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follicle development

Cyril Seillet, Elysa Carr, Derek Lacey, Michael D Stutz, Marc Pellegrini, Lachlan Whitehead, Joel Rimes, Edwin D Hawkins, Ben Roediger, Gabrielle T Belz, Philippe Bouillet
BPSM1 (Bone phenotype spontaneous mutant 1) mice develop severe polyarthritis and heart valve disease as a result of a spontaneous mutation in the Tnf gene. In these mice, the insertion of a retrotransposon in the 3' untranslated region of Tnf causes a large increase in the expression of the cytokine. We have found that these mice also develop inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT), as well as nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) in the bone marrow. Loss of TNFR1 prevents the development of both types of follicles, but deficiency of TNFR1 in the hematopoietic compartment only prevents the iBALT and not the NLH phenotype...
August 14, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Huanbin Xu, Widade Ziani, Jiasheng Shao, Lara A Doyle-Meyers, Kasi E Russell-Lodrigue, Marion S Ratterree, Ronald S Veazey, Xiaolei Wang
Germinal center (GC) CD4+ follicular Th (Tfh) cells are critical for cognate B cell help in humoral immune responses to pathogenic infections. Although Tfh cells are expanded or depleted in HIV/SIV-infected adults, the effects of pediatric HIV/SIV infection on Tfh cells remain unclear. In this study, we examined changes in lymphoid follicle formation in lymph nodes focusing on GC Tfh cells, B cell development, and differentiation in SIV-infected neonatal rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) compared with age-matched cohorts...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Zia Ur Rehman, Faheem Ahmad Khan, Farmanullah, Hira Sajjad Talpur, Qing Liu, Shenhe Liu, Liguo Yang
The predisposition for the initiation of folliculogenesis in mammals including humans is programmed to start at fetal life and continues until reproductive capacity. The follicles grow from a pool of primordial follicles which retain the major functions in the entire reproductive life of a female. Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), a glycoprotein belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family, has an inhibitory effect on ovarian follicle development. The key regulatory target genes in primordial follicle development are of paramount importance in reproductive biology of female...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Izabela Szczerbal, Paulina Krzeminska, Stanislaw Dzimira, Tuire Maria Tamminen, Seppo Saari, Wojciech Nizanski, Maciej Gogulski, Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Marek Switonski
The genetic background of disorders of sex development (DSDs) in cats is poorly understood, due to a relatively low number of such studies in this species. Here we present three new DSD cases with different complements of sex chromosomes. The first, an Oriental Shorthair cat with a rudimentary penis, abdominal atrophic testicles and lack of uterus appeared to be a freemartin, since leucocyte chimerism XX/XY and a lack of Y-linked genes (SRY and ZFY) were observed in DNA isolated from hair follicles. XXY trisomy was identified in the second case, a tortoiseshell Devon Rex male cat with atrophic scrotal testicles and a normal penis...
August 11, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Giovana Souza Branco, Aline Gomes Melo, Juliana M B Ricci, Melanie Digmayer, Lázaro W O de Jesus, Hamid R Habibi, Rafael Henrique Nóbrega
In vertebrates, the pituitary gonadotropins Fsh (follicle-stimulating hormone) and Lh (luteinizing hormone) control testicular development and function. In the pituitary, on the other hand, the synthesis and release of the gonadotropins relies on a complex regulatory system, which involves different signaling systems, such as GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and GnIH (gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone) neuropeptides. While GnRH exerts stimulatory roles on gonadotropin release and reproduction, the actions of GnIH remain incipient and controversial for many teleost species...
August 8, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Lina Qi, Nannan Guo, Quanwei Wei, Pengjin Jin, Wei Wang, Dagan Mao
The nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) members play important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The current study first evaluate the expression of ovarian NR4A1 during different luteal stages in rats. Immature rats aged 28 days were treated with sequential Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) (D -2) / human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (D 0) to induce pseudopregnancy. Serum progesterone (P4 ) and ovarian expression of NR4A1 were detected by RIA and WB, respectively, at follicle stage (D 0), early (D 2), middle (D 7) and late (D 14 and D 20) luteal stages...
