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Insulin algorithm

Pishoy Gouda, Justin A Ezekowitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the advances in the diagnosis and management of acute heart failure (AHF) from recent clinical trials and observational studies. RECENT FINDINGS: We highlight date from recent studies examining the use of novel biomarkers (micro RNAs, osteopontin, insulin-like growth-factor binding protein-7) for the diagnosis of AHF. In addition, we summarize the evidence for novel pharmacological therapies including: serelaxin, ularitide, clevidipine, urocortins, BMS-986231, TRB027, vericiguat, omecamtiv, and torsemide...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Sunil Deshpande, Jordan E Pinsker, Stamatina Zavitsanou, Dawei Shi, Randy Tompot, Mei Mei Church, Camille Andre, Francis J Doyle Iii, Eyal Dassau
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for a modular artificial pancreas (AP) system for clinical trials within the existing regulatory framework to further AP research projects from both academia and industry. We designed, developed, and tested the interoperable artificial pancreas system (iAPS) smartphone app that can interface wirelessly with leading continuous glucose monitors (CGM), insulin pump devices, and decision-making algorithms while running on an unlocked smartphone. METHODS: After algorithm verification, hazard and mitigation analysis, and complete system verification of iAPS, six adults with type 1 diabetes completed 1 week of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) use followed by 48 h of AP use with the iAPS, a Dexcom G5 CGM, and either a Tandem or Insulet insulin pump in an investigational device exemption study...
December 14, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Michel Grino, Anderson Loundou, Mohamed Boucekine, Quentin Alitta, Charles Oliver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Gabriela Casabona, Kai Kaye, Paula Barreto Marchese, Ricardo Boggio, Sebastian Cotofana
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin (BTX) products continue to be widely used for facial rejuvenation. Variables to consider prior to BTX treatment include the anatomical area to be treated, gender, muscle mass, ethnicity, skin thickness, and the effects of aging. OBJECTIVE: To describe a treatment algorithm which has been developed for facial rejuvenation to help physicians to easily and systematically customize BTX treatment, and to describe its use in a large number of patients...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Pinyin Cao, Yaping Feng, Jin Ke, Mohong Deng, Jian Li, Hengxing Cai, Qinggong Meng, Wei Fang, Yingjie Li, Xing Long
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore potential microRNAs (miRNAs), which participate in the pathological process of condylar hyperplasia (CH) through targeting specific proliferation- and apoptosis-related genes of chondrocytes. METHODS: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in CH cartilage were detected by real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. MiRanda and TargetScanS algorithms were used to predict certain miRNAs in CH chondrocytes concurrently modulating the above three genes...
December 3, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
D Minukhina, V Babadzhan, D Minukhin, A Krasnoyaruzhskiy, D Yevtushenko
The combination of cardiac pathology and metabolic disorders, namely type 2 diabetes mellitus, is one of the most frequent comorbid pathologies and the main cause of death from cardiovascular complications at an early stage of the disease. Despite the wide range of antithrombogenic measures, prevention of thrombotic complications of acute myocardial infarction remains an urgent problem of cardiology. The study involved examination of 73 patients with acute myocardial infarction with concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus, who were distributed into clusters according to severity by the main indices of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism using hierarchical analysis...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Yury O Nunez Lopez, Ravi Retnakaran, Bernard Zinman, Richard E Pratley, Attila A Seyhan
OBJECTIVE: Short-term intensive insulin therapy (IIT) early in the course of type 2 diabetes acutely improves beta-cell function with long-lasting effects on glycemic control. However, conventional measures cannot determine which patients are better suited for IIT, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms determining response. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a model that could accurately predict the response to IIT and provide insight into molecular mechanisms driving such response in humans...
November 16, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Katsutoshi Maeta, Yu Nishiyama, Kazutoshi Fujibayashi, Toshiaki Gunji, Noriko Sasabe, Kimiko Iijima, Toshio Naito
BACKGROUND: A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) provides important information about glucose metabolism, although the test is expensive and invasive. Complete OGTT information, such as 1-hour and 2-hour postloading plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels, may be useful for predicting the future risk of diabetes or glucose metabolism disorders (GMD), which includes both diabetes and prediabetes. OBJECTIVE: We trained several classification models for predicting the risk of developing diabetes or GMD using data from thousands of OGTTs and a machine learning technique (XGBoost)...
November 26, 2018: JMIR diabetes
Sanjay Basu, John S Yudkin, Sylvia Kehlenbrink, Justine I Davies, Sarah H Wild, Kasia J Lipska, Jeremy B Sussman, David Beran
BACKGROUND: The amount of insulin needed to effectively treat type 2 diabetes worldwide is unknown. It also remains unclear how alternative treatment algorithms would affect insulin use and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted by insulin use, given that current access to insulin (availability and affordability) in many areas is low. The aim of this study was to compare alternative projections for and consequences of insulin use worldwide under varying treatment algorithms and degrees of insulin access...
November 20, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
M Wirth, A Naud, G Caputo, J M Hascoët
AIM: We evaluated the weight, insulin-like growth factor-1, neonatal, retinopathy of prematurity (WINROP) algorithm for very premature infants. METHOD: Infants born before 32 weeks who had undergone fundus examinations in the neonatal intensive care unit at the University Hospital of Nancy were included in this French retrospective cohort study from July 2012 to July 2016. We evaluated how well the WINROP software predicted threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)...
