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follicle development

Isabele Picada Emanuelli, Camila Bortoliero Costa, Luciana Simões Rafagnin Marinho, Marcelo Marcondes Seneda, Flávio Vieira Meirelles
This study investigated the interactions between cumulus cells (CCs) and oocytes and programmed cell death in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with different morphological characteristics. DNA fragmentation was assessed in CCs at 0 and 24 h of maturation, as well as parthenogenetic developmental competence on the 9th day post-activation, blastocyst quality and BCL-2 and BAX transcript levels in matured CCs. Most immature oocytes in the COC-A group (full cumulus and several compact layers) were in the initial germinal vesicle (iGV) stage, exhibiting minimal or no DNA damage...
November 26, 2018: Theriogenology
M G Favoreto, B Loureiro, R L Ereno, A G Pupulim, V Queiroz, Natieli Andrade da Silva, C M Barros
The number of antral follicles counted by ultrasound (AFC) is associated with fertility in cattle. Cows with higher follicle count (HFC) have higher performance in reproductive-assisted technologies than cows with lower follicle count (LFC). In this study, we aimed to define the preantral follicle count by histology and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using a microarray in Nelore and Angus heifers with HFC and LFC. The ovaries of each animal were scanned with an ultrasound device 12-24 hours after estrus...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Haoran Shen, Yao Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 signaling pathway in development of ovarian follicle by promoting apoptosis of granulosa cells in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A total of 54 female rats were obtained and randomly assigned into the PCOS (n = 27) and control groups ( n = 27). PCOS rat models were constructed using the dehydroepi-androsterone method to observe ovarian morphology and ultrastructure...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Chloe Broughton, Jane Mears, Adam Williams, Kathryn Lonnen
Pituitary adenomas can be classified as functioning or non-functioning adenomas. Approximately 64% of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas are found to be gonadotroph adenomas on immunohistochemistry. There are reported cases of gonadotroph adenomas causing clinical symptoms, but this is unusual. We present the case of a 36-year-old female with abdominal pain. Multiple large ovarian cysts were identified on ultrasound requiring bilateral cystectomy. Despite this, the cysts recurred resulting in further abdominal pain, ovarian torsion and right oophorectomy and salpingectomy...
December 11, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Johanna Blair de Haan, Nadia Hernandez, Sudipta Sen
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the terminal hair follicle of the apocrine gland-bearing skin, presenting with inflamed nodules, abscesses, and sinus tracts. Autoimmune, genetic, and infectious factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. HS can be managed medically using topical and systemic antibiotics and with tumor necrosis factor antibody therapy in severe cases. Surgical treatment can range from local excision, deroofing or excision of sinus tracts, or wide radical excision of severe lesions...
2018: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Xi Shi, Shiwei Qiu, Wei Zhuang, Caiji Wang, Shili Zhang, Na Yuan, Fukang Yuan, Yuehua Qiao
Background: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has multiple biological functions. It is currently considered that FSH can inhibit cervical cancer, and our aim was to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: An in vivo experiment using nude mice injected with HeLa cells was performed. Flow cytometry, western blotting, and real-time quantitative PCR analyses were done. Results: Twenty one days after injection of HeLa cells, the subcutaneous tumor mass was significantly lower ( P <0...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
S Wohlres-Viana, E K N Arashiro, T P Minare, C A C Fernandes, J G V Grazia, L G B Siqueira, M A Machado, J H M Viana
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of expression of LHCGR isoforms in Gir heifers characterized as good (10.3 ± 1.2 ova/embryos per flush, n = 5) or poor responders (1.1 ± 0.3 ova/embryos per flush, n = 5) to superovulation protocols. In both groups, an adapted ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration system was used to collect granulosa cells from 8 mm follicles formed either during a synchronized, non-stimulated follicular wave (no stimulation control, NS) or on the fourth day of a superovulation protocol (SOV) induced with 200 IU of pFSH...
December 3, 2018: Theriogenology
Anh Tuan Nguyen, Jolyn H Z Chia, Yukinori Kazeto, P Mark Lokman
Despite tremendous importance of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) as primary controllers of reproductive development, information on the expression profiles of the genes encoding gonadotropin subunits and gonadotropin receptors (Fshr and Lhr) in wild eels are essentially non-existent. This study investigated pituitary fshb and lhb mRNA levels and ovarian fshr and lhr mRNA levels of wild shortfinned eels, Anguilla australis at different stages of oogenesis. Protein expression of Fsh in the pituitary was also quantified and visualized using slot blot and immunohistochemistry...
December 6, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Karma Pearce, Kelton Tremellen
Previous observational studies have suggested that β-cryptoxanthin, a micronutrient present in yellow and orange fruit and vegetables, may help delay the onset of menopause. Given the widespread social trend of delaying pregnancy, the possibility that β-cryptoxanthin supplementation may delay age-related loss of fertility and onset of menopause is of significant interest. In a parallel study, either saline or β-cryptoxanthin (5 µg/kg rat/day) was delivered to Wistar albino rats via an osmotic pump from 4 to 7 months of age...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Brodie Miles, Elizabeth Connick
Follicular regulatory T cells (Tfr) are a unique subset of CD4 T cells that control and impact adaptive immune responses in the lymphoid follicles and germinal centers (GC). Since their relatively recent discovery, several studies have revealed that Tfr interact with other cells within this niche and shape ensuing responses. Recent advances defining the functional and developmental characteristics of Tfr have revealed key characteristics of Tfr differentiation, GC recruitment and retention, and regulatory properties...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Takashi Senda, Pranay Dogra, Tomer Granot, Kazuhiro Furuhashi, Mark E Snyder, Dustin J Carpenter, Peter A Szabo, Puspa Thapa, Michelle Miron, Donna L Farber
Defining adaptive immunity with the complex structures of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract over life is essential for understanding immune responses to ingested antigens, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, and dysfunctions in disease. We present here an analysis of lymphocyte localization and T cell subset composition across the human GI tract including mucosal sites (jejunum, ileum, colon), gut-associated lymphoid tissues (isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs), Peyer's patches (PPs), appendix), and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) from a total of 68 donors spanning eight decades of life...
