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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302408/absorption-coefficient-of-carbon-dioxide-across-atmospheric-troposphere-layer
#1
Peng-Sheng Wei, Yin-Chih Hsieh, Hsuan-Han Chiu, Da-Lun Yen, Chieh Lee, Yi-Cheng Tsai, Te-Chuan Ting
Absorption coefficient affected by carbon dioxide concentration and optical path length responsible for temperature or global warming across the troposphere layer, which is less than the altitude of 10 km in the atmosphere, is systematically presented in this work. Solar irradiation within a short wavelength range can be absorbed, scattered and transmitted by the atmosphere, and absorbed and reflected by the Earth's surface. Radiative emission in high wavelength ranges from the Earth's surface at low temperature can be absorbed by atmospheric water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases...
October 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297463/tropical-land-carbon-cycle-responses-to-2015-16-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-recorded-by-atmospheric-greenhouse-gas-and-remote-sensing-data
#2
Emanuel Gloor, Chris Wilson, Martyn P Chipperfield, Frederic Chevallier, Wolfgang Buermann, Hartmut Boesch, Robert Parker, Peter Somkuti, Luciana V Gatti, Caio Correia, Lucas G Domingues, Wouter Peters, John Miller, Merritt N Deeter, Martin J P Sullivan
The outstanding tropical land climate characteristic over the past decades is rapid warming, with no significant large-scale precipitation trends. This warming is expected to continue but the effects on tropical vegetation are unknown. El Niño-related heat peaks may provide a test bed for a future hotter world. Here we analyse tropical land carbon cycle responses to the 2015/16 El Niño heat and drought anomalies using an atmospheric transport inversion. Based on the global atmospheric CO2 and fossil fuel emission records, we find no obvious signs of anomalously large carbon release compared with earlier El Niño events, suggesting resilience of tropical vegetation...
October 8, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294693/reducing-electric-energy-consumption-in-linear-fresnel-collector-solar-fields-coupled-to-thermal-desalination-plants-by-optimal-mirror-defocusing
#3
Mohamed Alhaj, Sami G Al-Ghamdi
In many parts of the world, desalination is the only viable and economic solution to the problem of fresh water shortage. The current commercial desalination technologies rely on fossil fuels and are thus associated with high greenhouse gas emissions that are a major cause of climatic changes. Solar thermal-driven multi-effect distillation with thermal vapor compression is a clean alternative to conventional desalination technologies. To comprehend this process, as well as its features and limitations, extensive modeling is required...
September 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194324/coal-with-carbon-capture-and-sequestration-is-not-as-land-use-efficient-as-solar-photovoltaic-technology-for-climate-neutral-electricity-production
#4
James Gunnar Groesbeck, Joshua M Pearce
Avoiding climate destabilization caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requires climate-neutral electricity sources. It has been proposed that the GHG emissions from coal-fired power plants can be offset by carbon capture and sequestration or bio-sequestration. However, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has recently declined so far in costs it now offers both technical and economic potential to offset all of coal-fired electricity use. PV only emits GHGs during fabrication and not during use. To determine which technical solution to climate-neutral electricity generation should be preferred, this study aggregates and synthesizes life cycle analysis studies for exergy, GHG emissions and land transformation for climate-neutral electricity...
September 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153622/assessment-of-new-functional-units-for-agrivoltaic-systems
#5
Ai Leon, Keiichi N Ishihara
In agrivoltaic systems, photovoltaic (PV) modules are ground-mounted between crops replacing a part of greenhouse or are set below or above the cover film of greenhouse; these can provide solutions with respect to land competition and climate change mitigation. These systems have certain additional functions, namely, sunlight sharing, land sharing and power generation, as compared to the conventional agricultural production systems. These new functions are not adequately performed by traditionally used functional units (FUs), such as the mass- or the area-based FU, in agricultural life cycle assessment (LCA)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133143/nitrous-oxide-from-chemodenitrification-a-possible-missing-link-in-the-proterozoic-greenhouse-and-the-evolution-of-aerobic-respiration
#6
Chloe L Stanton, Christopher T Reinhard, James F Kasting, Nathaniel E Ostrom, Joshua A Haslun, Timothy W Lyons, Jennifer B Glass
The potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) may have been an important constituent of Earth's atmosphere during Proterozoic (~2.5-0.5 Ga). Here, we tested the hypothesis that chemodenitrification, the rapid reduction of nitric oxide by ferrous iron, would have enhanced the flux of N2 O from ferruginous Proterozoic seas. We empirically derived a rate law, dN2Odt=7.2×10-5[Fe2+]0.3[NO]1 , and measured an isotopic site preference of +16‰ for the reaction. Using this empirical rate law, and integrating across an oceanwide oxycline, we found that low nM NO and μM-low mM Fe2+ concentrations could have sustained a sea-air flux of 100-200 Tg N2 O-N year-1 , if N2 fixation rates were near-modern and all fixed N2 was emitted as N2 O...