November 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Iman Hajizadeh, Mudassir Rashid, Ali Cinar
Adaptive and personalized model predictive control (MPC) algorithms that explicitly consider insulin dosing constraints are necessary to prevent overdose-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. A personalized plasma insulin concentration (PIC) estimator is integrated with adaptive models to characterize the temporal dynamics of PIC and blood glucose concentration (BGC). The dynamic profile trajectories of the PIC and BGC are used to adapt the control problems and constraints on-line to accurately reflect the concurrent metabolic state of the individuals and improve glucose regulation...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
John Valdovinos
The development of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin control algorithms have enabled the recent development of closed-loop artificial pancreas technology. However, despite these advancements, glucose sensor accuracy and reliability under physiologic conditions and over long periods of monitoring continue to be limiting factors in achieving a truly closed-loop artificial pancreas. To develop improved sensor technology, glucose sensor dynamics and performance need to be modeled accurately under physiologic conditions...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
K Kogias, I Andreadis, K Dalakleidi, K S Nikita
Accurate estimation of food's macronutrient content for people with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is of great importance, as it determines postprandial insulin dosage. This paper introduces a classification system for food images that is adjusted to the nutritional needs of people with DM. A two-level image classification scheme, exploiting Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), is proposed, in order to classify an image in one of eight broad food categories with similar macronutrient content and then assign it to a specific food within that category...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Clara Piffaretti, Laurence Mandereau-Bruno, Sophie Guilmin-Crepon, Carine Choleau, Régis Coutant, Sandrine Fosse-Edorh
AIMS: To estimate type 1 diabetes incidence in children in France and its evolution between 2010 and 2015, based on comprehensive medico-administrative databases. METHODS: The algorithm built to identify new cases of type 1 diabetes selected children aged between 6 months and 14 years who had at least one hospital stay for diabetes, followed by their first insulin treatment, excluding children suffering from another form of diabetes. Age and sex specific annual incidence rates were estimated and time trend was analyzed using Poisson regression...
November 12, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Wei Wang, Ling Liao, Xiaobing Zhang, Fan Lei, Yaou Zhang, Gan Liu, Weidong Xie
Insulin injection relies on strict blood glucose monitoring. However, existing techniques and algorithms for blood glucose monitoring cannot be completed in a timely way. In this study, we have developed a new intelligent glucose-sensitive insulin delivery system to stabilize blood glucose levels in the body. This system does not require real-time detection of blood glucose. First, we successfully synthesized a nanoscale material called PAM-PAspPBA- b -PEG by using chemical methods. We then conducted TEM, DLS, and ¹H-NMR analyses to characterize the physicochemical properties, such as size, molecular composition, and configuration of the nanomaterial...
November 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ákos Nádasdi, Anikó Somogyi, Péter Igaz, Gábor Firneisz
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a common metabolic disease affects nearly one third of the population in the developed countries. The significance of the NAFLD is due to its spectrum disease (simple steatosis → NASH [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] ± fibrosis → cirrhosis → HCC [hepatocellular carcinome]) character; its association with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance; and its complications both as a consequence of the direct progression of the liver disease and also related to the additional target organ damage due to the progression of the metabolic disease (cardiovascular, renal)...
November 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Spencer Frank, Abdulrahman Jbaily, Ling Hinshaw, Rita Basu, Ananda Basu, Andrew J Szeri
Our objective is to develop a physiology-based model of insulin kinetics to understand how exercise alters insulin concentrations in those with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We reveal the relationship between the insulin absorption rate ([Formula: see text]) from subcutaneous tissue, the insulin delivery rate ([Formula: see text]) to skeletal muscle, and two physiological parameters that characterize the tissue: the perfusion rate (Q) and the capillary permeability surface area (PS), both of which increase during exercise because of capillary recruitment...
December 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Inyoung Lee, Noya Loew, Wakako Tsugawa, Kazunori Ikebukuro, Koji Sode
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems are most important in the current Type I diabetes care and as component for the development of artificial pancreas systems because the amount of insulin being supplied is calculated based on the CGM results. Therefore, to stably and accurately control the blood glucose level, CGM should be stable and accurate for a long period. We have been engaged in the biomolecular engineering and application of FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex (FADGDH) which is capable of direct electron transfer...
January 15, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jennifer Latham
The hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery system, a form of "artificial pancreas," is composed of an insulin pump, a standardized algorithm, and a continuous glucose monitor. The system streamlines insulin delivery by connecting continuous glucose monitor data with an insulin pump and an algorithm to drive basal insulin delivery. The hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery system, approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2016 for children older than 7 years, is a major improvement in the management of type 1 diabetes...
November 1, 2018: NASN School Nurse
Lyvia Biagi, Arthur Bertachi, Marga Giménez, Ignacio Conget, Jorge Bondia, Josep Antoni Martín-Fernández, Josep Vehí
The aim of this study was to apply a methodology based on compositional data analysis (CoDA) to categorise glucose profiles obtained from continuous glucose monitoring systems. The methodology proposed considers complete daily glucose profiles obtained from six patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who had their glucose monitored for eight weeks. The glucose profiles were distributed into the time spent in six different ranges. The time in one day is finite and limited to 24 h, and the times spent in each of these different ranges are co-dependent and carry only relative information; therefore, CoDA is applied to these profiles...
October 31, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
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