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Nutrition liver

Stephanie B Oliveira, Conrad R Cole
Medical management of children with Intestinal failure continues to evolve. The development of specialized teams focused on the management of these children has made the most significant impact in improving outcomes. Medical management strategies are centered on the provision of adequate fluid electrolytes and calories to allow for appropriate growth and neurological development. Enteral therapy and drugs are required to enhance bowel adaptation while parenteral nutrition is the main source of nutrients, electrolytes and fluid...
August 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Kathleen M Gura, McGreggor Crowley
Intravenous lipid emulsions are an integral part of nutrition therapy in the intestinal failure patient. In addition to being a concentrated source of non-protein calories, they provide the essential fatty acids necessary for growth and development. Depending upon the oil source used in these products, complications such as intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) can occur. This review will discuss the risks and benefits associated with these products, especially as they relate to the pediatric intestinal failure patient...
August 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Nadia Panera, Barbara Barbaro, Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifaceted disorder that ranges from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis, which may evolve toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is currently considered a "global" and "epidemic" disease, whose prevalence is progressively increasing even in pediatric age. The incidence of NAFLD is very high in overweight/obese children, and a greater risk of disease progression is associated with severe obesity, highlighting the role of nutrition...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Jose L Lepe-Zuniga, Virginia Ramirez-Nova
Childhood Lymphoblastic leukemia's (ALL) early mortality (EM) is an undesirable treatment outcome for a disease for which >90% long term success is achievable. In the Western world EM constitutes no >3%; yet, in Chiapas, Mexico, remains around 15%. With the objective of improving on EM, we determined associated elements in 28 ALL who died within 60 days of arriving at Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas in Chiapas (HEP), by comparing them to those in 84 controls who lived beyond the first 90 days...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Wenhao Chen, Changyi Yang, Hanqiang Chen, Baoquan Zhang
The present study aims to analyze the risk factors for metabolic bone disease (MBD) of prematurity.A total of 238 preterm infants who were born at <34 weeks of gestation and were hospitalized for at least 6 weeks in the Department of Neonatology, Fujian Maternity and Children Hospital between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2015 were enrolled in the study. Sixteen preterm infants diagnosed with MBD were selected as the case group, and 32 non-MBD preterm infants were matched 2:1 at admission into the study...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anna Fickler, Stefanie Staats, Mario Hasler, Gerald Rimbach, Carsten Schulz
The utilization of vegetable oils in salmonid diets substantially decreased the body content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), and thus the product quality for human consumption. Therefore, new ingredients for aquaculture feeds are needed that maximize the deposition of health-promoting n-3 LC-PUFA. This study investigated Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil, a plant oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and stearidonic acid (18:4n-3, SDA), as a source of n-3 fatty acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) nutrition...
October 17, 2018: Lipids
Zeng Wang, Yunsong Peng, Xinjun Cai, Yingying Cao, Guonong Yang, Ping Huang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Abdominal surgery significantly affects the structure and function of the gastrointestinal system of patients, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an important nutrition support method for postoperative patients. However, in the process of TPN practice, the excessive fat emulsion and compound amino-acid prescriptions ratio are often prescribed by doctors. To address the problem, we developed the computerized TPN prescription management system to promote the personalized provision of TPN...
October 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Q Ye, F Liu, X Wang, T Han, Y M Qi, F M Wang
Objective: To study the nutritional status and energy metabolic characteristics of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to provide evidence for clinical evaluation and intervention. Methods: A total of 359 NAFLD patients diagnosed on ultrasound from June 2015 to March 2017 were selected as study subjects and divided into mild, moderate to severe fatty liver disease group and 50 healthy subjects as control group. The changes of ICW, ECW, body fat, skeletal muscle, protein and visceral fat area (VFA) of patients and controls were analyzed by using body composition analyzer...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
R T Pate, D M Paulus Compart, F C Cardoso
Mitigation strategies are vital in minimizing the health and economic risks associated with dairy cattle exposure to aflatoxin (AF). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a commercially available aluminosilicate clay in a lactation diet on production responses, blood chemistry, and liver inflammatory markers of multiparous lactating Holstein cows during an AF challenge. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± SD) = 758 ± 76 kg; days in milk = 157 ± 43 d] were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods: no adsorbent and no AF challenge (CON), no adsorbent and an AF challenge (POS), 113 g of aluminosilicate clay top-dressed on the total mixed ration (adsorbent; FloMatrix, PMI Nutritional Additives, Arden Hills, MN) with an AF challenge (F4), or 227 g of adsorbent with an AF challenge (F8)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Radha Yadav, Debpriyo Kumar Dey, Rishika Vij, Sunita Meena, Rajeev Kapila, Suman Kapila
Interest in probiotics has grown significantly in the last decades due to their reported nutritional and health promoting effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) prepared using three different probiotic strains i.e. Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC: 5957, Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC: 5897 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC: 5898; independently or in combination, for treating streptozotocin induced type-1 diabetes in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were fed with PFM preparations for 6 weeks and then analyzed for the various biochemical parameters associated...
October 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yu Zhang, Weiliang Shen, Mingyue Cao, Juan Li, Baoxiao Zheng, Zhengjia Lou, Baoying Qian, Liangyi Xue
DNA methylation is susceptible to various environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and nutritional conditions, and can affect gene function, organ metabolism, body growth and development. In order to explore the effect of starvation on growth-related genes in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), we studied methylation of the global DNA and growth-related genes (MSTN1,MSTN2,IGF1,IGF2) and the corresponding mRNA expressions, using ELISA-based technique, bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) technique and quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) respectively...
