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follicle development

Long Bai, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yi-Min Zhu, Peter C K Leung
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent enzyme that maintains and stabilizes the extracellular matrix (ECM) by catalyzing the cross-linking of elastin and collagen. ECM within the ovarian follicle plays a crucial role in regulating follicular development and oocyte maturation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) belongs to the BMP subfamily that has been shown to be involved in the process of ovarian folliculogenesis and luteal formation. To date, whether BMP2 regulates the activity of LOX during human follicular development remains to be elucidated...
October 12, 2018: Cellular Signalling
David Pépin, Mary E Sabatini, Patricia K Donahoe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The nascent field of oncofertility is quickly gaining traction as novel experimental treatments are being developed, driving a renewed interest in Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) as an ovarian fertoprotectant. RECENT FINDINGS: MIS is unique in its mechanisms of ovarian protection by virtue of acting directly on granulosa cells of primordial follicles and for being a benign reproductive hormone, with few side effects. We will explore in this review how it may be utilized to protect the ovary from chemotherapy, or to enhance ovarian tissue cryopreservation therapy...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Yiyan Wang, Lubin Xie, Erpo Tian, Xiaoheng Li, Zina Wen, Linchao Li, Lanlan Chen, Ying Zhong, Ren-Shan Ge
Oncostatin M (OSM) is a pleiotropic cytokine within the interleukin six family of cytokines, which regulate cell growth and differentiation in a wide variety of biological systems. However, its action and underlying mechanisms on stem Leydig cell development are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether OSM affects the proliferation and differentiation of rat stem Leydig cells. We used a Leydig cell regeneration model in rat testis and a unique seminiferous tubule culture system after ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) treatment to assess the ability of OSM in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of rat stem Leydig cells...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Rehana Rehman, Tooba Irfan, Shireen Jawed, Mehwish Hussain, Rabiya Ali
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of good-quality embryos in acquiring pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and to predict factors required for development of embryos. METHODS: The quasi-experimental study was conducted from June 2010 to August 2012 at Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples and comprised infertile females who received long-term gonadotropin agonist protocol for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Basal estradiol and antral follicle count was measured at baseline, while estradiol, progesterone and interleukin levels with pre-ovulatory follicle count were evaluated on the ovulation induction day...
October 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Dylane M Wineland, Daniel J Kelpsch, Tina L Tootle
While nuclear actin was reported ~50 years ago, it's in vivo prevalence and structure remain largely unknown. Here we use Drosophila oogenesis, i.e. follicle development, to characterize nuclear actin. We find that three different reagents - DNase I, anti-actin C4, and anti-actin AC15 - recognize distinct pools of nuclear actin. DNase I labels monomeric or G-actin, and, during follicle development, G-actin is present in the nucleus of every cell. Some G-actin is recognized by the C4 antibody. In particular, C4 nuclear actin colocalizes with DNase I to the nucleolus in anterior escort cells, follicle stem cells, some mitotic follicle cells, and a subset of nurse cells during early oogenesis...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
J F Cox, F Navarrete, A Carrasco, J Dorado, F Saravia
This study used a comparative approach to gather clinical information to assess the effect of bovine somatotropin (bST) on follicular dynamics and ovulation in sheep and goats during an interovulatory cycle. The performance of general markers of ovarian function and specific features of follicular dynamics obtained by daily ultrasonography (US) were used to assess the hypothesis that bST, associated with supraphysiological levels of IGF-I, was able to disrupt the follicular dynamics and ovulation in Highlander ewes and Saanen goats...
October 3, 2018: Theriogenology
Bong-Seok Song, Pil-Soo Jeong, Jong-Hee Lee, Moon-Hyung Lee, Hae-Jun Yang, Seon-A Choi, Hwal-Yong Lee, Seung-Bin Yoon, Young-Ho Park, Kang-Jin Jeong, Young-Hyun Kim, Yeung Bae Jin, Ji-Su Kim, Bo-Woong Sim, Jae-Won Huh, Sang-Rae Lee, Deog-Bon Koo, Kyu-Tae Chang, Sun-Uk Kim
Successful production of transgenic pigs requires oocytes with a high developmental competence. However, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) obtained from antral follicles have a heterogeneous morphology. COCs can be classified into one of two classes: class I, with five or more layers of cumulus cells; and class II, with one or two layers of cumulus cells. Activator [e.g., epidermal growth factor (EGF)] or inhibitors (e.g., wortmannin and U0126) are added to modulate kinases in oocytes during meiosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of kinase modulation on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in COCs...
