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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792336/evaluation-of-a-national-neurosurgical-formative-examination-the-uk-experience
#1
Ian Anderson, Robert Corns, Simon Thomson
INTRODUCTION: Formative assessment is a key component in medical education and that it is a helpful process for all involved. Until recently there was no national formative examination for neurosurgical trainees. The Neurosurgery Annual in Training Examination (NAiTE) is an annual online, formative assessment that was introduced in 2014. In this paper, we seek to discuss how well NAiTE relates to established educational practice and principles and its fitness for purpose by discussing its rationale, structure and utility...
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792045/annals-express-renal-stones
#2
Adie Viljoen, Rabia Chaudhry, John Bycroft
Renal stone disease is a worldwide problem which carries significant morbidity. It frequently requires specialist urology intervention. Patients with recurrent disease and those at high risk require specialist investigations and review. Certain cases benefit from medical and surgical intervention. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology, risk assessment, specialist investigations and various interventions, their rationale and evidence-base. This review aims to provide an update of the previous publication in 2001 in this journal on this topic...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791921/does-gastroplus-support-similarity-and-dissimilarity-factors-of-in-vitro-in-vivo-prediction-in-biowaiver-studies-a-lower-strength-amlodipine-as-a-model-drug
#3
Abdel Naser Zaid, Naser Shraim, Asmaa Radwan, Nidal Jaradat, Samah Hirzallah, Ibrahim Issa, Aya Khraim
BACKGROUND: Many generic pharmaceutical products are currently available on the market place worldwide. Recently, there is a growing concern on the quality and efficacy of generic products. However, health care professionals such as physicians and pharmacists are in difficult situations to choose among alternatives. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the in silico technique (Gastro Plus® ) in the biowaiver study and whether similarity and dissimilarity factors ( f 2 and f 1 respectively) are effective in this regard...
May 23, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791832/rationale-opportunities-and-reality-of-biosimilar-medications
#4
Gary H Lyman, Robin Zon, R Donald Harvey, Richard L Schilsky
Biologic therapies for cancer and other disorders contribute to improved outcomes for many patients but also account for a large proportion of health care expenditures. Opportunities for cost containment may emerge as the patents on originator products expire and highly similar agents known as..
May 24, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791513/vaccine-induced-antibodies-to-herpes-simplex-virus-glycoprotein-d-epitopes-involved-in-virus-entry-and-cell-to-cell-spread-correlate-with-protection-against-genital-disease-in-guinea-pigs
#5
Lauren M Hook, Tina M Cairns, Sita Awasthi, Benjamin D Brooks, Noah T Ditto, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Harvey M Friedman
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit antigen is included in many preclinical candidate vaccines. The rationale for including gD2 is to produce antibodies that block crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-2 gD2 was the only antigen in the Herpevac Trial for Women that protected against HSV-1 genital infection but not HSV-2. In that trial, a correlation was detected between gD2 ELISA titers and protection against HSV-1, supporting the importance of antibodies...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791163/on-the-relationship-between-excited-state-lifetime-and-isomerization-quantum-yield-in-animal-rhodopsins-beyond-the-one-dimensional-landau-zener-model
#6
Mohsen M T El-Tahawy, Artur Nenov, Oliver Weingart, Massimo Olivucci, Marco Garavelli
We show that the speed of the chromophore photoisomerization of animal rhodopsins is not a relevant control knob for their light sensitivity. This result is at odd with the momentum-driven tunnelling rationale (i.e., assuming a one-dimensional Landau-Zener model for the decay: Zener, C. "Non-Adiabatic Crossing of Energy Levels", Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A 1932, 137 (833), 696-702) holding that a faster nuclear motion through the conical intersection translates into a higher quantum yield and, thus, light sensitivity...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790588/the-lncrna-casc9-and-rna-binding-protein-hnrnpl-form-a-complex-and-co-regulate-genes-linked-to-akt-signaling
#7
Marcel Klingenberg, Matthias Groß, Ashish Goyal, Maria Polycarpou-Schwarz, Thilo Miersch, Anne-Sophie Ernst, Jörg Leupold, Nitin Patil, Uwe Warnken, Heike Allgayer, Thomas Longerich, Peter Schirmacher, Michael Boutros, Sven Diederichs
The identification of viability-associated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) might be a promising rationale for new therapeutic approaches in liver cancer. Here, we applied the first RNAi screening approach in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines to find viability-associated lncRNAs. Among the multiple identified lncRNAs with a significant impact on HCC cell viability, we selected CASC9 (Cancer Susceptibility 9) due to the strength of its phenotype, expression, and upregulation in HCC versus normal liver. CASC9 regulated viability across multiple HCC cell lines as shown by CRISPR interference, single siRNA- and siPOOL-mediated depletion of CASC9...