October 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
K Cui, B Wang, T Ma, B W Si, N F Zhang, Y Tu, Q Y Diao
The present study aimed to investigate the compensatory effect of early protein restriction followed by a realimentation on growth performance of lamb and to explore the transcriptomic changes in liver. Thirty-two lambs with an initial birth weight of 2.3 ± 0.20 kg that were weaned on day 15 were randomly divided into two groups. The lambs were fed a basal diet with normal protein level (NPL, protein level in the milk replacer and starter, 25 and 21%, respectively) or low protein level (LPL, protein level in the milk replacer and starter, 19 and 15%, respectively) from 15 to 60 d, after which all lambs consumed the same diet with a normal protein level from 61 to 90 d...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sheng Li, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng
The insect fat body is analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver. In this review, the new and exciting advancements made in fat body biology in the last decade are summarized. Controlled by hormonal and nutritional signals, insect fat body cells undergo mitosis during embryogenesis, endoreplication during the larval stages, and remodeling during metamorphosis and regulate reproduction in adults. Fat body tissues are major sites for nutrient storage, energy metabolism, innate immunity, and detoxification...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Adriana R Weisstaub, María Victoria Salinas, María Jimena Correa, Magalí Barchuk, Gabriela Berg, Angela Zuleta
Wheat bread is a widely consumed food and is suitable for the introduction of functional ingredients. The aim of this work was to study the effects of bread with garlic and resistant starch as a fiber source on physiological, metabolic, and functional parameters using an in vivo Wistar rat model. Rats were fed with three diets: a control diet prepared according to the American Institute of Nutrition (C), and two semisynthetic diets containing wheat bread (B) and wheat bread with garlic, resistant starch and calcium citrate (BGR)...
October 12, 2018: Food & Function
Yvonne N Flores, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Roshan Bastani, Mei Leng, Catherine M Crespi, Paula Ramírez-Palacios, Heather Stevens, Jorge Salmerón
AIM: To compare the prevalence of chronic liver disease (CLD) risk factors in a representative sample of Mexican-Americans born in the United States (US) or Mexico, to a sample of adults in Mexico. METHODS: Data for Mexican-Americans in the US were obtained from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which includes persons of Mexican origin living in the US ( n = 4274). The NHANES sample was restricted to Mexican-American participants who were 20 years and older, born in the US or Mexico, not pregnant or breastfeeding, and with medical insurance...
October 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jeongmin Lee, Jeonghoon Ha, Kwanhoon Jo, Dong-Jun Lim, Jung-Min Lee, Sang-Ah Chang, Moo-Il Kang, Bong-Yun Cha, Min-Hee Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent liver disease encompassing a broad spectrum of pathologic changes in the liver. Metabolic derangements are suggested to be main causes of NAFLD. As thyroid hormone is a main regulator of energy metabolism, there may be a link between NAFLD and thyroid function. In previous studies, the association between NAFLD and thyroid function was not conclusive. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between NAFLD and thyroid function, focusing on subclinical hypothyroidism, using nationwide survey data representing the Korean population...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shun Onishi, Tatsuru Kaji, Seiro Machigashira, Waka Yamada, Ryuta Masuya, Kazuhiko Nakame, Masato Kawano, Keisuke Yano, Koji Yamada, Takafumi Kawano, Motoi Mukai, Takako Yoshioka, Akihide Tanimoto, Satoshi Ieiri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Fish oil (FO) lipid emulsion and a new lipid emulsion (SMOF) are important treatments for intestinal failure-associated liver disease. We evaluated the efficacy of FO and SMOF lipid emulsion on intestinal mucosal adaptation using a total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-supported rat model of short bowel syndrome. MATERIAL & METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and 90% small bowel resection and were divided into three groups: TPN with soy bean oil lipid emulsion (SO group), FO lipid emulsion (FO group), or SMOF (SMOF group)...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Juan Yang, Xiao-Bin Wu, Hong-Lei Chen, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse, Hong-Bo Zhong, Chun Cui
The action of β-glucosidase and protease of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SWJS22 in the fermentation of soybean meal caused a significant increase 1): in total phenolic and flavonoid contents with two-fold or higher, largely associated with daidzein, glycitein, genistein, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic acids; 2): the amount of peptides <3 kDa, maillard reaction intermediate and maillard reaction product with five-, three- and twenty-one-fold, respectively. The significant increase in the amount of antioxidant components in the lyophilised fermented soybean meal supernatant (LFSMS) was associated with the improved antioxidant activity...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Anna Schweinlin, Sina Ulbrich, Sina Stauß, Melanie Teutsch, Hardy Walle, Maryam Basrai, Stephan C Bischoff
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is mainly treated with caloric restriction and consecutive weight reduction. Protein, in exchange for starch and sugar as well as monounsaturated and long chain omega-3-fatty acids and prebiotic β-glucan, are thought to be supportive.In a randomized controlled intervention study, two different dietary concepts were tested regarding effects on intrahepatic lipid content as well as on biochemical parameters in patients with a body-mass-index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2 and signs of fatty liver disease...
October 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Kathryn E Rhue, Allison A Biddick, Kelly M Foltz, Robert C Cole, Joseph C Newton, Lenore A Bacek
OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of a case of emphysematous gastritis (EG) in a cat. CASE SERIES SUMMARY: A 15-year-old female neutered domestic short-hair cat presented for a 4-month history of weight loss and intermittent vomiting. Clinicopathologic and imaging findings suggested an underlying primary gastrointestinal (GI) disease, as well as possible hepatobiliary disease. Two days following exploratory laparotomy to obtain GI and liver biopsies, the patient became septic and intracellular bacteria were present on cytology of peritoneal effusion...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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