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Vitamin D Cancer

Yasheen Gao, Caroline Y Um, Veronika Fedirko, Robin E Rutherford, March E Seabrook, Elizabeth L Barry, John A Baron, Roberd M Bostick
To clarify the roles of vitamin D and calcium as potential chemopreventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, and to develop "treatable", pre-neoplastic, phenotypic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, we estimated the effects of supplemental vitamin D3 (1,000 IU/day [25 μg/day]) and calcium (1,200 mg/day), alone and in combination, on biomarkers of proliferation (mib-1), differentiation (p21), and apoptosis (bax [apoptosis-promoting] and bcl-2 [apoptosis-inhibiting]), in the normal-appearing rectal mucosa in a subsample of participants (n = 104) in a larger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among colorectal adenoma patients...
2018: PloS One
Andrew J Annalora, Marija Jozic, Craig B Marcus, Patrick L Iversen
Alternative splicing modulates gene function by creating splice variants with alternate functions or non-coding RNA activity. Naturally occurring variants of nuclear receptor (NR) genes with dominant negative or gain-of-function phenotypes have been documented, but their cellular roles, regulation, and responsiveness to environmental stress or disease remain unevaluated. Informed by observations that class I androgen and estrogen receptor variants display ligand-independent signaling in human cancer tissues, we questioned whether the function of class II NRs, like the vitamin D receptor (VDR), would also respond to alternative splicing regulation...
December 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
David G Hoel, Frank R de Gruijl
There have been many public health recommendations for avoiding UV radiation exposures. This is primarily due to concerns about skin cancer and especially melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer. However, UV radiation is also known as the primary source of vitamin D and other compounds needed for good health. This brief commentary lists several of the many important recent studies of adverse health effects associated with low sun exposure, including some specific cancers, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and age-related macular degeneration...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
J M Madden, M J Duffy, L Zgaga, K Bennett
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has been linked with improved survival after breast cancer diagnosis but little is known about prescribing rates. This study investigates trends in vitamin D supplement use in both a general female and breast cancer population. METHODS: Women with a breast cancer diagnosis were identified from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (n = 19870). Women who had any vitamin D claim between 2005 and 2011 were identified from pharmacy claims data (n = 8556)...
2018: PloS One
Kholghi Oskooei Vahid, Ghafouri-Fard Soudeh, Omrani Mir Davood
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as an important fraction of human transcriptome have been shown to exert fundamental role in regulation of signaling pathways implicated in carcinogenesis. Among them is vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling whose participation in various cancers including breast cancer (BC) is evident. In spite of the presence of several evidences for participation of lncRNAs as well as VDR signaling in BC pathogenesis, no comprehensive study has evaluated the link between lncRNA dysregulation and VDR signaling in BC...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Qi Dai, Xiangzhu Zhu, JoAnn E Manson, Yiqing Song, Xingnan Li, Adrian A Franke, Rebecca B Costello, Andrea Rosanoff, Hui Nian, Lei Fan, Harvey Murff, Reid M Ness, Douglas L Seidner, Chang Yu, Martha J Shrubsole
Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that enzymes that synthesize and metabolize vitamin D are magnesium dependent. Recent observational studies found that magnesium intake significantly interacted with vitamin D in relation to vitamin D status and risk of mortality. According to NHANES, 79% of US adults do not meet their Recommended Dietary Allowance of magnesium. Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation differentially affects vitamin D metabolism dependent on baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdi Najafi
AIMS: Recently, the clinical importance of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its protective role against several chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and several types of cancers has been reported. However, its association with cardio-metabolic risk factors among patients candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has not been evaluated yet. CABG is associated with increased oxidative stress and free radicals; so, the current study was aimed to evaluate the potential association of TAC with cardiovascular risk factors among patients candidate for CABG...
2018: PloS One
Dina ElHarouni, Dina Yassin, Nesreen Ali, Seham Gohar, Iman Zaky, Hassan Adwan, Iman Sidhom
Purpose: Osteonecrosis is a significant toxicity resulting from the treatment of pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D receptor fok1 (VDR fok1) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) gene polymorphisms with the glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteonecrosis (ON) in Egyptian pediatric ALL patients. In addition, to identify the possible association of genetic polymorphisms with other factors such as gender and ALL subtypes. Patients and Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted on 102 pediatric ALL patients under the age of 18 who were treated at Children Cancer Hospital Egypt according to St Jude SR/HR total XV protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Zeting Yuan, Yuxia Yuan, Lin Han, Yanyan Qiu, Xiaqin Huang, Feng Gao, Guohua Fan, Yixi Zhang, Xueyao Tang, Xue He, Ke Xu, Peihao Yin
Background: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major reason for the failure of chemotherapy in colon cancer. Bufalin (BU) is one of the most effective antitumor active constituents in Chansu. Our previous study found that BU can effectively reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR in colon cancer. However, the clinical application of BU is limited due to its low solubility in water and high toxicity. In the present study, a multifunctional delivery system based on vitamin-E- succinate grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (VES-CSO) and cyclic (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide) (RGD)-modified d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method for targeted delivery of BU to improve the efficacy of drug-resistant colon cancer therapy...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Madara Ratnadiwakara, Melissa Rooke, Stephen J Ohms, Hugh J French, Rohan B H Williams, Rachel W Li, Donghai Zhang, Robyn M Lucas, Anneke C Blackburn
Breast cancer is a complex disease, and approximately 30% of cases are considered to be hereditary or familial, with a large fraction of this being polygenic. However, it is difficult to demonstrate the functional importance of genes of small effect in population studies, and these genes are not always easily targeted for prevention. The SuprMam (suppressor of mammary tumour) breast cancer susceptibility alleles were previously identified as contributors to spontaneous mammary tumour development in Trp53+/- mice...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Manuel Lozano Relaño, Lara Manyes, Juango Peiró, José María Ramada
INTRODUCTION: several indexes are used to measure the quality of nutrition in advanced ages. None of them were designed to evaluate nutrition to avoid disabilities in elderly population. OBJECTIVES: to retrieve from literature "nutrients and intakes" showing to be involved in aging, and propose a new index, considering this information, to evaluate the quality of nutrition for preventing diseases related to aging. METHODS: a bibliographic review was performed, retrieving information on nutrients associated with aging...