August 22, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130242/managing-traditional-solar-greenhouse-with-cpss-a-just-for-fit-philosophy
#7
Mengzhen Kang, Xing-Rong Fan, Jing Hua, Haoyu Wang, Xiujuan Wang, Fei-Yue Wang
The profit of greenhouse production is influenced by management activities (e.g., environmental control and plantation scheduling) as well as social conditions (e.g., price fluctuation). In China, the prevailing horticultural facility is the traditional solar greenhouse. The key existing problem is the lack of knowledge of growers, which in turn leads to inefficient management, low production, or unsalable products. To secure effective greenhouse management, the production planning system must account for the crop growing environment, grower's activities, and the market...
August 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118573/daily-heliotropic-movements-assist-gas-exchange-and-productive-responses-in-dreb1a-soybean-plants-under-drought-stress-in-the-greenhouse
#8
Miroslava Rakocevic, Mariele Müller, Fabio Takeshi Matsunaga, Norman Neumaier, José Renato Bouças Farias, Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno, Renata Fuganti-Pagliarini
Drought stress is one of the most severe environmental constraints on plant production. Under environmental pressures, complex daily heliotropic adjustments of leaflet angles in soybean can help to reduce transpiration losses by diminishing light interception (paraheliotropism), increase diurnal carbon gain in sparse canopies and reduce carbon gain in dense canopies by solar tracking (diaheliotropism). The plant materials studied were cultivar BR 16 and its genetically engineered isoline P58, ectopically overexpressing AtDREB1A, which is involved in abiotic stress responses...
August 17, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114589/sustainability-assessment-of-home-made-solar-cookers-for-use-in-developed-countries
#9
Joan Manuel F Mendoza, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, Ximena C Schmidt Rivera, Joan Rieradevall, Adisa Azapagic
The sustainability benefits of using solar cookers in developing countries have been analysed widely in the literature. However, the sustainability potential of solar cookers in developed economies has not been explored yet, which is the topic of this paper. Three types of solar cooker - box, panel and parabolic - were built as part of this research, using mostly (>70%) reused household materials. Their life cycle environmental and economic performance was analysed and compared to conventional microwaves...
August 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067755/production-of-methane-and-ethylene-from-plastic-in-the-environment
#10
Sarah-Jeanne Royer, Sara Ferrón, Samuel T Wilson, David M Karl
Mass production of plastics started nearly 70 years ago and the production rate is expected to double over the next two decades. While serving many applications because of their durability, stability and low cost, plastics have deleterious effects on the environment. Plastic is known to release a variety of chemicals during degradation, which has a negative impact on biota. Here, we show that the most commonly used plastics produce two greenhouse gases, methane and ethylene, when exposed to ambient solar radiation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046197/influence-of-insolation-on-the-efficiency-of-no-3-removal-from-wastewater-treated-in-the-hydroponic-system
#11
Aleksandra Bawiec, Katarzyna Pawęska, Krzysztof Pulikowski, Joanna Kajewska-Szkudlarek
The use of plants and natural processes for wastewater treatment is an issue that arouses interest among technologists and scientists around the world. The aim of the article was to analyze the influence of the air temperature and insolation on the removal of nitrate nitrogen from the wastewater treated in the hydroponic system, under greenhouse conditions. Samples of sewage for its quality tests were taken from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in the southwestern part of Poland. Data regarding daily sunshine duration and average daily air temperature values in selected periods of 2013-2016 come from a meteorological station located 30 km from WWTP...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021320/effect-of-climate-change-on-humic-substances-and-associated-impacts-on-the-quality-of-surface-water-and-groundwater-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Ewa Lipczynska-Kochany
Humic substances (HS), a highly transformed part of non-living natural organic matter (NOM), comprise up to 70% of the soil organic matter (SOM), 50-80% of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface water, and 25% of DOM in groundwater. They considerably contribute to climate change (CC) by generating greenhouse gases (GHG). On the other hand, CC affects HS, their structure and reactivity. HS important role in global warming has been recognized and extensively studied. However, much less attention has been paid so far to effects on the freshwater quality, which may result from the climate induced impact on HS, and HS interactions with contaminants in soil, surface water and groundwater...
November 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998692/-nitrous-oxide-production-in-response-to-oxygen-in-a-solar-greenhouse-vegetable-soil
#13
Ji-Ji Chen, He Song, Wen-Chao Cao, Yi-Ran Wang, Jing-Guo Wang
To explore the sources of peak nitrous oxide (N2 O) flushes in solar greenhouse vegetable field, an experiment was conducted with two conventional vegetable soils under different initial volume fractions of oxygen (O2 ) (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%). A robotized incubation system was employed to analyze the gas kinetics[O2 , N2 O, nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen (N2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO2 )] every 6 or 8 h and calculate the N2 O/(NO+N2 O+N2 ) index. Sodium chlorate (NaClO3 ) was used to inhibit the oxidation of NO2 - to further explore the relationship between N2 O and nitrite (NO2 - )...
