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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546916/ultrathin-film-titania-photocatalyst-on-nanocavity-for-co-2-reduction-with-boosted-catalytic-efficiencies
#1
Haomin Song, Wei Wu, Jian-Wei Liang, Partha Maity, Yuying Shu, Nam Sun Wang, Omar F Mohammed, Boon S Ooi, Qiaoqiang Gan, Dongxia Liu
Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with water to hydrocarbons represents a viable and sustainable process toward greenhouse gas reduction and fuel/chemical production. Development of more efficient catalysts is the key to mitigate the limits in photocatalytic processes. Here, a novel ultrathin-film photocatalytic light absorber (UFPLA) with TiO2 films to design efficient photocatalytic CO2 conversion processes is created. The UFPLA structure conquers the intrinsic trade-off between optical absorption and charge carrier extraction efficiency, that is, a solar absorber should be thick enough to absorb majority of the light allowable by its bandgap but thin enough to allow charge carrier extraction for reactions...
November 2018: Global Challenges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500748/drip-fertigation-significantly-reduces-nitrogen-leaching-in-solar-greenhouse-vegetable-production-system
#2
Haofeng Lv, Shan Lin, Yafang Wang, Xiaojuan Lian, Yiming Zhao, Yingjie Li, Jiuyue Du, Zhengxiang Wang, Jingguo Wang, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
Vegetable production in solar greenhouses in northern China results in the excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers and water via flooding irrigation. Both factors result in low N use efficiency and high environmental costs because groundwater becomes contaminated with nitrate (NO3 - ). Four consecutive tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) cropping seasons were tested whether drip fertigation and/or the incorporation of maize straw (S) may significantly reduce NO3 - and dissolved organic N (DON) leaching while increasing the water-use efficiency (WUE) and partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN ) of the tomatoes...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397145/sustainable-hydropower-in-the-21st-century
#3
Emilio F Moran, Maria Claudia Lopez, Nathan Moore, Norbert Müller, David W Hyndman
Hydropower has been the leading source of renewable energy across the world, accounting for up to 71% of this supply as of 2016. This capacity was built up in North America and Europe between 1920 and 1970 when thousands of dams were built. Big dams stopped being built in developed nations, because the best sites for dams were already developed and environmental and social concerns made the costs unacceptable. Nowadays, more dams are being removed in North America and Europe than are being built. The hydropower industry moved to building dams in the developing world and since the 1970s, began to build even larger hydropower dams along the Mekong River Basin, the Amazon River Basin, and the Congo River Basin...
November 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340284/satellite-based-regional-warming-hiatus-in-china-and-its-implication
#4
Long Li, Yong Zha
The slowdown in global warming since 1998, often termed the global warming hiatus. Reconciling the "hiatus" is a main focus in the 2013 climate change conference. Accurately characterizing the spatiotemporal trends in surface air temperature (SAT) is helps to better understand the "hiatus" during the period. This article presents a satellite-based regional warming simulation to diagnose the "hiatus" for 2001-2015 in China. Results show that the rapid warming is mainly in western and southern China, such as Yunnan (mean ± standard deviation: 0...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333580/ceramic-metal-composites-for-heat-exchangers-in-concentrated-solar-power-plants
#5
M Caccia, M Tabandeh-Khorshid, G Itskos, A R Strayer, A S Caldwell, S Pidaparti, S Singnisai, A D Rohskopf, A M Schroeder, D Jarrahbashi, T Kang, S Sahoo, N R Kadasala, A Marquez-Rossy, M H Anderson, E Lara-Curzio, D Ranjan, A Henry, K H Sandhage
The efficiency of generating electricity from heat using concentrated solar power plants (which use mirrors or lenses to concentrate sunlight in order to drive heat engines, usually involving turbines) may be appreciably increased by operating with higher turbine inlet temperatures, but this would require improved heat exchanger materials. By operating turbines with inlet temperatures above 1,023 kelvin using closed-cycle high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2 ) recompression cycles, instead of using conventional (such as subcritical steam Rankine) cycles with inlet temperatures below 823 kelvin1-3 , the relative heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency may be increased by more than 20 per cent...
