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Metabolic response to injury

Jyothsna Chitturi, Ying Li, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar, Sridhar S Kannurpatti
Pathophysiology of developmental traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unique due to intrinsic differences in the developing brain. Energy metabolic studies of the brain during early development (P13 to P30) have indicated acute oxidative energy metabolic decreases below 24 h after TBI, which generally recovered by 48 h. However, marked neurodegeneration and altered neural functional connectivity have been observed at later stages into adolescence. As secondary neurodegeneration is most prominent during the first week after TBI in the rat model, we hypothesized that the subacute TBI-metabolome may contain predictive markers of neurodegeneration...
August 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Hanna Bragde, Ulf Jansson, Mats Fredrikson, Ewa Grodzinsky, Jan Söderman
Establishing a celiac disease (CD) diagnosis can be difficult, such as when CD-specific antibody levels are just above cutoff or when small intestinal biopsies show low-grade injuries. To investigate the biological pathways involved in CD and select potential biomarkers to aid in CD diagnosis, RNA sequencing of duodenal biopsies from subjects with either confirmed Active CD (n = 20) or without any signs of CD (n = 20) was performed. Gene enrichment and pathway analysis highlighted contexts, such as immune response, microbial infection, phagocytosis, intestinal barrier function, metabolism, and transportation...
August 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Nicholas L Cianciola, Cathleen R Carlin
The interplay between viruses and host factors regulating inflammatory or cytotoxic responses directed against infected cells is well documented. Viruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms that strike a balance between the elimination of virus and immune-mediated tissue injury by antiviral immune responses. The topic of this mini-review is a series of recent studies demonstrating a link between cholesterol trafficking and innate immune responses in cells infected with human adenoviruses that provide the backbone of commonly used vectors in gene medicine...
2018: Journal of immunological sciences
Elisa Pellegrini, Yasutomo Hoshika, Nicolas Dusart, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Joëlle Gérard, Cristina Nali, Marie-Noëlle Vaultier, Yves Jolivet, Giacomo Lorenzini, Elena Paoletti
Plants are frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions such as drought and ozone (O3 ). Under these conditions, plants can survive due to their ability to adjust their metabolism. The aim of the present study was to compare the detoxification mechanisms of three oak species showing different O3 sensitivity and water use strategy. Two-year-old seedlings of Quercus ilex, Q. pubescens and Q. robur were grown under the combination of three levels of O3 (1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 times the ambient O3 concentration) and three levels of water availability (on average 100, 80 and 42% of field capacity i...
July 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anne Baudry, Benoit Schneider, Jean-Marie Launay, Odile Kellermann
Genetic and pharmacological studies provided evidence that serotonin (5-HT) is an important signaling molecule for the development and the maintenance of mineralized tissues. However, how 5-HT takes part to the homeostasis of teeth and bone remains elusive. In the dental field, a major breakthrough comes from the identification of 5-HT but also dopamine (DA) as "damage" signals necessary for stem cell-based tooth repair. Pulpal stem cells express the overall functions of 5-HT and DA neurons including a definite set of functional 5-HT/DA receptors that render cells responsive for circulating bioamines...
August 2, 2018: Biochimie
Daniel P Heruth, Katherine Shortt, Nini Zhang, Ding-You Li, Li Q Zhang, Shui Q Ye
Acetaminophen is commonly used to reduce pain and fever. Unfortunately, overdose of acetaminophen is a leading cause of acute liver injury and failure in many developed countries. The majority of acetaminophen is safely metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine; however a small percentage is converted to the highly reactive N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). At therapeutic doses, NAPQI is inactivated by glutathione S-transferases, but at toxic levels, excess NAPQI forms reactive protein adducts that lead to hepatotoxicity...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Robert A Huggins, Andrea R Fortunati, Ryan M Curtis, David P Looney, Chris A West, Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Mathew L Hall, Douglas J Casa
Huggins, RA, Fortunati, AR, Curtis, RM, Looney, DP, West, CA, Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Hall, ML, and Casa, DJ. Monitoring blood biomarkers and training load throughout a collegiate soccer season. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This observational study aimed to characterize the responses of a comprehensive panel of biomarkers, observed ranges, training load (TL) metrics, and performance throughout the collegiate soccer season (August-November). Biomarkers (n = 92) were collected before the start of pre-season (PS), in-season weeks (W)1, W4, W8, and W12 in NCAA Division I male soccer players (n = 20, mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 1 years, height = 180 ± 6 cm, body mass = 78...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Alois J Schiefecker, Verena Rass, Maxime Gaasch, Mario Kofler, Claudius Thomé, Christian Humpel, Bogdan Ianosi, Werner O Hackl, Ronny Beer, Bettina Pfausler, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
In patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), increased brain extracellular interleukin (IL)-6 levels measured by cerebral microdialysis (CMD) were associated with disease severity, early brain injury, delayed cerebral infarction, and axonal injury. In this study, we analyzed brain extracellular IL-6 levels of aSAH patients following parenteral diclofenac. Twenty-four mechanically ventilated poor-grade aSAH patients were included. Changes in cerebral metabolism, brain/body temperature, and CMD-IL-6 levels following intravenous diclofenac infusion (DCF; 75 mg diluted in 100 cc normal saline) were retrospectively analyzed from prospectively collected bedside data (at 1 hour before DCF = baseline; and at 2, 4, and 8 hours after DCF)...
