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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083593/loss-of-glutamate-signaling-from-the-thalamus-to-dorsal-striatum-impairs-motor-function-and-slows-the-execution-of-learned-behaviors
#1
Erica J Melief, Jonathan W McKinley, Jonathan Y Lam, Nicole M Whiteley, Alec W Gibson, John F Neumaier, Charles W Henschen, Richard D Palmiter, Nigel S Bamford, Martin Darvas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily associated with the degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons, but it is now appreciated that pathological processes like Lewy-body inclusions and cell loss affect several other brain regions, including the central lateral (CL) and centromedian/parafascicular (CM/PF) thalamic regions. These thalamic glutamatergic neurons provide a non-cortical excitatory input to the dorsal striatum, a major projection field of dopamine neurons. To determine how thalamostriatal signaling may contribute to cognitive and motor abnormalities found in PD, we used a viral vector approach to generate mice with loss of thalamostriatal glutamate signaling specifically restricted to the dorsal striatum (CAV2Cre - Slc17a6 lox/lox mice)...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042071/sensory-phenomena-and-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-tourette-syndrome-following-deep-brain-stimulation-two-case-reports
#2
Yukiko Kano, Natsumi Matsuda, Maiko Nonaka, Miyuki Fujio, Toshiaki Kono, Takanobu Kaido
Here, we assess sensory phenomena (SP) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in two patients with refractory Tourette syndrome (TS) before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM-Pfc)-ventral oral nuclei of the bilateral thalami. Based on changes in these clinical features, we also aimed to elucidate useful information regarding the use of DBS in TS. We administered the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) to assess tics, the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) for premonitory urges, the University of São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale (USP-SPS) for broader SP, the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) for OCS, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale for global functioning...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873781/microsurgical-anatomy-of-the-vertical-rami-of-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-an-intraparietal-sulcus-dissection-study
#3
Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Jonathan Jennings, Srikant Chakravarthi, Melanie B Fukui, Juanita Celix, Nathaniel Kojis, Mark Lindsay, Sarika Walia, Richard Rovin, Amin Kassam
BACKGROUND: A number of vertical prolongations of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, which we refer to as the vertical rami (Vr), arise at the level of the supramarginal gyrus, directed vertically toward the parietal lobe. OBJECTIVE: To provide the first published complete description of the white matter tracts (WMT) of the Vr, their relationship to the intraparietal and parieto-occipital sulci (IPS-POS complex), and their importance in neurosurgical approaches to the parietal lobe...
June 5, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801987/neuropsychological-consequences-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-altering-brain-networks
#4
Ryoong Huh, In-Uk Song, Moonyoung Chung
The purpose of this study was to evaluate postoperative changes in the neuropsychological function of cervical dystonia patients who had undergone deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and to investigate how DBS affects neuropsychological function by altering the neural networks of the brain. In 12 cervical dystonia patients, the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) was used to measure the preoperative and postoperative status of cervical dystonia, and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery was used to gather neuropsychological data...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490273/action-selection-and-flexible-switching-controlled-by-the-intralaminar-thalamic-neurons
#5
Shigeki Kato, Ryoji Fukabori, Kayo Nishizawa, Kana Okada, Nozomu Yoshioka, Masateru Sugawara, Yuko Maejima, Kenju Shimomura, Masahiro Okamoto, Satoshi Eifuku, Kazuto Kobayashi
Learning processes contributing to appropriate selection and flexible switching of behaviors are mediated through the dorsal striatum, a key structure of the basal ganglia circuit. The major inputs to striatal subdivisions are provided from the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, including the central lateral nucleus (CL) and parafascicular nucleus (PF). Thalamostriatal neurons in the PF modulate the acquisition and performance of stimulus-response learning. Here, we address the roles of the CL thalamostriatal neurons in learning processes by using a selective neural pathway targeting technique...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476797/the-pedunculopontine-and-laterodorsal-tegmental-nuclei-in-the-kainate-model-of-epilepsy
#6
Joana I Soares, Ana R Afonso, Gisela H Maia, Nikolai V Lukoyanov
Prior studies showed that epilepsy can be associated with reorganization of the septohippocampal cholinergic fiber system. Using the kainate model of epilepsy, we wished to further examine the structural integrity of the mesopontine tegmental nuclei (pedunculopontine, PPN, and laterodorsal, LDT), which provide the cholinergic input to the thalamus. It was found that the total numbers of the PPN and LDT cells immunoreactive to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter did not differ between control and epileptic rats...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402698/subcortical-neurodegeneration-in-chorea-similarities-and-differences-between-chorea-acanthocytosis-and-huntington-s-disease
#7
Jia Liu, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg, Eduardo Alho, Edson Amaro, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Udo Rüb, Wilfred den Dunnen, Thomas Arzberger, Christoph Schmitz, Maren Kiessling, Benedikt Bader, Adrian Danek
INTRODUCTION: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and Huntington's disease (HD) are neurodegenerative conditions that share clinical and neuropathological features, despite their distinct genetic etiologies. METHODS: In order to compare these neuropathologies, serial gallocyanin-stained brain sections from three subjects with ChAc were analyzed and compared with our previous studies of eight HD cases, in addition to three hemispheres from two male controls. RESULTS: Astrogliosis was much greater in the ChAc striatum, as compared to that found in HD, with dramatic increase in total striatal glia numbers and the number of glia per striatal neuron...