October 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302408/absorption-coefficient-of-carbon-dioxide-across-atmospheric-troposphere-layer
#6
Peng-Sheng Wei, Yin-Chih Hsieh, Hsuan-Han Chiu, Da-Lun Yen, Chieh Lee, Yi-Cheng Tsai, Te-Chuan Ting
Absorption coefficient affected by carbon dioxide concentration and optical path length responsible for temperature or global warming across the troposphere layer, which is less than the altitude of 10 km in the atmosphere, is systematically presented in this work. Solar irradiation within a short wavelength range can be absorbed, scattered and transmitted by the atmosphere, and absorbed and reflected by the Earth's surface. Radiative emission in high wavelength ranges from the Earth's surface at low temperature can be absorbed by atmospheric water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases...
October 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297463/tropical-land-carbon-cycle-responses-to-2015-16-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-recorded-by-atmospheric-greenhouse-gas-and-remote-sensing-data
#7
Emanuel Gloor, Chris Wilson, Martyn P Chipperfield, Frederic Chevallier, Wolfgang Buermann, Hartmut Boesch, Robert Parker, Peter Somkuti, Luciana V Gatti, Caio Correia, Lucas G Domingues, Wouter Peters, John Miller, Merritt N Deeter, Martin J P Sullivan
The outstanding tropical land climate characteristic over the past decades is rapid warming, with no significant large-scale precipitation trends. This warming is expected to continue but the effects on tropical vegetation are unknown. El Niño-related heat peaks may provide a test bed for a future hotter world. Here we analyse tropical land carbon cycle responses to the 2015/16 El Niño heat and drought anomalies using an atmospheric transport inversion. Based on the global atmospheric CO2 and fossil fuel emission records, we find no obvious signs of anomalously large carbon release compared with earlier El Niño events, suggesting resilience of tropical vegetation...
October 8, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294693/reducing-electric-energy-consumption-in-linear-fresnel-collector-solar-fields-coupled-to-thermal-desalination-plants-by-optimal-mirror-defocusing
#8
Mohamed Alhaj, Sami G Al-Ghamdi
In many parts of the world, desalination is the only viable and economic solution to the problem of fresh water shortage. The current commercial desalination technologies rely on fossil fuels and are thus associated with high greenhouse gas emissions that are a major cause of climatic changes. Solar thermal-driven multi-effect distillation with thermal vapor compression is a clean alternative to conventional desalination technologies. To comprehend this process, as well as its features and limitations, extensive modeling is required...
September 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194324/coal-with-carbon-capture-and-sequestration-is-not-as-land-use-efficient-as-solar-photovoltaic-technology-for-climate-neutral-electricity-production
#9
James Gunnar Groesbeck, Joshua M Pearce
Avoiding climate destabilization caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requires climate-neutral electricity sources. It has been proposed that the GHG emissions from coal-fired power plants can be offset by carbon capture and sequestration or bio-sequestration. However, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has recently declined so far in costs it now offers both technical and economic potential to offset all of coal-fired electricity use. PV only emits GHGs during fabrication and not during use. To determine which technical solution to climate-neutral electricity generation should be preferred, this study aggregates and synthesizes life cycle analysis studies for exergy, GHG emissions and land transformation for climate-neutral electricity...