2018: PloS One
V Squicciarini, R Riquelme, K Wilsterman, G E Bentley, H E Lara
RFamide-related peptide (RFRP-3) is a regulator of GnRH secretion from the brain, but it can also act in human ovary to influence steroidogenesis. We aimed to study the putative local role of RFRP-3 in the ovary and its potential participation in the development of a polycystic ovary phenotype induced by chronic sympathetic stress (cold stress). We used adult Sprague–Dawley rats divided into control and stressed groups. In both groups, we studied the effect of intraovarian exposure to RFRP-3 on follicular development and plasma ovarian steroid concentrations...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Warakorn Cheewasopit, Mhairi Laird, Claire Glister, Phil G Knight
Myostatin plays a negative role in skeletal muscle growth regulation but its potential role in the ovary has received little attention. Here, we first examined relative expression of myostatin (MSTN), myostatin receptors (ACVR1B, ACVR2B and TGFBR1) and binding protein, follistatin (FST), in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cells of developing bovine follicles. Secondly, using primary GC and TC cultures, we investigated whether myostatin affects steroidogenesis and cell number. Thirdly, effects of gonadotropins and other intrafollicular factors on MSTN expression in GC and TC were examined...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
John J Peluso, Xiufang Liu, Tracy Uliasz, Cindy A Pru, Nicole C Kelp, James K Pru
To determine whether conditional depletion of progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and PGRMC2 affected ovarian follicle development, follicle distribution was assessed in ovaries of young (≈3-month-old) and middle-aged (≈6-month-old) control (Pgrmc1/2fl/fl) and double conditional PGRMC1/2-knockout (Pgrmc1/2d/d) mice. This study revealed that the distribution of primary, preantral and antral follicles was not altered in Pgrmc1/2d/d mice, regardless of the age. Although the number of primordial follicles was similar at ≈3 months of age, their numbers were reduced by ≈80% in 6-month-old Pgrmc1/2d/d mice compared to age-matched Pgrmc1/2fl/fl mice...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Amy L Winship, Sarah E Gazzard, Luise A Cullen-McEwen, John F Bertram, Karla J Hutt
The ovarian reserve of primordial follicle oocytes is formed during in utero development and represents the entire supply of oocytes available to sustain female fertility. Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation diminishes offspring ovarian reserve in rats. In mice, maternal oocyte maturation is also susceptible to undernutrition, causing impaired offspring cardiovascular function. We aimed to determine whether programming of the ovarian reserve is impacted in offspring when maternal undernutrition extends from preconception oocyte development through to weaning...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Kun Huang, Yujie Dang, Pan Zhang, Cong Shen, Xuesong Sui, Guoliang Xia, Yingying Qin, Xue Jiao, Chao Wang, Ran Huo, Zi-Jiang Chen
STUDY QUESTION: What is the function of CAV1 in folliculogenesis and female reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER: CAV1 regulates germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle (PF) formation in mice, and CAV1 mutation may be related to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Pre-granulosa cells are essential for the establishment of the PF pool, which determines female fertility and reproductive lifespan. Cav1 participates in vascularization in fetal mouse ovaries...
October 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Shiran Yakovi, Ido Izhaki, Moshe Ben-Ami, Johnny S Younis
The pathophysiology of the genuine empty follicle syndrome (EFS) is still debated. Ovarian aging has been contested as a cause of this condition. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of the genuine EFS in cases of a low number of mature follicles in a prospective manner. Ninety-five infertile women were recruited and evaluated following conventional controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with ≤ six follicles of ≥14 mm diameter on the day of hCG administration. Enrolled women were 37.5 ± 5...
October 10, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Gláucia Pereira Alves, Fernanda Bertuccez Cordeiro, Camila Bruna de Lima, Kelly Annes, Érika Cristina Dos Santos, Jéssica Ispada, Patrícia Kubo Fontes, Marcelo Fabio Gouveia Nogueira, Marcílio Nichi, Marcella Pecora Milazzotto
Follicular fluid composition and the transcription pattern of granulosa cells were analysed to better comprehend associations between embryo development and morphokinetics. Bovine follicles were punctured and their respective follicular fluid and granulosa cells were collected. Cumulus-oocyte complexes derived from these follicles were matured and fertilised in vitro. Embryo morphology and kinetics were evaluated at 40 h after insemination, when embryos were classified as fast (FCL, four or more cells), slow (SCL, 2-3 cells) or non-cleaved (NCL)...