April 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359830/integrated-anatomical-and-physiological-mapping-of-striatal-afferent-projections
#8
Kyuhyun Choi, Elizabeth N Holly, M Felicia Davatolhagh, Kevin T Beier, Marc V Fuccillo
The dorsomedial striatum, a key site of reward-sensitive motor output, receives extensive afferent input from cortex, thalamus and midbrain. These projections are integrated by striatal microcircuits containing both spiny projection neurons and local circuit interneurons. To explore target cell specificity of these projections, we compared inputs onto D1-dopamine receptor-positive spiny neurons, parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking interneurons and somatostatin-positive low-threshold-spiking interneurons, using cell type-specific rabies virus tracing and optogenetic-mediated projection neuron recruitment in mice...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322527/thalamo-cortical-projections-to-the-macaque-superior-parietal-lobule-areas-pec-and-pe
#9
Daniele Impieri, Michela Gamberini, Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Claudio Galletti
The exposed surface of the superior parietal lobule in macaque brain contains two architectonically defined areas named PEc and PE. The aim of the present study is the characterization of thalamic afferents of these two areas. For this purpose, retrograde neuronal tracers were injected, or placed in crystal form, in areas PEc and PE. We found that the two areas show a similar pattern of thalamic inputs, mainly originating from Lateral Posterior (LP), Pulvinar (Pul), Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL), and Ventral Lateral (VL) nuclei, all structures known to be involved in visual, somatosensory, and/or sensorimotor processing...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295486/adaptive-deep-brain-stimulation-adbs-for-tourette-syndrome
#10
Sara Marceglia, Manuela Rosa, Domenico Servello, Mauro Porta, Sergio Barbieri, Elena Moro, Alberto Priori
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a novel therapy for the treatment of several movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and may also be suitable for the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). The main DBS targets used to date in patients with TS are located within the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit involved in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. They include the ventralis oralis/centromedian-parafascicular (Vo/CM-Pf) nucleus of the thalamus and the nucleus accumbens. Current DBS treatments deliver continuous electrical stimulation and are not designed to adapt to the patient's symptoms, thereby contributing to unwanted side effects...
December 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225570/flexible-and-stable-value-coding-areas-in-caudate-head-and-tail-receive-anatomically-distinct-cortical-and-subcortical-inputs
#11
Whitney S Griggs, Hyoung F Kim, Ali Ghazizadeh, M Gabriela Costello, Kathryn M Wall, Okihide Hikosaka
Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224175/thalamic-interactions-of-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#12
REVIEW
Andreas Hintzen, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer
Cerebellum and basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected with the neocortex via oligosynaptic loops. The signal pathways of these loops predominantly converge in motor areas of the frontal cortex and are mainly segregated on subcortical level. Recent evidence, however, indicates subcortical interaction of these systems. We have reviewed literature that addresses the question whether, and to what extent, projections of main output nuclei of basal ganglia (reticular part of the substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus) and cerebellum (deep cerebellar nuclei) interact with each other in the thalamus...
