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miRNA muscle

Callum J Donaldson, Ka Hou Lao, Lingfang Zeng
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory condition that is characterized by the accumulation of lipid-loaded macrophages, occurs preferentially at the arterial branching points where disturbed flow is prominent. The pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesion formation is a multistage process involving multiple cell types, inflammatory mediators and hemodynamic forces in the vessel wall in response to atherogenic stimuli. Researches from the past decade have uncovered the critical roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating multiple pathophysiological effects and signaling pathways in endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), macrophages and lipid homeostasis, which are key in atherosclerotic lesion formation...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Juan Jiang, PengZhou Li, Hao Ling, ZhouZhou Xu, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
Obesity is associated with increased risks of diverse diseases; brown adipose tissue (BAT) can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity by increasing the decomposition of white adipose tissue (WAT) to enhance the non-coupled oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acid in adipocytes and contributes to weight loss. However, BAT is abundant in only small rodents and newborn humans, but not in adults. PRDM16 is a key factor that induces the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors to brown adipocytes and simultaneously inhibits myogenic differentiation...
August 10, 2018: Human Cell
Jinchang Pan, Xiaodan Meng, Nan Jiang, Xiaofeng Jin, Chengwei Zhou, Dazhi Xu, Zhaohui Gong
Considerable evidence has indicated that most noncoding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts act directly as functional RNAs rather than as encoded peptides. However, a recent study of ribosome occupancy reported that many large intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs) are bound by ribosomes, raising the possibility that they are translated into proteins. These lincRNAs contain either internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) or short open reading frames (sORFs), and other translation elements, which can be translated into peptides with physiological functions...
August 9, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Gabriele Grunig, Christina A Eichstaedt, Jeremias Verweyen, Nedim Durmus, Stephanie Saxer, Greta Krafsur, Kurt Stenmark, Silvia Ulrich, Ekkehard Grünig, Serhiy Pylawka
Rationale: Therapeutic exercise training has been shown to significantly improve pulmonary hypertension (PH), including 6-min walking distance and right heart function. Supplemental nightly oxygen also has therapeutic effects. A biomarker tool that could query critical gene networks would aid in understanding the molecular effects of the interventions. Methods: Paired bio-banked serum ( n = 31) or plasma ( n = 21) samples from the exercise or oxygen intervention studies, respectively, and bio-banked plasma samples ( n = 20) from high altitude induced PH in cattle were tested...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cristian A Velandia-Huerto, Federico D Brown, Adriaan Gittenberger, Peter F Stadler, Clara I Bermúdez-Santana
Tunicates, or urochordates, are a group of small marine organisms that are found widely throughout the seas of the world. As most plausible sister group of the vertebrates, they are of utmost importance for a comprehensive understanding of chordate evolution; hence, they have served as model organisms for many aspects of the developmental biology. Current genomic analysis of tunicates indicates that their genomes evolved with a fast rate not only at the level of nucleotide substitutions but also in terms of genomic organization...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Chen Rui, Ting Jiang, Si Lei, Yanling She, Huacai Shi, Shanyao Zhou, Jun Ou, Yulin Liu
The importance of circular RNAs (circRNAs) as regulators of muscle development and muscle-associated disorders is becoming increasingly apparent. To explore potential regulators of muscle differentiation, we determined the expression profiles of circRNAs of skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes using microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to explore circRNA functions. We also established competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks using bioinformatics methods and predicted the coding potential of differentially expressed circRNAs...