October 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Soyoun Um, Joo-Hee Lee, Byoung-Moo Seo
Bone formation is important for the reconstruction of bone-related structures in areas that have been damaged by inflammation. Inflammatory conditions such as those that occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, cystic fibrosis, and periodontitis have been shown to inhibit osteoblastic differentiation. This study focussed on dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), which are found in developing tooth germ and participate in the reconstruction of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue in periodontal disease. After bacterial infection of inflamed dental tissue, the destruction of bone was observed...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Mei Jin, Ming Cao, Qian Cao, Jun Piao, Fengqin Zhao, Jing'ai Piao
Cashmere produced from Liaoning cashmere goat is highly valuable. Melatonin is an important factor affecting cashmere growth and can regulate the growth cycle via effects on gene expression. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression, but detailed studies of their effect on hair growth are lacking. To explore how lncRNA mediates the effects of melatonin on cashmere growth, we used RNA-Seq including a control condition (C) and three melatonin treatments (1.0 g/L 24 h (M1_24H), 0.2 g/L 24 h (M2_24H), 0...
September 26, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Bob Z Sun, Tairmae Kangarloo, Judith M Adams, Patrick M Sluss, Corrine K Welt, Donald W Chandler, David T Zava, John A McGrath, David M Umbach, Janet E Hall, Natalie D Shaw
Context: Menstrual irregularity after menarche has been attributed to immature estrogen positive feedback activity (E+FB) but data are conflicting. Objective: To determine the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian contributions to menstrual irregularity in adolescents. Methods: 23 healthy girls (aged 12.8-17.6 years, 0.4-3.5 years post-menarche, BMI [body mass index] percentile 41.0-99.3) underwent serial hormone measurements and pelvic ultrasounds during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Akihiko Sakashita, Takuya Wakai, Yukiko Kawabata, Chiaki Nishimura, Yusuke Sotomaru, Kris G Alavattam, Satoshi H Namekawa, Tomohiro Kono
The fertility of sex-reversed XY female mice is severely impaired by a massive loss of oocytes and failure of meiotic progression. This phenomenon remains an outstanding mystery. We sought to determine the molecular etiology of XY oocyte dysfunction by generating sex-reversed females that bear genetic ablation of Sry, a vital sex determination gene, on an inbred C57BL/6 background. These mutant mice, termed XYsry- mutants, showed severe attrition of germ cells during fetal development, resulting in the depletion of ovarian germ cells prior to sexual maturation...
October 4, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Erick Augusto Bassi, Classius de Oliveira, Henrique B Braz, Selma Maria de Almeida-Santos
The processes of follicular development, ovulation, egg capture, and egg transport vary among vertebrates. Therefore, analysis of the reproductive tract of several lineages is needed for understanding the evolutionary changes of the reproductive system. In turtles, the ovulated eggs are released into the coelomic cavity and taken up by one of the two oviducts, a phenomenon called extrauterine migration of eggs. However, the process of egg uptake in lizards is different. The egg is ovulated directly into the infundibulum, and oocyte uptake by the contralateral oviduct rarely occurs...
October 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Marcela Pinheiro Paz, Francisca Geovania Canafístula de Sousa, Benner Geraldo Alves, Carlos Henrique Lobo, Antonia Débora Sales, Kaio Cesar Simiano Tavares, Naíza Arcângela Ribeiro de Sá, Denise Damasceno Guerreiro, Carolina Maside, Rebeca Magalhães Pedrosa Rocha, Luciana Relly Bertolini, Vilceu Bordignon, José Ricardo de Figueiredo, Ana Paula Ribeiro Rodrigues
SummaryThe objectives were to develop an effective protocol for transfection of ovine secondary follicles and to assess the effect of attenuating aquaporin 3 (AQP3) using a small interfering RNA (siRNA-AQP3) on antrum formation and follicular growth in vitro. Various combinations of Lipofectamine® volumes (0.5, 0.75 or 1.0 µl), fluorescent oligonucleotide (BLOCK-iT ™) concentrations (3.18, 27.12 or 36.16 nM) and exposure times (12, 14, 16, 18 or 20 h) were tested. The BLOCK-iT™ was replaced by siRNA-AQP3 in the transfection complex...
October 5, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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