May 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789396/patient-reported-outcome-measures-proms-for-acute-stroke-rationale-methods-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
Mathew Reeves, Lynda Lisabeth, Linda Williams, Irene Katzan, Moira Kapral, Anne Deutsch, Janet Prvu-Bettger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789220/adaura-phase-iii-double-blind-randomized-study-of-osimertinib-versus-placebo-in-egfr-mutation-positive-early-stage-nsclc-after-complete-surgical-resection
#9
Yi-Long Wu, Roy S Herbst, Helen Mann, Yuri Rukazenkov, Marcelo Marotti, Masahiro Tsuboi
INTRODUCTION: Currently, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer after complete surgical tumor resection remains under investigation. We present the rationale and study design for the ADAURA (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02511106) trial, a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study entry will be limited to adults aged ≥ 18 years (and in Japan and Taiwan, age ≥ 20 years) with primary nonsquamous stage IB-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer with central confirmation of an EGFR exon 19 deletion or L858R mutation...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789045/getting-paid-for-clinical-services
#10
Caren McHenry Martin
Increasingly, pharmacists are providing advanced, patient-centered clinical services. However, pharmacists are not currently included in key sections of the Social Security Act, which determines eligibility to bill and be reimbursed by Medicare. Many state and private health plans also cite the omission from Medicare as the rationale for excluding reimbursement of pharmacists for clinical services. This has prompted forward-thinking pharmacists to seek opportunities for reimbursement in other ways, allowing them to provide value to the health care system, while carving out unique niches for pharmacists to care for patients...
May 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788869/advances-in-the-tyrosinase-inhibitors-from-plant-source
#11
Marco Bonesi, Jianbo Xiao, Rosa Tundis, Francesca Aiello, Vincenzo Sicari, Monica R Loizzo
Tyrosinase is a multifunctional copper-containing oxidase which catalyses the oxidation of tyrosine to produce melanin. The alteration in melanin biosynthesis occurs in many diseases. The pigment has a protecting role against skin photo-carcinogenesis, but anomalous melanin pigmentation is an aesthetic problem in human beings. Moreover, the formation of neuromelanin in human brain could contribute to the neurodegeneration associated with Parkinson's disease. Finally, tyrosinase is also responsible of undesired browning in fruits and vegetables...
May 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788473/enhancing-psychosis-spectrum-nosology-through-an-international-data-sharing-initiative
#12
Anna R Docherty, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, Richard J Linscott, Katherine G Jonas, David C Cicero, Melissa J Green, Leonard J Simms, Oliver Mason, David Watson, Ulrich Ettinger, Monika Waszczuk, Alexander Rapp, Phillip Grant, Roman Kotov, Colin G DeYoung, Camilo J Ruggero, Nicolas R Eaton, Robert F Krueger, Christopher Patrick, Christopher Hopwood, F Anthony O'Neill, David H Zald, Christopher C Conway, Daniel E Adkins, Irwin D Waldman, Jim van Os, Patrick F Sullivan, John S Anderson, Andrey A Shabalin, Scott R Sponheim, Stephan F Taylor, Rachel G Grazioplene, Silviu A Bacanu, Tim B Bigdeli, Corinna Haenschel, Dolores Malaspina, Diane C Gooding, Kristin Nicodemus, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Christine Mohr, William T Carpenter, Alex S Cohen
The latent structure of schizotypy and psychosis-spectrum symptoms remains poorly understood. Furthermore, molecular genetic substrates are poorly defined, largely due to the substantial resources required to collect rich phenotypic data across diverse populations. Sample sizes of phenotypic studies are often insufficient for advanced structural equation modeling approaches. In the last 50 years, efforts in both psychiatry and psychological science have moved toward (1) a dimensional model of psychopathology (eg, the current Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology [HiTOP] initiative), (2) an integration of methods and measures across traits and units of analysis (eg, the RDoC initiative), and (3) powerful, impactful study designs maximizing sample size to detect subtle genomic variation relating to complex traits (the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium [PGC])...
