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Butuo Zhu, Hui Li, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Xianbing Wang, Yanxi Pei, Lifang Niu, Hao Lin
The C function gene AGAMOUS ( AG ) encodes for a MADS-box transcription factor required for floral organ identity and floral meristem (FM) determinacy in angiosperms. Unlike Arabidopsis, most legume plants possess two AG homologs arose by an ancient genome duplication event. Recently, two euAGAMOUS genes, MtAGa and MtAGb , were characterized and shown to fulfill the C function activity in the model legume Medicago truncatula . Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a new mtaga allele by screening the Medicago Tnt1 insertion mutant collection...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
James R Hagler, Diego J Nieto, Scott A Machtley, Dale W Spurgeon, Brian N Hogg, Sean L Swezey
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (Fabales: Fabaceae) can be strategically planted as a trap crop for Lygus spp. in California's organic strawberry fields. Alfalfa has been shown to attract both Lygus spp. and, in turn, a Lygus-specific parasitoid, Peristenus relictus (Ruthe) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). However, the impact of alfalfa trap-cropped strawberries on the Lygus spp. predator complex is unknown. Here we identify key predators of Lygus spp. found in organic strawberry. First, a general survey was conducted at an organic, non-trap cropped strawberry farm, to quantify predator abundance and to qualitatively assess their feeding activity on Lygus spp...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Wei Shi, Yanjie Guo, Guohui Ning, Cheng Li, Yan Li, Yilei Ren, Ouya Zhao, Zhixin Yang
High-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) are common pollutants in soil of coal mining areas that affect the safety of crops and the environment. In a pot experiment, we compared the remediation potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa Linn) and brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) either alone or in combination with starch or Fusarium sp. strain ZH-H2 for a farmland soil contaminated with 4-6-ring PAHs from a coal mine area. The alfalfa and brome alone treatments reduced the concentrations of most HMW-PAHs...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
S G Kumari, A R Moukahel, C Richet, S Galzi, D Filloux, P Roumagnac, N Asaad, J Hijazi, S Mghandef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Plant Disease
Hong Xiao, Zhen Peng, Chang Lin Xu, De Gang Zhang, Jin Long Chai, Tao Tao Pan, Xiao Jun Yu
Livestock grazing affects grassland stability, resilience, and productivity owing to trampling, foraging, and excretion. Over time, trampling influences a wide range of grassland components and can have lasting effects. Trampling helps maintain grassland health but may also cause its degradation. In a field experiment over two growing seasons, we simulated yak and sheep trampling at different intensities and investigated their effects on the reproductive and photosynthetic characteristics of Medicago ruthenica var...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yuqin Chen, Yuanming Xie, Caihong Song, Lulu Zheng, Xiong Rong, Letian Jia, Long Luo, Chi Zhang, Xiaoxiao Qu, Wei Xuan
Lateral root branching along the primary root involves complex gene regulatory networks in model plant Arabidopsis. However, it is largely unclarified whether different plant species share a common mechanism to pattern the lateral root along the primary axis. In this study, we assessed the development pattern of lateral root among several dicot and monocot plants, including Arabidopsis, tomato, Medicago, Nicotiana, rice, and ryegrass by using an agar-gel culture system. Our results reveal a regular-spaced distribution pattern of lateral roots along the primary root axis of both dicot and monocot plants...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jianbo Song, Liming Zeng, Rongrong Chen, Yihua Wang, Yong Zhou
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) proteins are crucial antioxidant enzymes that play critical roles in plant growth, development, and response to various abiotic stresses. The SOD gene family has been characterized in various plant species, but not in Medicago truncatula yet. Here, a total of 7 MtSOD genes were first identified from the whole genome of M. truncatula , including 1 MnSOD , 2 FeSODs , and 4 Cu / ZnSODs , which are unevenly distributed in five out of the eight chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SOD proteins from M...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Milosz Ruszkowski
In the first committed step of histidine biosynthesis, ATP and 5-phosphoribosyl-α1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), in a presence of ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (ATP-PRT, EC, yield phosphoribosyl-ATP. ATP-PRTs are subject to feedback inhibition by histidine, that allosterically binds between the regulatory domains. Histidine biosynthetic pathways of bacteria, lower eukaryotes, and plants are considered promising targets for a design of antibiotics, antifungal agents, and herbicides because higher organisms are histidine heterotrophs...
August 2, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Yuting Wang, Wenjie Ren, Yan Li, Yongfeng Xu, Ying Teng, Peter Christie, Yongming Luo
Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots and the soil. Understanding the response of root exudates to contamination stress is crucial in revealing the rhizoremediation mechanisms. Here, we investigate the response of alfalfa root exudates to bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) stress based on nontargeted metabolomic analysis. Alfalfa root exudates were collected using greenhouse hydroponic culture and analysed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)...
July 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stefania De Domenico, Marco Taurino, Antonia Gallo, Palmiro Poltronieri, Victoria Pastor, Victor Flors, Angelo Santino
Multiple stresses are becoming common challenges in modern agriculture due to environmental changes. A large set of phytochemicals collectively known as oxylipins play a key role in responses to several stresses. Understanding the fine-tuned plant responses to multiple and simultaneous stresses could open new perspectives for developing more tolerant varieties. We carried out the molecular and biochemical profiling of genes, proteins and active compounds involved in oxylipin metabolism in response to single/combined salt and wounding stresses on Medicago truncatula...
