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Nutrition liver

Mattia Di Nunzio, Alessandra Bordoni, Federica Aureli, Francesco Cubadda, Andrea Gianotti
Although selenium is of great importance for the human body, in several world regions the intake of this essential trace element does not meet the dietary reference values. To achieve optimal intake, fortification of bread by using selenium-enriched flour has been put forward. Less is known on the potential effect of sourdough fermentation, which might be worth exploring as the biological effects of selenium strongly depend on its chemical form and sourdough fermentation is known to cause transformations of nutrients and phytochemicals, including the conversion of inorganic selenium into organic selenocompounds...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Alastair J Barr
This article gives the reader an insight into the role of biochemistry in some of the current global health and disease problems. It surveys the biochemical causes of disease in an accessible and succinct form while also bringing in aspects of pharmacology, cell biology, pathology and physiology which are closely aligned with biochemistry. The discussion of the selected diseases highlights exciting new developments and illuminates key biochemical pathways and commonalities. The article includes coverage of diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, microorganisms and disease, nutrition, liver disease and Alzheimer's disease, but does not attempt to be comprehensive in its coverage of disease, since this is beyond its remit and scope...
December 3, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Donghee Kim, Jeong-Eun Choi, Yongsoon Park
Conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into the longer chain n-3 PUFA has been suggested to be affected by the dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), but the mechanism is not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-LA diet with and without oestrogen on the fatty acid conversion enzymes and transcription factors. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0% n-3 PUFA or ALA, containing low or high amounts of LA for 12 weeks. At 8 weeks, the rats were injected with maize oil with or without 17β-oestradiol-3-benzoate (E) at constant intervals for the remaining 3 weeks...
December 3, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Helene Bohnert, Max Maurer, Philip C Calder, Johann Pratschke, Paul Thul, Verena Müller
BACKGROUND: Data on the use of lipid emulsions containing fish-oil (FO) derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in addition to medium- and long-chain triglycerides (MCT/LCT) for long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are limited. This study aimed to compare HPN regimens containing either MCT/LCT/FO-derived n-3 PUFAs (test group) or MCT/LCT (control group) with respect to efficacy and safety during 8 weeks of HPN using a non-inferiority trial design with change of body mass index (BMI) as primary endpoint...
November 30, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Shuifang Jin, Ronglin Jiang, Weibin Ma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Kazuya Higashizono, Sachiyo Nomura, Koichi Yagi, Susumu Aikou, Masato Nishida, Hiroharu Yamashita, Yasuyuki Seto
BACKGROUND: The reports of pregnancy after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 35-year-old woman, gravida 0, para 0, who became pregnant and delivered a baby 2 years and 6 months after laparoscopic-assisted total gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Postoperatively, she showed a good progress during the follow-up and was continuously taking oral iron supplement and administered with methylcobalamin intramuscular injection...
November 29, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
M S Hasan, A B Karim, M Rukunuzzaman, A Haque, M A Akhter, U K Shoma, F Yasmin, M A Rahman
Biliary atresia is the commonest cause of cholestatic jaundice. Early diagnosis & surgical correction helps long time survival & prevent development of cirrhosis. This study was conducted to find out the role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis of biliary atresia having positive hepatobiliary scintigraphy as there is chance of false positivity. This cross sectional study was carried out in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh at Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition Department from January 2014 to June 2015...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Eitan Fibach, Mutaz Dana
Cell oxidative status, which represents the balance between oxidants and antioxidants, is involved in normal functions. Under pathological conditions, there is a shift toward the oxidants, leading to oxidative stress, which is cytotoxic, causing oxidation of cellular components that result in cell death and organ damage. Thalassemia is a hereditary hemolytic anemia caused by mutations in globin genes that cause reduced or complete absence of specific globin chains (commonly, α or β). Although oxidative stress is not the primary etiology of thalassemia, it mediates several of its pathologies...
