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Morgane Le Marquer, Guillaume Bécard, Nicolas Frei Dit Frey
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is a beneficial association established between land plants and the members of a subphylum of fungi, the Glomeromycotina. How the two symbiotic partners regulate their association is still enigmatic. Secreted fungal peptides are candidates for regulating this interaction. We searched for fungal peptides with similarities with known plant signaling peptides. We identified CLAVATA (CLV)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (ESR)-RELATED PROTEIN (CLE) genes in phylogenetically distant AM fungi: four Rhizophagus species and one Gigaspora species...
December 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Cuimei Zhang, Shangli Shi, Zhen Liu, Fan Yang, Guoli Yin
Drought stress is considered the most adverse factor restricting plant survival, growth, and productivity. The identification of the key adaptive mechanisms to drought stress is essential to enhance the drought resistance of plants. In this study, differential responses of three alfalfa varieties to drought, including Medicago sativa L. cv. Longzhong (drought-tolerant), Longdong (moderate drought-tolerant), and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively studied at morphological, physio-biochemical, and transcriptional levels after a 12-day period of drought stress simulated by -1...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Lev G Nemchinov, Maya N Lee, Jonathan Shao
Evidence is presented demonstrating that alfalfa cultivars in the United States could be widely infected with cryptic virus of the genus Alphapartitivirus. The nucleotide sequences of several U.S. isolates were obtained. The biological significance or negative effects of the virus on alfalfa are unknown and require further investigation.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Anna H Newman-Griffis, Pablo Del Cerro, Myriam Charpentier, Iris Meier
Nuclear movement is involved in cellular and developmental processes across eukaryotic life, often driven by Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes, which bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via the interaction of Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-1 Homology (KASH) and Sad1/UNC-84 (SUN) proteins. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) LINC complexes are involved in nuclear movement and positioning in several cell types. Observations since the 1950s have described targeted nuclear movement and positioning during symbiosis initiation between legumes and rhizobia, but it has never been established whether these movements are functional or incidental...
December 10, 2018: Plant Physiology
Chooi-Hua Goh, Adrienne B Nicotra, Ulrike Mathesius
We investigated the role of three autoregulation of nodulation (AON) genes in regulating of root and shoot phenotypes when responding to changing nitrogen availability in the model legume, Medicago truncatula. These genes, RDN1-1 (ROOT DETERMINED NODULATION1-1), SUNN (SUPER NUMERIC NODULES) and LSS (LIKE SUNN SUPERNODULAOR), act in a systemic signaling pathway that limits nodule numbers. This pathway is also influenced by nitrogen availability, but it is not well known if AON genes control root and shoot phenotypes other than nodule numbers in response to nitrogen...
December 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mardi Mohammed Algandaby, Salama M El-Darier
Germination bioassay was carried out to test the biological activity of Achillea santolina L. (ASAE), Artemisia monosperma Del. (AMAE), Pituranthus tortuosus L. (PTAE) and Thymus capitatus L. (TCAE) aqueous extracts (collected from Taif region, KSA) on germination percentage (GP), plumule (PL) and radicle (RL) lengths (mm) besides seedling dry weight (SDW) (mg/seedlings) of Medicago polymorpha L. The inhibitory effect of P . tortuosus was insignificant compared to the other three donor species which attained the strongest allelopathic potential in the following order: A ...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Wei Dong, Peixiang Wu, Xijiang Liu, Tianxue Gao, Ning Yang, Yuguang Song
Epigenetic modification, especially histone modification, plays an important role in maintaining plant genome stability, regulating gene expression and promoting regeneration in vitro. MtSERK1 is an important marker gene involved in establishing of embryogenic callus during in vitro regeneration of Medicago truncatula. In order to understand the regulation Epigenetic modification, especially histone modification, plays an important role in maintaining plant genome stability, regulating gene expression and promoting regeneration in vitro...