August 7, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Lucia Lanciotti, Marta Cofini, Alberto Leonardi, Laura Penta, Susanna Esposito
Minipuberty consists of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis during the neonatal period, resulting in high gonadotropin and sex steroid levels, and occurs mainly in the first 3-6 months of life in both sexes. The rise in the levels of these hormones allows for the maturation of the sexual organs. In boys, the peak testosterone level is associated with penile and testicular growth and the proliferation of gonadic cells. In girls, the oestradiol levels stimulate breast tissue, but exhibit considerable fluctuations that probably reflect the cycles of maturation and atrophy of the ovarian follicles...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ziran Xu, Xia He, Xu Shi, Yuhan Xia, Xiaomei Liu, Haitao Wu, Pengdong Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weisi Yin, Xiubo Du, Lisha Li, Yulin Li
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into hepatocytes has important clinical significance in providing a new stem cell source for cell therapy of terminal liver disease. The differential gene expression analysis of hiPSCs, induced hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) provides valuable information for optimization of an induction scheme and exploration of differentiation mechanisms. METHODS: Human hair follicle-derived iPSCs (hHF-iPSCs) were induced in vitro by mimicking the environment of a developing liver for 19 days...
August 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jerry W Hupp, David H Ward, David X Soto, Keith A Hobson
The macronutrients that Arctic herbivores invest in their offspring are derived from endogenous reserves of fat and protein (capital) that females build prior to the period of investment or from foods they consume concurrently with investment (income). The relative contribution from each source can be influenced by temporal and environmental constraints on a female's ability to forage on Arctic breeding areas. Warming temperatures and advancing Arctic phenology may alter those constraints. From 2011-2014, we examined relationships among spring temperature, timing of migration and reproduction, and the sources of nutrients females deposited in eggs for three sympatric species of geese that nested in northern Alaska...
August 9, 2018: Global Change Biology
Saritvich Panyaboriban, Theerawat Tharasanit, Vibuntita Chankitisakul, Theerawat Swangchan-Uthai, Mongkol Techakumphu
The cryopreservation of embryos is a technology developed for long-term genetic preservation. However, high sensitivity to low temperatures due to a large number of intracellular lipids within ruminant embryos compromises the success of this technique. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of using of lipolytic chemical agent forskolin, during in vitro producing of buffalo and bovine embryos on lipid contents, cryotolerance and subsequent developmental competence of these embryos. Buffalo and bovine oocytes were collected by the aspiration technique from follicles and submitted for in vitro fertilisation; the embryos were later divided into four experiments...
August 6, 2018: Cryobiology
Rasha T Hamza, Marwa F Mira, Amira I Hamed, Treiz Ezzat, Mahmoud T Sallam
Most girls with Turner syndrome (TS) suffer from incomplete sexual development, premature ovarian failure, and infertility due to abnormal ovarian folliculogenesis. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels reflect the ovarian reserve in females, even in childhood. Thus, we aimed to assess serum AMH levels in girls with TS and its relation to karyotype, spontaneous puberty, and growth hormone (GH) therapy. Fifty TS were compared to 50 age- and sex-matched controls. All subjects were subjected to history, anthropometric assessment, Tanner pubertal staging and measurement of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), and AMH...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Emil H Ernst, Julie Nielsen, Malene B Ipsen, Palle Villesen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann
Emerging evidence indicated that many long non-coding (lnc)RNAs function in multiple biological processes and dysregulation of their expression can cause diseases. Most regulatory lncRNAs interact with biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. LncRNAs regulate gene expression through epigenetic modification, transcription, and posttranscription, through DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. Interestingly, differential lncRNA expression profiles in human oocytes and cumulus cells was recently assessed, however, lncRNAs in human follicle development has not previously been described...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Mariya Miteva, Samar Sabiq
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an irreversible scarring alopecia with unknown etiology and no cure. The goal is to establish the diagnosis in the early stage, before developing a hairless band of atrophy involving the frontal, temporal scalp and sideburns. Pathology is rarely needed once the disease is clinically apparent. The classic histologic features include follicular dropout with the absence or atrophy of the sebaceous glands and lichenoid lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with concentric layered fibrosis at the upper follicular level...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Jessica M Stringer, Elyse O K Swindells, Nadeen Zerafa, Seng H Liew, Karla J Hutt
With increasing improvements in cancer survival rates, it is critical to reduce the significant long-term side effects that afflict patients following treatment. For women, consequences of chemotherapy-induced damage to the reproductive system include infertility and premature menopause, which adversely effects cognition, mood, cardiovascular, bone, and sexual health, and increases the risk of early mortality. These long-term effects impact patient's life quality and highlight a significant and on-going burden on the health system after treatment...