May 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788130/patient-barriers-and-facilitators-to-ambulatory-and-home-blood-pressure-monitoring-a-qualitative-study
#13
Eileen J Carter, Nathalie Moise, Carmela Alcántara, Alexandra M Sullivan, Ian M Kronish
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that patients with newly elevated office blood pressure undergo ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) or home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) to rule-out white coat hypertension before being diagnosed with hypertension. We explored patients' perspectives of the barriers and facilitators to undergoing ABPM or HBPM. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with twenty English- and Spanish-speaking individuals from underserved communities in New York City...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788100/a-cell-based-approach-to-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-entering-an-era-of-regenerative-medicine
#14
Amy L Lightner
Corticosteroids, and more recently biologics, have been the mainstay of therapy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Unfortunately, both are fraught with side effects and limited by lack of efficacy or loss of response. Many patients ultimately succumb to medically refractory disease and require an operation. As we enter an era of regenerative medicine, a new genre of cell-based therapeutics offers significant promise for both an improved safety profile and improved efficacy compared with conventional treatment approaches...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788098/helicobacter-pylori-colonization-protects-against-chronic-experimental-colitis-by-regulating-th17-treg-balance
#15
Hongchen Zhang, Yun Dai, Yun Liu, Ting Wu, Jing Li, Xiaolei Wang, Weihong Wang
Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanisms by which H. pylori infection protects against IBD are unclear. Here, we explored the possible protective effects and mechanisms of gastric H. pylori colonization on a chronic colitis model, with focus on whether H. pylori exerted its effects through regulating Th17/Treg immune responses. Methods: Chronic colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787859/design-and-rationale-of-the-insyte-study-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-study-to-test-the-efficacy-of-a-synbiotic-on-liver-fat-disease-biomarkers-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Eleonora Scorletti, Paul R Afolabi, Elizabeth A Miles, Debbie E Smith, Amal Almehmadi, Albandri Alshathry, Helen E Moyses, Geraldine F Clough, Mark Wright, Janisha Patel, Laure Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne, Philip C Calder, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of fat-related conditions ranging from simple fatty liver, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. There is growing evidence that NAFLD is a multisystem disease, affecting several extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. Furthermore, since the gut and liver are linked anatomically via the portal vein, disturbances of the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) can affect the liver. OBJECTIVES: In patients with NAFLD, we are testing the effects of a synbiotic which is the combination of a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides; 4 g/day) and a probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
May 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787549/long-term-patient-centered-outcomes-of-lower-extremity-vascular-trauma
#17
Zane B Perkins, Barbaros Yet, Simon Glasgow, William Marsh, Nigel R M Tai, Todd E Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: To describe the long-term outcomes of military lower extremity vascular injuries, and the decision-making of surgeons treating these injuries. BACKGROUND: Lower extremity vascular trauma is an important cause of preventable death and severe disability, and decisions on amputation or limb salvage can be difficult. Additionally, the complexity of the condition is not amenable to controlled study, and there is limited data to guide clinical decision-making and establish sensible treatment expectations during rehabilitation...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787437/liquid-biopsy-using-whole-blood-from-testis-tumor-and-colon-cancer-patients-a-new-and-simple-way
#18
Matthäus Majewski, Tim Nestler, Sebastian Kägler, Ines Richardsen, Christian G Ruf, Cord Matthies, Arnulf Willms, Hans-Ulrich Schmelz, Walter Wagner, Robert Schwab, Michael Abend
Tumor cells shed exosomes, which are released to the blood. Detecting tumor-derived exosomes containing RNA in plasma (liquid biopsy) is currently being investigated for early identification of occult metastases or relapses. Isolation of exosomes is laborious, resulting in low RNA yields. As a more robust (but less sensitive) alternative, the authors examined whether whole blood can be used as well. Tumor samples from nonmetastasized seminoma (n = 5) and colon cancer patients (n = 6) were taken during surgery...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787383/deep-learning-for-undersampled-mri-reconstruction
#19
Chang Min Hyun, Hwa Pyung Kim, Sung Min Lee, Sungchul Lee, Jin Keun Seo
This paper presents a deep learning method for faster magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by reducing k-space data with sub-Nyquist sampling strategies and provides a rationale for why the proposed approach works well. Uniform subsampling is used in the time-consuming phase-encoding direction to capture high-resolution image information, while permitting the image-folding problem dictated by the Poisson summation formula. To deal with the localization uncertainty due to image folding, a small number of low-frequency k-space data are added...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787347/stp-position-paper-recommended-best-practices-for-sampling-processing-and-analysis-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system-nerves-and-somatic-and-autonomic-ganglia-during-nonclinical-toxicity-studies
#20
Brad Bolon, Georg Krinke, Mark T Butt, Deepa B Rao, Ingrid D Pardo, Bernard S Jortner, Robert H Garman, Karl Jensen, Lydia Andrews-Jones, James P Morrison, Alok K Sharma, Michael S Thibodeau
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) toxicity is surveyed inconsistently in nonclinical general toxicity studies. These Society of Toxicologic Pathology "best practice" recommendations are designed to ensure consistent, efficient, and effective sampling, processing, and evaluation of PNS tissues for four different situations encountered during nonclinical general toxicity (screening) and dedicated neurotoxicity studies. For toxicity studies where neurotoxicity is unknown or not anticipated (situation 1), PNS evaluation may be limited to one sensorimotor spinal nerve...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
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