November 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Jianhua Li, Chenfei Tian, Yuhui Xia, Ishmael Mutanda, Kaibo Wang, Yong Wang
Baicalein and scutellarein are bioactive flavones found in the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, used in traditional Chinese medicine. Extensive previous work has demonstrated the broad biological activity of these flavonoids, such as antifibrotic, antiviral and anticancer properties. However, their supply from plant material is insufficient to meet demand. Here, to provide an alternative production source and increase production levels of these flavones, we engineered an artificial pathway in an Escherichia coli cell factory for the first time...
November 26, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
H-L Zhang, F Jia, M Li, F Yu, B Zhou, Q-H Hao, X-L Wang
Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) is an important forage crop throughout the world. Despite the abiotic nutritional components of alfalfa having been extensively studied, there is only limited information on alfalfa endophytes. In this study, thirteen endophytic bacteria were isolated from alfalfa seeds. Bacillus (76.9%) was the most abundant genus, followed by Enterobacter (15.4%), Brevibacterium (7.7%), Geobacillus (7.7%), and Staphylococcus (7.7%). Four of the 13 endophytic bacteria, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EnB-alf1, Bacillus subtilis EnB-alf3, EnB-alf5, and EnB-alf13, were capable of significantly extending the lifespan of C...
November 29, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Manijeh Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Ali Niazi, Mansour Ebrahimi, Mohammadreza Tahsili, Zahra Nurollah, Reyhaneh Ebrahimi Khaksefid, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Esmaeil Ebrahimie
Plant root symbiosis with Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi improves uptake of water and mineral nutrients, improving plant development under stressful conditions. Unraveling the unified transcriptomic signature of a successful colonization provides a better understanding of symbiosis. We developed a framework for finding the transcriptomic signature of Arbuscular mycorrhiza colonization and its regulating transcription factors in roots of Medicago truncatula . Expression profiles of roots in response to AM species were collected from four separate studies and were combined by direct merging meta-analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ji Hyung Jun, Xirong Xiao, Xiaolan Rao, Richard A Dixon
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are primarily composed of the flavan-3-ol subunits (-)-epicatechin and/or (+)-catechin, but the basis for their different starter and extension unit compositions remains unclear. Genetic and biochemical analyses show that, in the model legume Medicago truncatula, two 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and its homologue leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), are involved in parallel pathways to generate, respectively, the (-)-epicatechin extension and starter units of PAs, with (+) catechin being an intermediate in the formation of the (-)-epicatechin starter unit...
December 2018: Nature Plants
Oswaldo Valdés-López, Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Junko Maeda, Pierre-Marc Delaux, Muthusubramanian Venkateshwaran, Mariel C Isidra-Arellano, María Del Rocío Reyero-Saavedra, María Del Socorro Sánchez-Correa, Miguel A Verastegui-Vidal, Norma Delgado-Buenrostro, Lori Van Ness, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jiangqi Wen, Michael R Sussman, Jean-Michel Ané
Signals and signaling pathways underlying the symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia have been studied extensively over the past decades. In a previous phosphoproteomic study on the Medicago truncatula - Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis, we identified plant proteins that are differentially phosphorylated upon the perception of rhizobial signals, called Nod factors. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that one of these proteins, Early Phosphorylated Protein 1 (EPP1), is required for the initiation of this symbiosis...
November 23, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xin Sui, Qi Wu, Wei Chang, Xiaoxu Fan, Fuqiang Song
BACKGROUND: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with host plants can protect host plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, and promote biodegradation of various contaminants. However, the molecular mechanisms of how the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and host plant association on atrazine stress were still poorly understood. To better characterize how arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and host plant interactions increase atrazine stress, we performed physiological and proteomic analysis of Funneliformis mosseae (mycorrhizal fungi) and Medicago sativa (alfalfa) association under atrazine stress...