August 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Meghan L Ruebel, Peter Z Schall, Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Benjamin Goheen, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
STUDY QUESTION: Which different pathways and functions are altered in rhesus monkey oocytes that fail to mature after an ovulatory stimulus? SUMMARY ANSWER: FTM oocytes complete a large portion of the transition in transcriptome composition associated with normal maturation, but also manifest numerous differences that indicate incomplete transcriptional repression and cytoplasmic maturation affecting multiple processes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocyte maturation defects contribute to unexplained female infertility...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
J A Leijdekkers, M J C Eijkemans, T C van Tilborg, S C Oudshoorn, D J McLernon, S Bhattacharya, B W J Mol, F J M Broekmans, H L Torrance
STUDY QUESTION: Are the published pre-treatment and post-treatment McLernon models, predicting cumulative live birth rates (LBR) over multiple complete IVF cycles, valid in a different context? SUMMARY ANSWER: With minor recalibration of the pre-treatment model, both McLernon models accurately predict cumulative LBR in a different geographical context and a more recent time period. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous IVF prediction models have estimated the chance of a live birth after a single fresh embryo transfer, thereby excluding the important contribution of embryo cryopreservation and subsequent IVF cycles to cumulative LBR...
August 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
Richard A Anderson, Evelyn E Telfer
Introduction: Women are increasingly having children at a later age, but this can conflict with declining fertility in the later 30's and thereafter. Areas of agreement: Declining egg quality and quantity with age are well-established, although egg quality can only be surmised from reproductive success or failure. Areas of controversy: Whether increasing the number of eggs that can be obtained from ovarian stimulation is of value, and whether there are precursor cells within the adult ovary that could become mature eggs...
July 31, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Samuel Kofi Arhin, Jieqiang Lu, Haitao Xi, Xingliang Jin
Oogenesis is a lengthy, multi-step process occurring in mammals yielding single or multiple oocytes capable of being fertilized upon interaction with male gametes. The overall process is highly complex in nature, starting in the primordial follicles, and its ultimate completion is preceded by the meiotic cycle. There are two major phases in oogenesis: the growth phase, followed by a maturation phase that requires relatively less time. Both phases require energy for the various metabolic processes of the oocytes...
July 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Mahboobeh Amoushahi, Mojdeh Salehnia, Nassim Ghorbanmehr
AIM: To evaluate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and intensity of mitochondrial enzyme activity in metaphase II oocytes derived from vitrified cultured immature mouse ovarian tissue in comparison with nonvitrified group and in vivo-obtained oocytes. METHODS: Vitrified and nonvitrified ovaries from neonate female mice were cultured for 7 days. Then, preantral follicles were isolated and cultured in a three-dimensional culture system...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Renae Sattler, Amanda Bishop, Kathleen Woodie, Lori Polasek
The ability to monitor the estrus cycle in wild and captive marine species is important for identifying reproductive failures, ensuring a successful breeding program, and monitoring animal welfare. Minimally invasive sampling methods to monitor estrus in captive populations have been developed, but results suggest these tools can be species-specific in their precision and accuracy. Therefore, the minimally invasive sampling methods of trans-abdominal ultrasounds, a fecal steroid analysis (estrone-3-glucuronide, E1G), and vaginal cytology, were evaluated for their efficacy to characterize and monitor estrus in a captive breeding population of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)...
July 27, 2018: Theriogenology
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