August 3, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Yen-Chun Koh, Guliang Yang, Ching-Shu Lai, Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Min-Hsiung Pan
Macrophages can polarize into two different states (M1 and M2), which play contrasting roles during pathogenesis or tissue damage. M1 polarized macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators resulting in inflammation, while M2 macrophages have an anti-inflammatory effect. Secretion of appropriate cytokines and chemokines from macrophages can lead to the modification of the microenvironment for bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Increasing evidence suggests that polarized macrophages are pivotal for disease progression, and the regulation of macrophage polarization may provide a new approach in therapeutic treatment of inflammation-related diseases, including cancer, obesity and metabolic diseases, fibrosis in organs, brain damage and neuron injuries, and colorectal disease...
July 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ilka Dayane Duarte de Sousa Coelho, Clovis José Cavalcanti Lapa Neto, Talita Giselly Dos Santos Souza, Meykson Alexandre da Silva, Cristiano Aparecido Chagas, Katharine Raquel Pereira Dos Santos, Valéria Wanderley Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho Teixeira
Maternal alcoholism can induce serious injuries in embryonic and fetal development. The metabolism of alcohol increases the production of free radicals and acetaldehyde, molecules capable of reacting with DNA, impairing organogenesis. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that can act as a protective agent against DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents, such as ethanol. This study evaluated the protective effect of exogenous melatonin in rats and their offspring on the genotoxic response induced by chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy...
August 2018: Mutation Research
Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Cardiac fibrosis is a common pathophysiologic companion of most myocardial diseases, and is associated with systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmogenesis, and adverse outcome. Because the adult mammalian heart has negligible regenerative capacity, death of a large number of cardiomyocytes results in reparative fibrosis, a process that is critical for preservation of the structural integrity of the infarcted ventricle. On the other hand, pathophysiologic stimuli, such as pressure overload, volume overload, metabolic dysfunction, and aging may cause interstitial and perivascular fibrosis in the absence of infarction...
July 26, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Huan Wang, Hongling Wei, Lei Tang, Junkai Lu, Changkao Mu, Chunlin Wang
Scylla paramamosain (Crustacea) is a commercially important euryhaline species distributed along the coast of southern China and other Indo-Pacific countries. However, a sudden variation in salinity will cause injury or even death to S. paramamosain. In this paper, we simulated a sudden decrease in salinity due to heavy precipitation in crab ponds. Comparison of gill microstructures of individuals in the control group and decreased salinity group showed gills became shorter and thicker, while the top of the filaments became swollen and then returned to normal after 120 h...
July 25, 2018: Gene
Cheng Wang, Wenjing Xu, Yanqing Zhang, Dan Huang, Kai Huang
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure and remains a critical problem in medicine. PARP1-dependent poly(ADPribosyl)ation is a key mediator of cellular stress responses and functions in multiple physiological and pathological processes. However, whether it is involved in the process of APAP metabolism remains elusive. In this study, we find that PARP1 is activated in mouse livers after APAP overdose. Pharmacological or genetic manipulations of PARP1 are sufficient to suppress the APAP-induced hepatic toxicity and injury, as well as reduced APAP metabolism...