November 21, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Han Li, Peter L Ralph
Population structure leads to systematic patterns in measures of mean relatedness between individuals in large genomic datasets, which are often discovered and visualized using dimension reduction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA). Mean relatedness is an average of the relationships across locus-specific genealogical trees, which can be strongly affected on intermediate genomic scales by linked selection and other factors. We show how to use local principal components analysis to describe this intermediate-scale heterogeneity in patterns of relatedness, and apply the method to genomic data from three species, finding in each that the effect of population structure can vary substantially across only a few megabases...
November 20, 2018: Genetics
Xue-Gui Liu, Yu-Qiu Sun, Jun Bian, Ting Han, Dan-Dan Yue, Dan-Qi Li, Pin-Yi Gao
Medicago sativa L. is a forage legume plant widely distributed in all continents. Six new triterpenoid saponins, Medicagosides A-F (1-6) and five known ones (7-11) were isolated from M. sativa. Their structures were determined via HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. Biologically, all the isolates displayed neuroprotective activities against H2 O2 -induced damage in SH-SY5Y cells. Among them, compounds 1, 3-5 and 10 exhibited striking neuroprotective activities at 100 μM, restoring cell viability range from 79...
November 13, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Jie-Shun Lin, Xiaolin Li, Zhenpeng Luo, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jiangqi Wen, Fang Xie
In the version of this Article originally published, the name of author Zhenpeng Luo was incorrectly listed as Zhenpeng Luo Luo. Additionally, nitrate in Fig. 6b was incorrectly shown as 'NO3 + ' rather than 'NO3 - '. This has now been amended.
November 16, 2018: Nature Plants
Xiaonan Xie, Narumi Mori, Kaori Yoneyama, Takahito Nomura, Kenichi Uchida, Koichi Yoneyama, Kohki Akiyama
Root exudates from Lotus japonicus were found to contain at least three different hyphal branching-inducing compounds for the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Gigaspora margarita, one of which had been previously identified as (+)-5-deoxystrigol (5DS), a canonical strigolactone (SL). One of the two remaining unknown hyphal branching inducers was purified and named lotuslactone. Its structure was determined as methyl (E)-2-(3-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-7-methyl-1-oxo-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroazulen-2-yl)-3-(((R)-4-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)oxy)acrylate, by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and HR-ESI- and EI-MS...
January 2019: Phytochemistry
E M K Minnee, G C Waghorn, P Gregorini, R H Bryant, D F Chapman
This study examined the comminution of fresh herbage, subsequent nutrient release, and the characteristics of swallowed boli from three physically and chemically contrasting forages during ingestive mastication by dairy cows. The extent and pattern of nutrient release will determine their availability to rumen microflora, and potentially influence their efficiency of use. The forages evaluated were perennial ryegrass (ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., cv Alto AR37), lucerne (Medicago sativa L., cv Torlesse) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L...
November 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Attila Farkas, Bernadett Pap, Éva Kondorosi, Gergely Maróti
The symbiosis specific NCR247 and NCR335 cationic plant peptides of Medicago truncatula have been shown to exert antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microbes. However, their antimicrobial efficiency is clearly limited by divalent cations. Here, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of NCR247 and NCR335 peptides were compared to those of the well-characterized peptide antibiotics polymyxin B and the aminoglycoside streptomycin on three model microbes, Escherichia coli , Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as representatives of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as eukaryotic fungi...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rocio Gaudioso-Pedraza, Martina Beck, Lisa Frances, Philip Kirk, Carolina Ripodas, Andreas Niebel, Giles E D Oldroyd, Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso, Fernanda de Carvalho-Niebel
The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules in legumes involves the initiation of synchronized programs in the root epidermis and cortex to allow rhizobial infection and nodule development. In this study, we provide evidence that symplastic communication, regulated by callose turnover at plasmodesmata (PD), is important for coordinating nodule development and infection in Medicago truncatula. Here, we show that rhizobia promote a reduction in callose levels in inner tissues where nodules initiate. This downregulation coincides with the localized expression of M...
November 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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