March 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988338/opposing-collicular-influences-on-the-parafascicular-pf-and-posteromedial-pom-thalamic-nuclei-relationship-to-pom-induced-inhibition-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-snr
#13
Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway
The superior colliculus activates the zona incerta (ZI), which sends GABAergic projections to the posteromedial (POm) thalamic nucleus. Consistent with this circuit, we previously showed that stimulation of the superior colliculus activates ZI and causes inhibition of neuronal activity in POm (Watson et al., J Neurosci 35:9463-9476, 2015). Other studies, however, have shown that collicular stimulation activates the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. The present study extends these reports by showing that unilateral collicular stimulation causes bilateral activation of Pf that is concomitant with bilateral inhibition of POm...
October 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960154/report-of-a-patient-undergoing-chronic-responsive-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-syndrome-proof-of-concept
#14
Rene Molina, Michael S Okun, Jonathan B Shute, Enrico Opri, P Justin Rossi, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Kelly D Foote, Aysegul Gunduz
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a promising intervention for the treatment of select movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. Current DBS therapies deliver electrical stimulation continuously and are not designed to adapt to a patient's symptoms. Continuous DBS can lead to rapid battery depletion, which necessitates frequent surgery for battery replacement. Next-generation neurostimulation devices can monitor neural signals from implanted DBS leads, where stimulation can be delivered responsively, moving the field of neuromodulation away from continuous paradigms...
August 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922504/selective-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-transmission-to-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-after-dopamine-depletion
#15
Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, Joshua A Goldberg
The widely held view that the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease arises from an under-activation of the direct pathway striatal spiny neurons (dSPNs) has gained support from a recently described weakening of the glutamatergic projection from the parafascicular nucleus (PfN) to dSPNs in experimental parkinsonism. However, the impact of the remodeling of the thalamostriatal projection cannot be fully appreciated without considering its impact on cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) that themselves preferentially activate indirect pathway spiny neurons (iSPNs)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899061/transsulcal-parafascicular-surgery-using-brain-path%C3%A2-for-subcortical-lesions
#16
J D Day
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790899/sensory-processing-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-the-contribution-of-thalamostriatal-pathways
#17
Kevin D Alloway, Jared B Smith, Todd M Mowery, Glenn D R Watson
The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757327/differential-electrophysiological-and-morphological-alterations-of-thalamostriatal-and-corticostriatal-projections-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#18
Anna Parievsky, Cindy Moore, Talia Kamdjou, Carlos Cepeda, Charles K Meshul, Michael S Levine
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by cell death of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum, traditionally attributed to excessive glutamate inputs and/or receptor sensitivity. While changes in corticostriatal projections have typically been studied in mouse models of HD, morphological and functional alterations in thalamostriatal projections have received less attention. In this study, an adeno-associated virus expressing channelrhodopsin-2 under the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα promoter was injected into the sensorimotor cortex or the thalamic centromedian-parafascicular nuclear complex in the R6/2 mouse model of HD, to permit selective activation of corticostriatal or thalamostriatal projections, respectively...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621620/deep-brain-stimulation-for-the-early-treatment-of-the-minimally-conscious-state-and-vegetative-state-experience-in-14-patients
#19
Darko Chudy, Vedran Deletis, Fadi Almahariq, Petar Marčinković, Jasenka Škrlin, Veronika Paradžik
OBJECTIVE An effective treatment of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) or vegetative state (VS) caused by hypoxic encephalopathy or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet available. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic reticular nuclei has been attempted as a therapeutic procedure mainly in patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic use of DBS for patients in VS or MCS. METHODS Fourteen of 49 patients in VS or MCS qualified for inclusion in this study and underwent DBS...
April 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604688/differential-processing-of-thalamic-information-via-distinct-striatal-interneuron-circuits
#20
Maxime Assous, Jaime Kaminer, Fulva Shah, Arpan Garg, Tibor Koós, James M Tepper
Recent discoveries of striatal GABAergic interneurons require a new conceptualization of the organization of intrastriatal circuitry and their cortical and thalamic inputs. We investigated thalamic inputs to the two populations of striatal neuropeptide Y (NPY) interneurons, plateau low threshold spike (PLTS) and NPY-neurogliaform (NGF) cells. Optogenetic activation of parafascicular inputs evokes suprathreshold monosynaptic glutamatergic excitation in NGF interneurons and a disynaptic, nicotinic excitation through cholinergic interneurons...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
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