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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547226/increases-in-cytosolic-ca-2-induce-dynamin-and-calcineurin-dependent-internalisation-of-cftr
#1
Waseema Patel, Patrick J Moore, M Flori Sassano, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Andrei A Aleksandrov, Margarida D Amaral, Robert Tarran, Michael A Gray
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated, apical anion channel that regulates ion and fluid transport in many epithelia including the airways. We have previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to airway epithelia causes a reduction in plasma membrane CFTR expression which correlated with a decrease in airway surface hydration. The effect of CS on CFTR was dependent on an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ . However, the underlying mechanism for this Ca2+ -dependent, internalisation of CFTR is unknown...
December 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30540472/direct-demonstration-of-dna-compaction-mediated-by-divalent-counterions
#2
Yanwei Wang, Tianyong Gao, Shuhang Li, Wenyan Xia, Wei Zhang, Guangcan Yang
We unambiguously demonstrated DNA attraction and its regulation mediated by divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+ by tethering a DNA single chain at various pH solutions. It is found that DNA is compacted when pH of solution containing these divalent counterions is lowered below 5. When pH of medium is about 4, DNA is in an unstable transition state, being able to switch reversely between compact and extensible states. We can also regulate the DNA attraction by a cyclic process of DNA compaction and unraveling through alternating pH of solution between 3 and 8...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536042/calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-cpk9-negatively-functions-in-stomatal-abscisic-acid-signaling-by-regulating-ion-channel-activity-in-arabidopsis
#3
Dong-Hua Chen, Hui-Ping Liu, Chun-Long Li
In this manuscript, we demonstrated the negative role of CPK9 in stomatal ABA signaling, and both CPK9 and CPK33 for accurate guard cell function was explored via cpk9/cpk33 double mutants' phenotype. Abscisic acid (ABA) can inhibit stomatal opening and promote stomatal closure by regulating ion channel activity in guard cell membranes. As an important second messenger, calcium (Ca2+ ) is essentially needed in ABA regulation of stomatal movement. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been proposed to contribute to central Ca2+ signal transduction in plants...
December 8, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534587/single-cell-analysis-reveals-individual-spore-responses-to-simulated-space-vacuum
#4
Lin He, Shiwei Wang, Marta Cortesão, Muying Wu, Ralf Moeller, Peter Setlow, Yong-Qing Li
Outer space is a challenging environment for all forms of life, and dormant spores of bacteria have been frequently used to study the survival of terrestrial life in a space journey. Previous work showed that outer space vacuum alone can kill bacterial spores. However, the responses and mechanisms of resistance of individual spores to space vacuum are unclear. Here, we examined spores' molecular changes under simulated space vacuum (~10-5  Pa) using micro-Raman spectroscopy and found that this vacuum did not cause significant denaturation of spore protein...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530673/human-cytomegalovirus-us21-protein-is-a-viroporin-that-modulates-calcium-homeostasis-and-protects-cells-against-apoptosis
#5
Anna Luganini, Giovanna Di Nardo, Luca Munaron, Gianfranco Gilardi, Alessandra Fiorio Pla, Giorgio Gribaudo
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US12 gene family comprises a set of 10 contiguous genes (US12 to US21) with emerging roles in the regulation of virus cell tropism, virion composition, and immunoevasion. Of all of the US12 gene products, pUS21 shows the highest level of identity with two cellular transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing (TMBIM) proteins: Bax inhibitor-1 and Golgi anti-apoptotic protein, both of which are involved in the regulation of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis and adaptive cell responses to stress conditions...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529769/the-effect-of-divalent-metal-cations-on-the-%C3%AE-v-integrin-binding-site-is-ligand-and-integrin-specific
#6
Eleanor H Hall, Robert J Slack
The binding of orthosteric ligands to integrins requires the presence of divalent metal cations bound to metal ion-binding sites located in the I domains of the integrin α and β subunits. In this study the influence of the type and concentration of divalent metal cation present was investigated on a single arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD) ligand across the αv integrin sub-family and single αv integrin (αvβ6) with different ligands. These relationships were determined using radioligand binding studies completed with [3 H] ligands and purified αv integrin protein preparations...
December 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528909/real-time-local-oxygen-measurements-for-high-resolution-cellular-imaging
#7
Liron Boyman, George S B Williams, Andrew P Wescott, Jennie B Leach, Joseph P Y Kao, W Jonathan Lederer
Single-cell metabolic investigations are hampered by the absence of flexible tools to measure local partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ) at high spatial-temporal resolution. To this end, we developed an optical sensor capable of measuring local pericellular pO2 for subcellular resolution measurements with confocal imaging while simultaneously carrying out electrophysiological and/or chemo-mechanical single cell experiments. Here we present the OxySplot optrode, a ratiometric fluorescent O2 -micro-sensor created by adsorbing O2 -sensitive and O2 -insensitive fluorophores onto micro-particles of silica...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528613/does-stromal-interaction-molecule-1-have-five-senses
#8
Peter B Stathopulos, Mitsuhiko Ikura
A single calcium (Ca2+ ) binding site within the canonical EF-hand loop was thought to govern the stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM1) structural changes that lead to activation of Orai1 Ca2+ channels. Recent work by Gudlur et al., published in Nat Commun [9(1):4536], suggests that the STIM1 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal domain has ∼5 additional Ca2+ binding sites, which underlie a surprising new proposal for Ca2+ sensing.