November 27, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Konstantin Kazankov, Simon Mark Dahl Jørgensen, Karen Louise Thomsen, Holger Jon Møller, Hendrik Vilstrup, Jacob George, Detlef Schuppan, Henning Grønbæk
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its inflammatory and often progressive subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are becoming the leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a primary indication for liver transplantation. The pathophysiology of NASH is multifactorial and not yet completely understood; however, innate immunity is a major contributing factor in which liver-resident macrophages (Kupffer cells) and recruited macrophages play a central part in disease progression...
November 27, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Thomas J Jönsson, Hans-Ludwig Schäfer, Andreas W Herling, Mark Brönstrup
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with alterations in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. In order to characterize the biochemical phenotype of the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, the most common animal model for the study of T2D, and the impact of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone, a global, mass spectrometry-based analysis of the metabolome was conducted. Overall, 420 metabolites in serum, 443 in the liver and 603 in the intestine were identified at study end. In comparison to two control groups, obese diabetic ZDF rats showed characteristic metabolic signatures that included hyperglycemia, elevated β-oxidation, dyslipidemia-featured by an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a decrease of medium chain and of polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum-and decreased amino acid levels, consistent with their utilization in hepatic gluconeogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Zobair M Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Janus Ong, Yusuf Yilmaz, Ajay Duseja, Yuichiro Eguchi, Mohamed El Kassas, Marlen Castellanos-Fernandez, Jacob George, Ira M Jacobson, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Marco Arrese, Victor de Ledinghen, Manuel Romero-Gomez, Nahum Mendez-Sanchez, Aijaz Ahmed, Robert Wong, Georgios Papatheodoridis, Lawrence Serfaty, Issah Younossi, Fatema Nader, Mariam Ziayee, Arian Afendy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic and alcohol-related fatty liver disease are overlapping diseases in which metabolic syndrome and alcohol consumption each contribute to progressive liver disease. We aimed to assess the effects of alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome on mortality in individuals with fatty liver. METHODS: We searched the National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey III for adults (20-74 years old) with hepatic steatosis, detected by ultrasound, for whom mortality and follow-up data were available...
November 23, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Özlem Varol Avcilar, Suzan Yalçin, E Ebru Onbasilar, M Shazaib Ramay
Many bedding materials have been tested in broiler industry for their suitability. However, little knowledge is available regarding the usage of different bedding materials supplemented with sepiolite and their effects on animal performance and final product quality. For this purpose, a total of 288 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into two types of bedding materials (wood shavings and rice hulls). Each bedding material group was divided into 3 sub-groups: control with 0% sepiolite, 25%-sepiolite group, and 50%-sepiolite group...
November 24, 2018: Poultry Science
Yana C Vierboom, Samuel H Preston, Andrew Stokes
BACKGROUND: The incidence and/or diagnosis of a major disease may activate weight change. Patterns of weight change associated with diagnoses have not been systematically documented. METHODS: We use data on adults ages 30+ in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999-2014. Self-reported current weight and weight one year prior are used to estimate percent weight change in the last year. We use self-reported data on arthritis, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver conditions, and respiratory disease diagnoses to compare weight change among individuals never diagnosed with these conditions, individuals diagnosed 0-1 years ago, and individuals diagnosed 2+ years ago...
2018: PloS One
Weiwei Jiang, GuangLin Chen, Jie Zhang, Xiaofeng Lv, Changgui Lu, Huan Chen, Wei Li, Hongxing Li, Qiming Geng, Xiaoqun Xu, Weibing Tang
BACKGROUND: There are many advantages of a SMOF emulsion (SMOF-lipid), such as liver-protective properties and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of SMOF-lipid with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) /long-chain triglycerides (LCT) in infants after intestinal surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized study. Neonates receiving intravenous nutrient solution, including lipid emulsion after gastrointestinal surgery, were included in this study...