August 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29965533/-analysis-of-greenhouse-gas-emission-characteristics-and-their-influencing-factors-in-the-algae-zone-of-lake-taihu
#14
Lei Jia, Yi-Ni Pu, Shi-Jun Yang, Rong-Ming-Zhu Su, Zhi-Hao Qin, Mi Zhang
In order to identify CH4 and CO2 emission flux characteristics and their impact factors in the algal lake zone of Lake Taihu, CH4 and CO2 fluxes were observed by the improved closed chamber method in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. The relationships between CH4 and CO2 flux and meteorological factors were analyzed. The results showed that CH4 and CO2 fluxes had obvious diurnal variations. The CH4 flux in the daytime was higher than that in the nighttime in spring; however, the CH4 flux in the nighttime was higher than that in the daytime in summer...
May 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949617/land-based-drip-irrigated-culture-of-ulva-compressa-the-effect-of-culture-platform-design-and-nutrient-concentration-on-biomass-production-and-protein-content
#15
Wilson Mendoza, Dominick Mendola, Jang Kim, Charles Yarish, Alyssa Velloze, B Greg Mitchell
This work developed a laboratory prototype methodology for cost-effective, water-sparing drip-irrigation of seaweeds, as a model for larger-scale, on-land commercial units, which we envision as semi-automated, inexpensive polyethylene sheet-covered bow-framed greenhouses with sloping plastic covered floors, water-collecting sumps, and pumped recycling of culture media into overhead low-pressure drip emitters. Water droplets form on the continually wetted interior plastic surfaces of these types of greenhouses scattering incoming solar radiation to illuminate around and within the vertically-stacked culture platforms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948685/effects-of-soil-improvement-technology-on-soil-quality-in-solar-greenhouse
#16
Wan-Li Xiao, Zhe-Xin Wang, Feng-Zhi Wu, Xin-Gang Zhou
Currently, cucumber cultivation is mainly through monoculture, as continuous culture leads to the decrease of crop yield and soil quality. In order to improve soil quality to achieve continuous monocultures, soil physicochemical properties, microbial biomass, content of phenolic compounds, and the size of bacterial, fungal, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and Fusarium oxysporum were first evaluated in cucumber monoculture solar greenhouse. Soil improvement technology, including catch wheat (CW), calcium cyanamide disinfection (LN), and straw reactor technology (SR) during summer fallow period, was compared with conventional fallow (CK)...
August 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940006/light-quality-characterization-under-climate-screens-and-shade-nets-for-controlled-environment-agriculture
#17
Titta Kotilainen, T Matthew Robson, Ricardo Hernández
Climate screens are typically used inside glass greenhouses to improve control of humidity and temperature, and thus reduce energy expenditure. Shade nets are more appropriate to use, either with or without polyethylene cladding, at locations less-reliant on climate control, but where protection against hail, wind and excessive solar radiation might be needed. In addition, insect screens and nets can be employed to hinder insect pests and other invertebrates entering either type of production environment, and to keep invertebrates used in pest management contained inside...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895961/microwave-heating-assisted-catalytic-dry-reforming-of-methane-to-syngas
#18
Sepehr Hamzehlouia, Shaffiq A Jaffer, Jamal Chaouki
Natural gas is a robust and environmentally friendlier alternative to oil resources for energy and chemicals production. However, gas is distributed globally within shales and hydrates, which are generally remote and difficult reserves to produce. The accessibility, transportation, and distribution, therefore, bring major capital costs. With today's low and foreseen low price of natural gas, conversion of natural gas to higher value-added chemicals is highly sought by industry. Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a technology pathway to convert two critical greenhouse gas components, CH4 and CO2 , to syngas, a commodity chemical feedstock...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890610/low-carbon-electricity-production-through-the-implementation-of-photovoltaic-panels-in-rooftops-in-urban-environments-a-case-study-for-three-cities-in-peru
#19
José Bazán, Joan Rieradevall, Xavier Gabarrell, Ian Vázquez-Rowe
Urban environments in Latin America must begin decarbonizing their activities to avoid increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions rates due to their reliance on fossil fuel-based energy to support economic growth. In this context, cities in Latin America have high potential to convert sunlight into energy. Hence, the main objective of this study was to determine the potential of electricity self-sufficiency production and mitigation of GHG emissions in three medium-sized cities in Peru through the revalorization of underutilized rooftop areas in urban environments...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890588/life-cycle-environmental-impacts-of-domestic-solar-water-heaters-in-turkey-the-effect-of-different-climatic-regions
#20
Fehmi Gorkem Uctug, Adisa Azapagic
Solar water heating (SWH) systems could help reduce environmental impacts from energy use but their performance and impacts depend on the climate. This paper considers how these vary for residential SWH across four different climatic regions in Turkey, ranging from hot to cold climates. Life cycle assessment was used for these purposes. The results suggest that in the hotter regions, the impacts of SWH are 1.5-2 times lower than those of natural gas boilers. A similar trend was observed in the two colder regions except for acidification, which was four times higher than that of the boiler...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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