December 6, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Yuying Sun, Shuping Chen, Yong Tan
To explore the influence for combination of nourishing yin and tonifying yang sequential therapy (NYTYST) with Western medicine in treating anovulatory infertility rats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) based on TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway. 
 Methods: A total of 40 female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, a normal control group, a model group, a Western medicine group, a NYTYST group and a combination group (n=8 in each group). The DOR model was established through orally taking tripterygium pill for continuous 2 weeks...
October 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Junsong Yuan, Yan Deng, Yingying Zhang, Xiang Gan, Shanyan Gao, Hang Hu, Shenqiang Hu, Jiwei Hu, Hehe Liu, Liang Li, Jiwen Wang
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has an important role in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. It, however, is still unclear as to the mechanisms by which BMP4 regulates the apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs) in geese. In the present study, there was cloning of the full-length coding sequence of goose BMP4 gene, which consisted of 1212 nucleotides encoding 403 amino acids. Its deduced amino acid sequence comprised one signal peptide, one TGFβ pro-peptide and one mature peptide domain...
December 1, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Daolun Yu, Li Zhang, Hejian Wang, Fanghui Chen, Jie Chen, Zongmeng Zhang, Jie Li, Chaofeng Xing, Honglin Li, Jun Li, Yafei Cai
The egg production of poultry depends on follicular development and selection. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying the priority of selecting of hierarchical follicles is completely unknown. SMAD9 is one of the important transcription factors in the BMP/SMAD pathway and is involved in goose follicular initiation. To identify its potential role in determination of the goose follicle hierarchy, we used BMP type I receptor inhibitor LDN-193189 both in vivo and in vitro and found that SMAD9 mRNA expression decreased in the presence of LDN-193189...
November 22, 2018: Theriogenology
Deli Hong, Andrew J Fritz, Jonathan A Gordon, Coralee E Tye, Joseph R Boyd, Kirsten M Tracy, Seth E Frietze, Frances E Carr, Jeffrey A Nickerson, Andre J Van Wijnen, Anthony N Imbalzano, Sayyed K Zaidi, Jane B Lian, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein
The RUNX1 transcription factor has recently been shown to be obligatory for normal development. RUNX1 controls the expression of genes essential for proper development in many cell lineages and tissues including blood, bone, cartilage, hair follicles, and mammary glands. Compromised RUNX1 regulation is associated with many cancers. In this review, we highlight evidence for RUNX1 control in both invertebrate and mammalian development and recent novel findings of perturbed RUNX1 control in breast cancer that has implications for other solid tumors...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Amanda Setti, Gabriela Halpern, Daniela Braga, Rita Figueira, Assumpto Iaconelli, Edson Borges
PURPOSE: To study the association between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and response to controlled ovarian stimulation, semen quality, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. METHODS: This prospective observational study included data from 402 couples undergoing ICSI between January/2010-September/2016. Participants had their weight, height, waist, and hip measured before ICSI treatment...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Akira Takahashi, Mizuki Nagata, Aditi Gupta, Yuki Matsushita, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi, Koji Mizuhashi, Koutaro Maki, Antonio C Ruellas, Lucia S Cevidanes, Henry M Kronenberg, Noriaki Ono, Wanida Ono
Formation of functional skeletal tissues requires highly organized steps of mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation. The dental follicle (DF) surrounding the developing tooth harbors mesenchymal progenitor cells for various differentiated cells constituting the tooth root-bone interface and coordinates tooth eruption in a manner dependent on signaling by parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR). However, the identity of mesenchymal progenitor cells in the DF and how they are regulated by PTHrP-PPR signaling remain unknown...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yaolin Song, Ana C Boncompagni, Sang-Seok Kim, Heather R Gochnauer, Yuhang Zhang, Gabriela G Loots, Dianqing Wu, Yulin Li, Mingang Xu, Sarah E Millar
Haired skin is a defining characteristic of mammals. However, some specialized skin regions, such as human palms, soles and ventral wrist, and mouse plantar foot, are entirely hairless. Using mouse plantar skin as a model system, we show that the endogenous secreted Wnt inhibitor DKK2 suppresses plantar hair follicle development and permits the formation of hairless skin. Plantar skin retains all of the mechanistic components needed for hair follicle development, as genetic deletion of Dkk2 permits formation of fully functional plantar hair follicles that give rise to external hair, contain sebaceous glands and a stem cell compartment, and undergo regenerative growth...
November 29, 2018: Cell Reports
Leandro M Velez, Giselle A Abruzzese, María F Heber, Silvana R Ferreira, Alicia B Motta
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is a nuclear factor that may act on the early development of ovarian follicles and on follicular steroidogenesis. However, the exact mechanism of PPARG action remains unknown. We have previously found that androgen excess alters early ovarian function and the PPARG system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether PPARG activation (using the synthetic ligand pioglitazone (PGZ)) ameliorates the alterations in early ovarian function induced by androgen excess...
September 22, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Shinji Oki
Reserch progresses in understanding the pathogenicity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last couple of decade has enabled us to develop new drug entities available in the clinic. However, we still have not succeeded in preventing conversion from relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) to secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) and curing this intractable form of MS. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective and subjective, relying on gradual worsening of neurological signs/symptoms. This is obviously due to the lack of understanding for the pathogenicity driving disease progression in MS and of reliable biomarkers reflecting the progressive or stationary disease status...
November 30, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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