July 26, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
David Herndon, Karel D Capek, Evan Ross, Jayson W Jay, Anesh Prasai, Amina El Ayadi, Guillermo Foncerrada-Ortega, Elizabeth Blears, Christian Sommerhalder, Kara McMullen, Dagmar Amtmann, Robert Cox, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Kristofer Jennings, Linda E Sousse, Oscar E Suman, Walter J Meyer, Celeste C Finnerty
BACKGROUND: Massive burns induce a hypermetabolic response that leads to total body wasting and impaired physical and psychosocial recovery. The administration of propranolol or oxandrolone positively affects postburn metabolism and growth. The combined administration of oxandrolone and propranolol (OxProp) for 1 year restores growth in children with large burns. Here, we investigated whether the combined administration of OxProp for 1 year would reduce scarring and improve quality of life compared with control...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Jintian He, Yu Niu, Fei Wang, Chao Wang, Tao Cui, Kaiwen Bai, Jingfei Zhang, Xiang Zhong, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
Rats with a normal birth weight (NBW) or intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) were fed basic diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic diets supplemented with curcumin (NC and IC groups) from 6 to 12 weeks. The body weight of IUGR rats was lower (P<0·05) than that of the controls. Rats with IUGR showed higher (P<0·05) concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; higher (P<0·05) activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in their serum; and increased (P<0·05) concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) in the liver compared with the NBW rats...
July 25, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Melissa M Miranda-Cruz, Jennifer J Poom-Llamas, José A Godoy-Lugo, Rudy M Ortiz, Silvia Gómez-Jiménez, Jesús A Rosas-Rodríguez, Edgar F Morán-Palacio, José G Soñanez-Organis
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor that induces genes involved in glucose metabolism. HIF-1 is formed by a regulatory α-subunit (HIF-1α) and a constitutive β-subunit (HIF-1β). The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) induces a shift in glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. HIF-1α is associated with the induction of metabolic changes in tissues of WSSV-infected shrimp. However, the contributions of HIF-1 to viral load and antioxidant responses in WSSV-infected shrimp have been not examined...
July 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ying-Bin Hu, Xin-Yu Liu, Wei Zhan
Introduction: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is largely driven by the dysregulation of liver metabolism and inflammation. Bile acids and their receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) play a critical role in the disease development. Here, we investigated whether INT-767, the newly-identified dual FXR/TGR5 agonist, can protect rat from liver injury during NASH. Materials and methods: NASH model was established by feeding the male SD rats with high-fat diet for 16 weeks...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Minso Kim, Anna Stepanova, Zoya Niatsetskaya, Sergey Sosunov, Sabine Arndt, Michael P Murphy, Alexander Galkin, Vadim S Ten
BACKGROUND: Establishing sustained reoxygenation/reperfusion ensures not only the recovery, but may initiate a reperfusion injury in which oxidative stress plays a major role. This study offers the mechanism and this mechanism-specific therapeutic strategy against excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with reperfusion-driven recovery of mitochondrial metabolism. AIMS AND METHODS: In neonatal mice subjected to cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) and reperfusion, we examined conformational changes and activity of mitochondrial complex I with and without post-HI administration of S-nitrosating agent, MitoSNO...
July 3, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Renfei Luo, Shan Hu, Qiaojuan Liu, Mengke Han, Feifei Wang, Miaojuan Qiu, Suchun Li, Xiaosa Li, Tianxin Yang, Xiaodong Fu, Weidong Wang, Chunling Li
Increasing evidence supports the important role of H2 S in renal physiology and the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Whether H2 S regulates water metabolism in the kidney and the potential mechanism are still unknown. The present study was conducted to determine the role of H2 S in urine concentration. Inhibition of both cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), 2 major enzymes for endogenous H2 S production, with propargylglycine (PPG) and amino-oxyacetate (AOAA), respectively, caused increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice that was associated with decreased expression of aquaporin (AQP)-2 in the renal inner medulla...
July 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Y F Ma, L Zhao, M Gao, J J Loor
Periparturient dairy cows are likely subject to altered intracellular reduction-oxidation (redox) balance due to the high metabolic rates and physiological adaptations characteristic of this physiological stage. Such conditions could alter oxidative stress status. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective effects of tea polyphenols (TP) in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) exposed to hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2) induced oxidative stress. To establish oxidative stress, isolated BMEC were exposed to increasing concentrations of H2O2 (0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 μM) for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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