November 24, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Ryusei Yamamoto, Yasuji Mokuno, Hideo Matsubara, Hirokazu Kaneko, Yozo Sato, Shinsuke Iyomasa
BACKGROUND: Chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle within the pleural space. Chylothorax can occur as a complication after multiple different types of surgery, most frequently after thoracic surgery, albeit with an incidence rate of less than 1%. Chylothorax after abdominal surgery is extremely rare, and there are only a few case reports. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old Japanese woman presented with jaundice. She was diagnosed as having hilar cholangiocarcinoma and underwent right hepatectomy, caudate lobectomy, extrahepatic bile duct resection, and lymph node dissection after preoperative percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Josep Llop-Talaveron, Maria B Badia-Tahull, Toni Lozano-Andreu, Ana Suarez-Lledo, Elisabet Leiva-Badosa
BACKGROUND: High doses and vegetable origin of lipid emulsions (LE) are prominent factors for liver test (LT) alterations in patients treated with parenteral nutrition (PN). This study aims to determine incidence of LT alterations, and risk factors related to these alterations in patients with short term PN with homogenous LE. METHODS: Adult non-critically ill hospitalized patients, with normal LTs at the beginning of PN, receiving 0.8 g/kg/day of an olive/soybean LE were included...
November 24, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Ho Jeong Do, Joon-Shik Shin, Jinho Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Me-Riong Kim, Dongwoo Nam, Eun-Jung Kim, Yeoncheol Park, Kristin Suhr, In-Hyuk Ha
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a major health concern for both men and women, and associated fractures incur substantial economic burden. While there are a multitude of studies on bone mineral density (BMD) and liver diseases, not many studies have assessed the association between liver enzyme levels and BMD in homogeneous populations. METHODS: The current study investigated the association between serum liver enzyme levels and BMD at various sites in Koreans. Out of 21,517 surveyees of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), 7160 participants' data on BMD, serum liver enzymes, and full covariate data were included for cross-sectional analysis...
November 24, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Valeria Maria Morittu, Maria Elena Pero, Nadia Musco, Vincenzo Mastellone, Raffaella Tudisco, Eugenio Provenzano, Domenico Britti, Francesco Menichini, Federico Infascelli, Pietro Lombardi
Aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential beneficial and/or adverse effects of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Fiesta) extracts at two stage of ripening (immature and mature), and at two dosages (low and high) by evaluation of biochemical profile and oxidative status in CD-1 mice. The extracts were daily administered to mice by oral gavage for 20 days. At the end of the trial, the animals were euthanatized and blood was collected. Evidence of liver damage (increase of AST, ALT and bilirubin) in the group receiving the higher dosage of immature peppers extract were observed...
November 23, 2018: Natural Product Research
Yuchun Zeng, Jérémie David, Didier Rémond, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux, Sergio Polakof
Although peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are widely used as a valuable tool able to provide biomarkers of health and diseases, little is known about PBMC functional (biochemistry-based) metabolism, particularly following short-term nutritional challenges. In the present study, the metabolic capacity of minipig PBMCs to respond to nutritional challenges was explored at the biochemical and molecular levels. The changes observed in enzyme activities following a control test meal revealed that PBMC metabolism is highly reactive to the arrival of nutrients and hormones in the circulation...
November 21, 2018: Nutrients
A P B Fruet, F S Stefanello, F Trombetta, A N M De Souza, A G Rosado Júnior, C J Tonetto, J L C Flores, R B Scheibler, R M Bianchi, P S Pacheco, A De Mello, J L Nörnberg
Inclusion of legume in grass pastures optimizes protein values of the forage and promotes improved digestibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that finishing steers on a novel combination of legumes and grass pasture would produce carcasses with acceptable traits when compared to carcasses from steers finished in feedlot systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of finishing steers on three systems including: grazing legume-grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover (PAST), grazing PAST plus supplementation with whole corn grain (14 g/kg BW (SUPP)), and on a feedlot-confined system with concentrate only (28 g/kg BW, consisting of 850 g/kg of whole corn grain and 150 g/kg of protein-mineral-vitamin supplement (GRAIN)) on growth performance of steers, carcass traits and digestive disorders...
November 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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