-Hong Du, Gang Hu
ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels, coupling cell metabolism to cell membrane potential, are involved in brain diseases including stroke. Emerging evidence shows that astrocytes play important roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Kir6.1, a pore-forming subunit of K-ATP channel, is prominently expressed in astrocytes and participates in regulating its function. However, the exact role of astrocytic Kir6.1-containg K-ATP channel (Kir6.1/K-ATP) in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, we found that astrocytic Kir6...
October 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Wen-Bo Zhou, Xin-Xin Zhang, Yun Cai, Wu Sun, Hao Li
Tamoxifen (TMX) is an antiestrogen drug that is used in the treatment and prevention of all stages of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Adverse effects of TMX include hepatotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of osthole, isolated from medicinal plants especially Fructus Cnidii, on TMX-induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were injected with osthole (100 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle, followed by TMX (90 mg/kg, ip) 24 h later. We showed that a single injection of TMX-induced liver injury and oxidative stress...
October 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jarosław Pieróg, Michał Bielewicz, Janusz Wójcik, Bartosz Kubisa, Krzysztof Kaseja, Krzysztof Safranow, Barbara Dołęgowska, Piotr Waloszczyk, Tomasz Grodzki
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic response in the early postoperative period after radical resection of stage I and II oesophageal cancer applying a minimally invasive procedure and an open procedure involving classical laparotomy and thoracotomy. Material and methods: Serum concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and total serum protein (TP) and leukocyte count (WBC) in blood collected on the day of surgery prior to the procedure (day 0) and on days 1, 2 and 7 after the surgery were measured in two groups of patients undergoing oesophageal resection due to cancer: applying a minimally invasive procedure involving laparoscopy and videothoracoscopy (group A) and applying a classical procedure involving full opening of the chest and abdominal cavity (group B)...
September 2018: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Pengfei Liu, Montserrat Rojo de la Vega, Saad Sammani, Joseph B Mascarenhas, Michael Kerins, Matthew Dodson, Xiaoguang Sun, Ting Wang, Aikseng Ooi, Joe G N Garcia, Donna D Zhang
NRF2 regulates cellular redox homeostasis, metabolic balance, and proteostasis by forming a dimer with small musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma proteins (sMAFs) and binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) to activate target gene transcription. In contrast, NRF2-ARE-dependent transcriptional repression is unreported. Here, we describe NRF2-mediated gene repression via a specific seven-nucleotide sequence flanking the ARE, which we term the NRF2-replication protein A1 (RPA1) element (NRE). Mechanistically, RPA1 competes with sMAF for NRF2 binding, followed by interaction of NRF2-RPA1 with the ARE-NRE and eduction of promoter activity...
October 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Finosh G Thankam, Chandra S Boosani, Matthew F Dilisio, R Michael Gross, Devendra K Agrawal
Fatty infiltration and inflammation delay the healing responses and raise major concerns in the therapeutic management of rotator cuff tendon injuries (RCTI). Our evaluations showed the upregulation of 'metabolic check point' AMPK and inflammatory molecule, TREM-1 from shoulder biceps tendons collected from RCTI subjects. However, the epigenetic regulation of these biomolecules by miRNAs is largely unknown and it is likely that a deeper understanding of the mechanism of action can have therapeutic potential for RCTI...
October 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Blanca Lizarbe, Antoine Cherix, João M N Duarte, Jean-René Cardinaux, Rolf Gruetter
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: High-fat diet consumption is known to trigger an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, which has been characterized by an initial expression of pro-inflammatory genes followed by hypothalamic astrocytosis, microgliosis, and the appearance of neuronal injury markers. The specific effects of high-fat diet on hypothalamic energy metabolism and neurotransmission are however not yet known and have not been investigated before. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used 1 H and 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and immunofluorescence techniques to evaluate in vivo the consequences of high-saturated fat diet administration to mice, and explored the effects on hypothalamic metabolism in three mouse cohorts at different time points for up to 4 months...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mitra Sadeghi, Tal M Hörer, Daniel Forsman, Emanuel M Dogan, Kjell Jansson, Csaba Kindler, Per Skoog, Kristofer F Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an effective adjunct in exsanguinating torso hemorrhage, but causes ischemic injury to distal organs. The aim was to investigate whether blood pressure targeting by partial REBOA (pREBOA) is possible in porcine severe hemorrhagic shock and to compare pREBOA and total REBOA (tREBOA) regarding hemodynamic, metabolic and inflammatory effects. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized pigs were exposed to induced controlled hemorrhage to a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 50 mmHg and randomized into three groups of thoracic REBOA: 30 min of pREBOA (target SBP 80-100 mmHg), tREBOA, and control...
September 29, 2018: Injury
Ramona E von Leden, Kasey E Moritz, Sara Bermudez, Shalini Jaiswal, Colin M Wilson, Bernard J Dardzinski, Kimberly R Byrnes
Aging results in increased activation of inflammatory glial cells and decreased neuronal viability following spinal cord injury (SCI). Metabolism and transport of glucose is also decreased with age, although the influence of age on glucose transporter (GLUT) expression or glucose uptake in SCI is currently unknown. We therefore performed [18 F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging of young (3 month) and middle-aged (12 month) rats. Glucose uptake in middle-aged rats was decreased compared to young rats at baseline, followed by increased uptake 14 days post contusion SCI...
October 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Gregory C Shearer, Rachel E Walker
Oxylipins are lipid mediators produced from polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism, and are thought to be a molecular explanation for the diverse biological effects of PUFAs. Like PUFAs, oxylipins are distinguished by their omega-6 (n6) or omega-3 (n3) chemistry. We review the use of n6 oxylipins as biomarkers of disease and their use in diagnosis and risk assessment. We show cases where oxylipins derived from linoleate (LA) or arachidonate (AA) produced by the activities of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, epoxygenase, ω/ω-1 hydroxylase, and autooxidation are useful as biomarkers or risk markers...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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