September 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153622/assessment-of-new-functional-units-for-agrivoltaic-systems
#10
Ai Leon, Keiichi N Ishihara
In agrivoltaic systems, photovoltaic (PV) modules are ground-mounted between crops replacing a part of greenhouse or are set below or above the cover film of greenhouse; these can provide solutions with respect to land competition and climate change mitigation. These systems have certain additional functions, namely, sunlight sharing, land sharing and power generation, as compared to the conventional agricultural production systems. These new functions are not adequately performed by traditionally used functional units (FUs), such as the mass- or the area-based FU, in agricultural life cycle assessment (LCA)...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133143/nitrous-oxide-from-chemodenitrification-a-possible-missing-link-in-the-proterozoic-greenhouse-and-the-evolution-of-aerobic-respiration
#11
Chloe L Stanton, Christopher T Reinhard, James F Kasting, Nathaniel E Ostrom, Joshua A Haslun, Timothy W Lyons, Jennifer B Glass
The potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) may have been an important constituent of Earth's atmosphere during Proterozoic (~2.5-0.5 Ga). Here, we tested the hypothesis that chemodenitrification, the rapid reduction of nitric oxide by ferrous iron, would have enhanced the flux of N2 O from ferruginous Proterozoic seas. We empirically derived a rate law, <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> <mml:mrow> <mml:mfrac> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>d</mml:mi> <mml:mfenced> <mml:msub> <mml:mi>N</mml:mi> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msub> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> </mml:mfenced> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>d</mml:mi> <mml:mi>t</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:mfrac> <mml:mo>=</mml:mo> <mml:mn>7...
November 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130242/managing-traditional-solar-greenhouse-with-cpss-a-just-for-fit-philosophy
#12
Mengzhen Kang, Xing-Rong Fan, Jing Hua, Haoyu Wang, Xiujuan Wang, Fei-Yue Wang
The profit of greenhouse production is influenced by management activities (e.g., environmental control and plantation scheduling) as well as social conditions (e.g., price fluctuation). In China, the prevailing horticultural facility is the traditional solar greenhouse. The key existing problem is the lack of knowledge of growers, which in turn leads to inefficient management, low production, or unsalable products. To secure effective greenhouse management, the production planning system must account for the crop growing environment, grower's activities, and the market...
December 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118573/daily-heliotropic-movements-assist-gas-exchange-and-productive-responses-in-dreb1a-soybean-plants-under-drought-stress-in-the-greenhouse
#13
Miroslava Rakocevic, Mariele Müller, Fabio Takeshi Matsunaga, Norman Neumaier, José Renato Bouças Farias, Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno, Renata Fuganti-Pagliarini
Drought stress is one of the most severe environmental constraints on plant production. Under environmental pressures, complex daily heliotropic adjustments of leaflet angles in soybean can help to reduce transpiration losses by diminishing light interception (paraheliotropism), increase diurnal carbon gain in sparse canopies and reduce carbon gain in dense canopies by solar tracking (diaheliotropism). The plant materials studied were cultivar BR 16 and its genetically engineered isoline P58, ectopically overexpressing AtDREB1A, which is involved in abiotic stress responses...
August 17, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114589/sustainability-assessment-of-home-made-solar-cookers-for-use-in-developed-countries
#14
Joan Manuel F Mendoza, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, Ximena C Schmidt Rivera, Joan Rieradevall, Adisa Azapagic
The sustainability benefits of using solar cookers in developing countries have been analysed widely in the literature. However, the sustainability potential of solar cookers in developed economies has not been explored yet, which is the topic of this paper. Three types of solar cooker - box, panel and parabolic - were built as part of this research, using mostly (>70%) reused household materials. Their life cycle environmental and economic performance was analysed and compared to conventional microwaves...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067755/production-of-methane-and-ethylene-from-plastic-in-the-environment
#15
Sarah-Jeanne Royer, Sara Ferrón, Samuel T Wilson, David M Karl