December 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mellar P Davis, Rajiv Panikkar
Clinicians often believe that cachexia is caused by cancer and anorexia as a toxicity of chemotherapy or targeted anti-cancer agents. It is now recognized that chemotherapy and certain targeted agents cause sarcopenia which reduce physical function and quality of life. Pre-treatment sarcopenia predicts chemotherapy toxicity, reduced response, increased disability, poor anti-tumor response and survival. Though bioelectrical impedance and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans have been used in the past for body composition measurements, CT scan cuts at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebral body with measurement of skeletal muscle and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas has become standard...
September 7, 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Simin Shahvazi, Sepideh Soltani, Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi, Russell J de Souza, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
Vitamin D has received attention for its potential to disrupt cancer processes. However, its effect in the treatment of prostate cancer is controversial. This study aimed to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on patients with prostate cancer. In the present study, PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to September 2017 for trials that evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on prostate specific antigen (PSA) response, mortality, and its possible side effects in participants with prostate cancer...
December 6, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Peyman Hadji, Oliver Stoetzer, Thomas Decker, Christian M Kurbacher, Frederik Marmé, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christoph Mundhenke, Andrea Distelrath, Peter A Fasching, Michael P Lux, Diana Lüftner, Wolfgang Janni, Mathias Muth, Julia Kreuzeder, Claudia Quiering, Eva-Marie Grischke, Hans Tesch
Background: Breast cancer and its treatments are associated with a detrimental effect on bone health. Here we report the results of an exploratory analysis assessing changes in levels of biomarkers of bone metabolism in patients enrolled in the phase IIIb 4EVER study. Methods: The 4EVER trial investigated everolimus in combination with exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer...
February 2019: Journal of Bone Oncology
Lifeng Zhang, Xinmei Zhang
In addition to regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism to maintain strong bones, vitamin D also has immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, it is related to chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Many studies indicate the roles of vitamin D in the development and progression of endometriosis including the effects on modulation of immune responses, inflammation reactions, cell proliferation and apoptosis, angiogenesis, adhesion and invasion. Vitamin D supplementation can relieve pain and improve endometrial receptivity associated with endometriosis and play a preventive and therapeutic role...
February 25, 2018: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rahman, Avi Levin, Giuseppe Lippi
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) performs various activities throughout the body. Although low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with several disease processes such as risk of fractures and falls, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, recent evidence attests that this important hormone also regulates several cellular pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Calcitriol modulates several genes controlling gut physiology and calcium homeostasis and also maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers, regulates the absorption of phosphate and calcium, and modulates host defense against pathogens and inflammatory response by interplaying with several types of secretory and immune cells...
December 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Matan Nachliely, Aviram Trachtenberg, Boris Khalfin, Karen Nalbandyan, Merav Cohen-Lahav, Kaori Yasuda, Toshiyuki Sakaki, Andrzej Kutner, Michael Danilenko
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the deadliest hematological malignancies without effective treatment for most patients. Vitamin D derivatives (VDDs) - active metabolites 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25D2) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and their analogs - are differentiation-inducing agents which have potential for the therapy of AML. However, calcemic toxicity of VDDs limits their clinical use at doses effective against cancer cells in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that in AML cell cultures, moderate pro-differentiation effects of low concentrations of VDDs can be synergistically enhanced by structurally distinct compounds known to activate the transcription factor Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-derived 2)-Like 2 (NFE2L2 or Nrf2)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jue-Sheng Ong, Puya Gharahkhani, Jiyuan An, Matthew H Law, David C Whiteman, Rachel E Neale, Stuart MacGregor
There is considerable debate regarding the role that 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations play in cancer risk or mortality, with earlier studies drawing mixed conclusions. Using data from the UK Biobank (UKB), we evaluate whether genetically predicted 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with overall cancer susceptibility and cancer mortality using five 25(OH)D genetic markers. Data comprised 438 870 white British UKB participants aged 37-73, including 46 155 cancer cases and 6998 cancer-specific deaths...
December 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Eric R Coon, Scott M Wright, Deborah Korenstein
Importance: Overuse of medical care is a well-recognized problem in health care, associated with patient harm and costs. We sought to identify and highlight original research articles published in 2017 that are most relevant to understanding medical overuse. Observations: A structured review of English-language articles published in 2017 was performed, coupled with examination of tables of contents of high-impact journals to identify articles related to medical overuse in adult care...
December 3, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Dagmara Klopotowska, Janusz Matuszyk, Joanna Wietrzyk
MiR-125b belongs to the class of microRNAs, which are short endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, it was reported that miR-125b was found to promote migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells and was involved in chemotherapeutic resistance. Decreasing miR-125b expression would have potential therapeutic significance in preventing dissemination of breast cancer cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate miR-125b expression levels in MCF-7 cells following treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and 1,24-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (tacalcitol), active metabolite and synthetic analog of vitamin D3 , respectively...
November 29, 2018: Steroids
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