August 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
Youqiang Sun, Vincent Kuek, Yuhao Liu, Jennifer Tickner, Yu Yuan, Leilei Chen, Zhikui Zeng, Min Shao, Wei He, Jiake Xu
MiR-214 belongs to a family of microRNA (small, highly conserved noncoding RNA molecules) precursors that play a pivotal role in biological functions, such as cellular function, tissue development, tissue homeostasis, and pathogenesis of diseases. Recently, miR-214 emerged as a critical regulator of musculoskeletal metabolism. Specifically, miR-214 can mediate skeletal muscle myogenesis and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. MiR-214 also modulates osteoblast function by targeting specific molecular pathways and the expression of various osteoblast-related genes; promotes osteoclast activity by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten); and mediates osteoclast-osteoblast intercellular crosstalk via an exosomal miRNA paracrine mechanism...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hongyu Wang, Huijuan Yao, Bing Yi, Kyosuke Kazama, Yan Liu, Deepak Deshpande, Jian Zhang, Jianxin Sun
Abnormal airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) proliferation and migration contribute significantly to increased ASM mass associated with asthma. MicroRNA (miR)-638 is a primate-specific miRNA that plays important roles in development, DNA damage repair, hematopoiesis, and tumorigenesis. Although it is highly expressed in ASMCs, its function in ASM remodeling remains unknown. In the current study, we found that in response to various mitogenic stimuli, including platelet-derived growth factor-two B chains (PDGF-BB), transforming growth factor β1, and fetal bovine serum, the expression of miR-638, as determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), was significantly downregulated in the proliferative human ASMCs...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nevenka Dudvarski Stanković, Frank Bicker, Stefanie Keller, David Tw Jones, Patrick N Harter, Arne Kienzle, Clarissa Gillmann, Philipp Arnold, Anna Golebiewska, Olivier Keunen, Alf Giese, Andreas von Deimling, Tobias Bäuerle, Simone P Niclou, Michel Mittelbronn, Weilan Ye, Stefan M Pfister, Mirko Hh Schmidt
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a typically lethal type of brain tumor with a median survival of 15 months postdiagnosis. This negative prognosis prompted the exploration of alternative treatment options. In particular, the reliance of GBM on angiogenesis triggered the development of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) blocking antibodies such as bevacizumab. Although its application in human GBM only increased progression-free periods but did not improve overall survival, physicians and researchers still utilize this treatment option due to the lack of adequate alternatives...
July 31, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Yulun Yue, Wenyan Lv, Lin Zhang, Wei Kang
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-147b in the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of miR-147b and Yin Yang 1 (YY1) mRNA. CCK-8, transwell migration and wound healing assays were used to determine cell proliferation and migration of VSMCs, respectively...
July 27, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Celeste Piotto, Ziad Julier, Mikaël M Martino
The importance of immunity in tissue repair and regeneration is now evident. Thus, promoting tissue healing through immune modulation is a growing and promising field. Targeting microRNAs (miRNAs) is an appealing option since they regulate immunity through post-transcriptional gene fine-tuning in immune cells. Indeed, miRNAs are involved in inflammation as well as in its resolution by controlling immune cell phenotypes and functions. In this review, we first discuss the immunoregulatory role of miRNAs during the restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury, focusing mainly on neutrophils, macrophages and T lymphocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Watcharapong Naraballobh, Nares Trakooljul, Eduard Murani, Carsten Krischek, Sabine Janisch, Michael Wicke, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological processes. We hypothesize that miRNAs may be involved in regulating transcriptome responses to changes in embryonic incubation temperature in chickens affecting differentiation and proliferation processes during tissue development. Therefore, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of miRNAs to examine altered expression in breast and hind muscle of embryos and day 35 chickens experiencing high (38.8 °C), control (37...