December 3, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30527809/the-insecticide-chlorantraniliprole-is-a-weak-activator-of-mammalian-skeletal-ryanodine-receptor-ca-2-release-channel
#9
Jian Chen, Liang Xue, Risheng Wei, Shangzhong Liu, Chang-Cheng Yin
Chlorantraniliprobe (Chlo), a potent insecticide, demolishes intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis of insects by inducing uncontrolled Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Chlo is lethal to insects but has low toxicity to mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects of Chlo on RyR1 from mammalian skeletal muscle. Ca2+ release assay indicated that Chlo at high concentrations promoted Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum through RyR1 channels. Single channel recording of purified RyR1 showed that Chlo activated RyR1 channel, increased channel open probability Po , reduced channel mean close time Tc , but did not change the channel mean open time To , suggesting that Chlo destabilized the closed RyR1 channel, rendered the channel easy to open...
December 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524369/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-induced-downstream-responses-to-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-trpv1-and-3-iodothyronamine-3-t-1-am-in-human-corneal-keratocytes
#10
Ersal Türker, Fabian Garreis, Noushafarin Khajavi, Peter S Reinach, Pooja Joshi, Tobias Brockmann, Alexander Lucius, Nina Ljubojevic, Elizabeth Turan, Drew Cooper, Felix Schick, Rob Reinholz, Uwe Pleyer, Josef Köhrle, Stefan Mergler
This study was undertaken to determine if crosstalk among the transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 8 (TRPM8), TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor triad modulates VEGF-induced Ca2+ signaling in human corneal keratocytes. Using RT-PCR, qPCR and immunohistochemistry, we determined TRPV1 and TRPM8 gene and protein coexpression in a human corneal keratocyte cell line (HCK) and human corneal cross sections. Fluorescence Ca2+ imaging using both a photomultiplier and a single cell digital imaging system as well as planar patch-clamping measured relative intracellular Ca2+ levels and underlying whole-cell currents...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515811/recent-advances-in-tmem16a-structure-function-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Qiushuang Ji, Shuai Guo, Xuzhao Wang, Chunli Pang, Yong Zhan, Yafei Chen, Hailong An
TMEM16A (also known as anoctamin 1, ANO1) is the molecular basis of the calcium-activated chloride channels, with ten transmembrane segments. Recently, atomic structures of the transmembrane domains of mouse TMEM16A (mTMEM16A) were determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. This gives us a solid ground to discuss the electrophysiological properties and functions of TMEM16A. TMEM16A is reported to be dually regulated by Ca2+ and voltage. In addition, the dysfunction of TMEM16A has been found to be involved in many diseases including cystic fibrosis, various cancers, hypertension, and gastrointestinal motility disorders...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514894/self-limited-single-nanowire-systems-combining-all-in-one-memristive-and-neuromorphic-functionalities
#12
Gianluca Milano, Michael Luebben, Zheng Ma, Rafal Dunin-Borkowski, Luca Boarino, Candido F Pirri, Rainer Waser, Carlo Ricciardi, Ilia Valov
The ability for artificially reproducing human brain type signals' processing is one of the main challenges in modern information technology, being one of the milestones for developing global communicating networks and artificial intelligence. Electronic devices termed memristors have been proposed as effective artificial synapses able to emulate the plasticity of biological counterparts. Here we report for the first time a single crystalline nanowire based model system capable of combining all memristive functions - non-volatile bipolar memory, multilevel switching, selector and synaptic operations imitating Ca2+ dynamics of biological synapses...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504093/targeted-single-cell-electroporation-loading-of-ca-2-indicators-in-the-mature-hemicochlea-preparation
#13
Eszter Berekméri, Orsolya Deák, Tímea Téglás, Éva Sághy, Tamás Horváth, Máté Aller, Ádám Fekete, László Köles, Tibor Zelles
Ca2+ is an important intracellular messenger and regulator in both physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms in the hearing organ. Investigation of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the mature cochlea is hampered by the special anatomy and high vulnerability of the organ. A quick, straightforward and reliable Ca2+ imaging method with high spatial and temporal resolution in the mature organ of Corti is missing. Cell cultures or isolated cells do not preserve the special microenvironment and intercellular communication, while cochlear explants are excised from only a restricted portion of the organ of Corti and usually from neonatal pre-hearing murines...