Mass production of plastics started nearly 70 years ago and the production rate is expected to double over the next two decades. While serving many applications because of their durability, stability and low cost, plastics have deleterious effects on the environment. Plastic is known to release a variety of chemicals during degradation, which has a negative impact on biota. Here, we show that the most commonly used plastics produce two greenhouse gases, methane and ethylene, when exposed to ambient solar radiation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046197/influence-of-insolation-on-the-efficiency-of-no-3-removal-from-wastewater-treated-in-the-hydroponic-system
#16
Aleksandra Bawiec, Katarzyna Pawęska, Krzysztof Pulikowski, Joanna Kajewska-Szkudlarek
The use of plants and natural processes for wastewater treatment is an issue that arouses interest among technologists and scientists around the world. The aim of the article was to analyze the influence of the air temperature and insolation on the removal of nitrate nitrogen from the wastewater treated in the hydroponic system, under greenhouse conditions. Samples of sewage for its quality tests were taken from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in the southwestern part of Poland. Data regarding daily sunshine duration and average daily air temperature values in selected periods of 2013-2016 come from a meteorological station located 30 km from WWTP...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021320/effect-of-climate-change-on-humic-substances-and-associated-impacts-on-the-quality-of-surface-water-and-groundwater-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Ewa Lipczynska-Kochany
Humic substances (HS), a highly transformed part of non-living natural organic matter (NOM), comprise up to 70% of the soil organic matter (SOM), 50-80% of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface water, and 25% of DOM in groundwater. They considerably contribute to climate change (CC) by generating greenhouse gases (GHG). On the other hand, CC affects HS, their structure and reactivity. HS important role in global warming has been recognized and extensively studied. However, much less attention has been paid so far to effects on the freshwater quality, which may result from the climate induced impact on HS, and HS interactions with contaminants in soil, surface water and groundwater...
November 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998692/-nitrous-oxide-production-in-response-to-oxygen-in-a-solar-greenhouse-vegetable-soil
#18
Ji-Ji Chen, He Song, Wen-Chao Cao, Yi-Ran Wang, Jing-Guo Wang
To explore the sources of peak nitrous oxide (N2 O) flushes in solar greenhouse vegetable field, an experiment was conducted with two conventional vegetable soils under different initial volume fractions of oxygen (O2 ) (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%). A robotized incubation system was employed to analyze the gas kinetics[O2 , N2 O, nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen (N2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO2 )] every 6 or 8 h and calculate the N2 O/(NO+N2 O+N2 ) index. Sodium chlorate (NaClO3 ) was used to inhibit the oxidation of NO2 - to further explore the relationship between N2 O and nitrite (NO2 - )...
August 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29965533/-analysis-of-greenhouse-gas-emission-characteristics-and-their-influencing-factors-in-the-algae-zone-of-lake-taihu
#19
Lei Jia, Yi-Ni Pu, Shi-Jun Yang, Rong-Ming-Zhu Su, Zhi-Hao Qin, Mi Zhang
In order to identify CH4 and CO2 emission flux characteristics and their impact factors in the algal lake zone of Lake Taihu, CH4 and CO2 fluxes were observed by the improved closed chamber method in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. The relationships between CH4 and CO2 flux and meteorological factors were analyzed. The results showed that CH4 and CO2 fluxes had obvious diurnal variations. The CH4 flux in the daytime was higher than that in the nighttime in spring; however, the CH4 flux in the nighttime was higher than that in the daytime in summer...
May 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949617/land-based-drip-irrigated-culture-of-ulva-compressa-the-effect-of-culture-platform-design-and-nutrient-concentration-on-biomass-production-and-protein-content
#20
Wilson Mendoza, Dominick Mendola, Jang Kim, Charles Yarish, Alyssa Velloze, B Greg Mitchell
This work developed a laboratory prototype methodology for cost-effective, water-sparing drip-irrigation of seaweeds, as a model for larger-scale, on-land commercial units, which we envision as semi-automated, inexpensive polyethylene sheet-covered bow-framed greenhouses with sloping plastic covered floors, water-collecting sumps, and pumped recycling of culture media into overhead low-pressure drip emitters. Water droplets form on the continually wetted interior plastic surfaces of these types of greenhouses scattering incoming solar radiation to illuminate around and within the vertically-stacked culture platforms...
2018: PloS One
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