July 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana Luque, Abduljalil Farwati, Jerzy Krupinski, Josep M Aran
OBJECTIVE Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. However, reliable criteria to identify patients with high-risk carotid plaques beyond the severity of stenosis are still lacking. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are being postulated as biomarkers for a variety of vascular immune-inflammatory diseases. The authors investigated whether cell-free circulating miR-638, highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and implicated in proliferative vascular diseases, is associated with vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in high-risk patients with advanced carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA)...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sandra O Braz, Julien Acquaire, Geneviève Gourdon, Mário Gomes-Pereira
Intensive effort has been directed toward the modeling of myotonic dystrophy (DM) in mice, in order to reproduce human disease and to provide useful tools to investigate molecular and cellular pathogenesis and test efficient therapies. Mouse models have contributed to dissect the multifaceted impact of the DM mutation in various tissues, cell types and in a pleiotropy of pathways, through the expression of toxic RNA transcripts. Changes in alternative splicing, transcription, translation, intracellular RNA localization, polyadenylation, miRNA metabolism and phosphorylation of disease intermediates have been described in different tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Tora I Henriksen, Sarah E Heywood, Ninna S Hansen, Bente K Pedersen, Camilla C Scheele, Søren Nielsen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) take part in regulating central cellular processes such as differentiation and metabolism. We have previously shown that muscle progenitor cells derived from individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have a dysregulated miRNA profile. We hypothesized that the T2DM muscle progenitor population is heterogeneous in its miRNA expression and differs from the progenitor population of healthy controls. MiRNA expression profiles of CD56+ muscle progenitor cells from people with T2DM and from healthy controls were therefore investigated at a single cell level...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Henriett Halász, Ali Reza Ghadaksaz, Tamás Madarász, Krisztina Huber, Gábor Harami, Eszter Angéla Tóth, Anikó Osteikoetxea-Molnár, Mihály Kovács, Zsolt Balogi, Miklós Nyitrai, János Matkó, Edina Szabó-Meleg
Membrane nanotubes are transient long-distance connections between cells that can facilitate intercellular communication. These tethers can form spontaneously between many cell types, including cells of the immune and nervous systems. Traffic of viral proteins, vesicles, calcium ions, mRNA, miRNA, mitochondria, lysosomes and membrane proteins/raft domains have all been reported so far via the open ended tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). Recently we reported on existence of plasma membrane derived GM1 /GM3 ganglioside enriched microvesicles and costimulatory proteins in nanotubes connecting B lymphocytes, the way they are formed and transported across TNTs, however, still remained unclear...
August 9, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Hong-Mei Liu, Yi Jia, Ying-Xian Zhang, Jun Yan, Ning Liao, Xiao-Hui Li, Yuan Tang
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the most common form of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary arterial remodeling is closely related to the abnormal proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which leads to the thickening of the medial layer of muscular arteries and then results in the narrowing or occlusion of the precapillary arterioles and PAH. However, the mechanisms underlying the abnormal proliferation of PASMCs remain unclear. In this study, we established rat primary PAH models using monocrotaline (MCT) injection or hypoxic exposure, then investigated the expression patterns of seven miRNAs associated with multiple pathogenic pathways central to pulmonary hypertension, and further explored the roles and the possible mechanisms of miR-135a during the development of PAH...
July 23, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ileana Badi, Luigi Mancinelli, Andrea Polizzotto, Debora Ferri, Filippo Zeni, Ilaria Burba, Giuseppina Milano, Francesca Brambilla, Claudio Saccu, Marco E Bianchi, Giulio Pompilio, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Angela Raucci
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification (VC) is age dependent and a risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. VC involves the senescence-induced transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) toward an osteochondrogenic lineage resulting in arterial wall mineralization. miR-34a increases with age in aortas and induces vascular SMC senescence through the modulation of its target SIRT1 (sirtuin 1). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether miR-34a regulates VC...
July 19, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Pingping He, Pinyuan Wei, Bin Zhang, Yongzhen Zhao, Qiangyong Li, Xiuli Chen, Digang Zeng, Min Peng, Chunling Yang, Jinxia Peng, Xiaohan Chen
The Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) is one of the most widely cultured shrimp species in the world, with low temperature being one of the most serious threats to its growth and survival. To examine the potential regulatory mechanism of cold adaptation, we conducted a microRNAs (miRNAs) analysis on the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei under normal temperature 28 °C (M28), cold acclimation 16 °C for 6 days (M16), and recovered under normal temperature (MR). In total 14,754,823, 14,945,246 and 15,880,093 raw reads representing 10,690,259, 8,587,144, and 11,512,941 unique sequences of 18-32 nt length were obtained from the M28, M16 and MR libraries, respectively...
July 14, 2018: Gene
Wenjing Zhao, Haifang Zhang, Jin-Ying Su
Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is an abnormal expansion in the intracranial arteries that weakens the arterial wall by consistently pushing the vascular wall outwards, which leads to a higher risk of aneurysm rupture. A number of reports have demonstrated that apoptosis is associated with the growth and rupture of IA. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) perform vital roles in the regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and signaling proteins. Increasing evidence has already revealed the role of miR‑29a in injury, including liver injury, cardiovascular injury and ischaemia‑reperfusion injury...
September 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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