November 10, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501984/clarity-and-controversy-around-rate-control-in-af-the-orphan-child-in-af-therapeutics
#14
REVIEW
Martin Aguilar, Stanley Nattel
The vast majority of clinical arrhythmia-management research over the past couple of decades has focused on catheter-based therapeutic advances. There has been much less emphasis on rate-control strategies; however, the majority of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) will require some form of rate-control management, making AF rate-control the single most widely used therapeutic component in AF-patients. While the general principles governing AF rate-control have remained largely unchanged, they are often underappreciated...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500893/calcium-ion-induces-outer-membrane-fusion-of-deinococcus-grandis-spheroplasts-to-generate-giant-spheroplasts-with-multiple-cytoplasms
#15
Koki Nishino, Hiromi Nishida
Generally, enlarged spheroplasts of the Gram-negative bacterium Deinococcus grandis contain a single cytoplasm and a large periplasmic space. Enlargement of D. grandis spheroplasts requires the presence of divalent cation Ca2+ or Mg2+. In this study, we elucidated the effects of concentrations of these divalent cations on the enlargement of spheroplasts. We compared the cell sizes of the spheroplasts at five different concentrations (16.2, 62, 100, 200, and 333 mM) of CaCl2 or MgCl2. At the lowest concentration (16...
November 30, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500432/applications-of-flika-a-python-based-image-processing-and-analysis-platform-for-studying-local-events-of-cellular-calcium-signaling
#16
Kyle L Ellefsen, Jeffrey T Lock, Brett Settle, Carley A Karsten, Ian Parker
The patterning of cytosolic Ca2+ signals underlies their ubiquitous ability to specifically regulate numerous cellular processes. Advances in fluorescence microscopy have made it possible to image these signals with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. However, this is a double-edged sword, as the resulting enormous data sets necessitate development of software to automate image processing and analysis. Here, we describe Flika, an open source, graphical user interface program written in the Python environment that contains a suite of built-in image processing tools to enable intuitive visualization of image data and analysis...
November 27, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489067/single-step-synthesis-of-magnesium-doped-lithium-manganese-oxide-nanosorbent-and-their-polymer-composite-beads-for-selective-heavy-metals-removal
#17
Hitesh Saravaia, Hariom Gupta, Pooja Popat, Parthrajsinh Sodha, Vaibhav Kulshrestha
Magnesium doped lithium manganese oxide nanosorbent is prepared by a single step solid state method and characterized with appropriate analytical techniques, adsorption kinetic model and isotherms. Competitive and non-competitive adsorption studies are performed for a range of heavy metal ions. Prepared nanosorbent has shown explicit selectivity for various heavy metal ions and no remarkable influence of coexisting common interfering ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) which are generally coexist with all natural sources of water, contaminated water and industrial waste...
November 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489059/physiologically-important-electrolytes-as-regulators-of-tdp-43-aggregation-and-droplet-phase-behavior
#18
Yulong Sun, Alison Medina Cruz, Kevin Charles Hadley, Natalie Galant, Ryan Law, Robert Vernon, Vanessa Kay Morris, Janice Robertson, Avijit Chakrabartty
Intraneuronal aggregation of TDP-43 is seen in 97% of all ALS cases and occurs by a poorly understood mechanism. We developed a simple in vitro model system for the study of full length TDP-43 aggregation in solution and in protein droplets. We found that soluble, YFP-tagged full-length TDP-43 (yTDP-43) dimers can be produced by refolding into low salt HEPES buffer; these solutions are stable for several weeks. We found that physiological electrolytes induced reversible aggregation of yTDP-43 into 10-50 nm tufted particles, without amyloid characteristics...
November 29, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30479587/sodium-dichloroacetate-pharmacological-effect-as-related-to-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-inhibition-in-rats
#19
Jūratė Stanevičiūtė, Milda Juknevičienė, Jolita Palubinskienė, Ingrida Balnytė, Angelija Valančiūtė, Rūta Vosyliūtė, Kęstutis Sužiedėlis, Vaiva Lesauskaitė, Donatas Stakišaitis
The study objective was to investigate a possible sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) pharmacological mechanism causing an increase in diuresis in rats. The aim was to define characteristics of 24-hour urinary Na+ , K+ , Cl- , Ca2+ , and Mg2+ excretion in Wistar male rats and to evaluate effect of a single-dose DCA and repeated DCA dosage on diuresis. Six control and 6 DCA-treated male rats aged 5 to weeks after a single DCA dose and repeated dosage were tested. The single DCA dose treatment caused a significantly higher 24-hour diuresis when compared to control ( P < ...
October 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478756/structural-explanation-for-the-tunable-substrate-specificity-of-an-e-coli-nucleoside-hydrolase-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#20
Stefan A P Lenz, Stacey D Wetmore
Parasitic protozoa rely on nucleoside hydrolases that play key roles in the purine salvage pathway by catalyzing the hydrolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond that connects nucleobases to ribose sugars. Cytidine-uridine nucleoside hydrolase (CU-NH) is generally specific toward pyrimidine nucleosides; however, previous work has shown that replacing two active site residues with Tyr, specifically the Thr223Tyr and Gln227Tyr mutations, allows CU-NH to process inosine. The current study uses molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to gain atomic-level insight into the activity of wild-type and mutant E...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
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