July 26, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Xuemin Wang, Yuhao Gao, Zhihong Chen, Jindong Li, Jianping Huang, Jiangbo Cao, Miaomiao Cui, Liping Ban
BACKGROUND: Pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) is one of the major pests in alfalfa crops, causing significant yield losses. (E)-β-farnesene (EβF), an alarm pheromone released by pea aphid, is generic to many species of aphids, and used to minimise potential danger from predators and parasitoids by avoiding the source of the pheromone. RESULTS: In this study, EβF synthase gene was constructed into a plant expression vector, and overexpressed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L...
July 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
Brice Roux, Nathalie Rodde, Sandra Moreau, Marie-Françoise Jardinaud, Pascal Gamas
Understanding the development of multicellular organisms requires the identification of regulators, notably transcription factors, and specific transcript populations associated with tissue differentiation. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is one of the techniques that enable the analysis of distinct tissues or cells within an organ. Coupling this technique with RNA sequencing (RNAseq) makes it extremely powerful to obtain a genome-wide and dynamic view of gene expression. Moreover, RNA sequencing allows two or potentially more interacting organisms to be analyzed simultaneously...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chenggang Liu, Chan Man Ha, Richard A Dixon
In addition to its value as a model system for studies on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, Medicago truncatula has recently become an organism of choice for dissection of complex pathways of secondary metabolism. This work has been driven by two main reasons, both with practical implications. First Medicago species possess a wide range of flavonoid and terpenoid natural products, many of which, for example, the isoflavonoids and triterpene saponins, have important biological activities impacting both plant and animal (including human) health...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Adel M Elmaghrabi, Hilary J Rogers, Dennis Francis, Sergio Ochatt
Changes in global climate and the nonstop increase in demographic pressure have provoked a stronger demand for agronomic resources at a time where land suitable for agriculture is becoming a rare commodity. They have also generated a number of abiotic stresses which exacerbate effects of diseases and pests and result in physiological and metabolic disorders that ultimately impact on yield when and where it is most needed. Therefore, a major scientific and agronomic challenge today is that of understanding and countering the impact of stress on yield...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Edelín Roque, Concepción Gómez-Mena, Cristina Ferrándiz, José Pío Beltrán, Luis A Cañas
A-, B-, and C-class genes code for MADS-box transcription factors required for floral organ identity in angiosperms. Other members of the family are also crucial to ensure proper carpel and fruit development. Development of genetic and genomic tools for Medicago truncatula has allowed its use as model system to study the genetic control of flower and fruit development in legumes. M. truncatula contains a single A-class gene, four B-function genes, and three C-class genes in its genome. This has made possible to do extensive functional characterization of these MADS-box transcription factors using gene expression analyses, protein-protein interactions, and forward and reverse genetic approaches...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
James L Weller, Richard C Macknight
Flowering time is an important trait that influences adaptation and yield in many crop legumes. Both the inherent earliness of flowering and the degree to which it is responsive to environmental factors determine both the eco-geographic range across which crops can be successfully grown and the seasonal cycles most suitable for production. This chapter will provide a brief review of studies investigating the genetic control of flowering time in Medicago truncatula.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fathi Berrabah, El Hosseyn Ait Salem, Marie Garmier, Pascal Ratet
Medicago truncatula is able to perform a symbiotic association with Sinorhizobium spp. This interaction leads to the formation of a new root organ, the nodule, in which bacteria infect the host cells and fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant benefit. Multiple and complex processes are essential for the success of this interaction from the recognition phase to nodule formation and functioning, and a wide range of plant host genes is required to orchestrate this phenomenon. Thanks to direct and reverse genetic as well as transcriptomic approaches, numerous genes involved in this symbiosis have been described and improve our understanding of this fantastic association...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hélène Proust, Caroline Hartmann, Martin Crespi, Christine Lelandais-Brière
This decade introduced "omics" approaches, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in association with reverse and forward genetic approaches, developed earlier, to try to identify molecular pathways involved in the development or in the response to environmental conditions as well as in animals and plants. This review summarizes studies that utilized "omics" strategies to unravel the root development in the model legume Medicago truncatula and how external factors such as soil mineral status or the presence of bacteria and fungi affect root system architecture in this species...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rujin Chen
Diverse forms of leaves are present in nature. However, the regulatory mechanisms that underpin the development of diverse leaf forms remain enigmatic. The initiation of leaf primordia from the periphery of shoot apical meristem (SAM) requires downregulation of the class 1 knotted-like homeobox KNOXI proteins. In plants with simple leaves, this downregulation is permanent, consistent with leaves being determinant organs. In most of plants with compound leaves, the KNOXI proteins are reactivated in developing leaf primordia, and this reactivation is required for the development of compound leaves in these plants...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christine Le Signor, Vanessa Vernoud, Mélanie Noguero, Karine Gallardo, Richard D Thompson
The study of seed development in the model species Medicago truncatula has made a significant contribution to our understanding of this process in crop legumes. Thanks to the availability of comprehensive proteomics and transcriptomics databases, coupled with exhaustive mutant collections, the roles of several regulatory genes in development and maturation are beginning to be deciphered and functionally validated. Advances in next-generation sequencing and the availability of a genomic sequence have made feasible high-density SNP genotyping, allowing the identification of markers tightly linked to traits of agronomic interest...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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