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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033613/neural-sensitivity-to-natural-texture-statistics-in-infancy
#1
Benjamin Balas, Alyson Saville, Jamie Schmidt
During infancy, vision becomes tuned to environmental statistics. For example, infant face recognition "narrows" in response to the frequency of face categories in the visual world, inducing out-group effects that disadvantage other-race, other-species, and other-age face recognition. There are many other low-level statistical regularities in visual experience that infants may also become tuned to during this period. In particular, natural scenes have lawful properties that adults and children are sensitive to...
July 22, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019992/seroepidemiology-of-varicella-in-hangzhou-china-in-the-vaccine-era
#2
Yuyang Xu, Shijun Liu, Xinren Che, Yan Liu, Xuechao Zhang, Jian Du, Xiaoping Zhang, Jun Wang, Erping Xu
Objective To delineate seroepidemiology of VZV in children aged 1-14 years in Hangzhou, to evaluate immunological response of VarV via 2 dose regimen immunization of VarV, for improving immunization strategy of VarV. Methods From 2014-2016, a multi-stage stratified random sampling method was employed to select participants included via physical examination for children in the Community Health Centre in Hangzhou. Results were compared among 11 various age groups: 1-,2-,3-,4-,5-,6-,7-,8-,9-,10-,11-14 years...
July 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002804/event-related-potential-erp-correlates-of-face-processing-in-verbal-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-and-their-first-degree-relatives-a-family-study
#3
Olga V Sysoeva, John N Constantino, Andrey P Anokhin
Background: Inherited abnormalities of perception, recognition, and attention to faces have been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including abnormal components of event-related brain potentials (ERP) elicited by faces. Methods: We examined familial aggregation of face processing ERP abnormalities previously implicated in ASD in 49 verbal individuals with ASD, 36 unaffected siblings (US), 18 unaffected fathers (UF), and 53 unrelated controls (UC)...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29979890/erp-correlates-of-cognitive-control-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-methadone-or-buprenorphine
#4
Carolien Konijnenberg, Nils Martin Jondalen, Mikael Falkhaugen Husby, Annika Melinder
Much is still unknown about the potential long-term effects of prenatal methadone and buprenorphine exposure. We examined neural correlates of cognitive control in 19 prenatally methadone and buprenorphine exposed and 21 nondrug exposed children, aged 9-11 years. Children performed a modified version of the Eriksen Flanker task, which taps into selective attention, conflict response, and response inhibition mechanisms. We investigated behavioral responses and the ERP components N1, P2, N2, P3, and the late positive component (LPC)...
July 6, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949219/developmental-changes-in-automatic-rule-learning-mechanisms-across-early-childhood
#5
Jutta L Mueller, Angela D Friederici, Claudia Männel
Infants' ability to learn complex linguistic regularities from early on has been revealed by electrophysiological studies indicating that 3-month-olds, but not adults, can automatically detect non-adjacent dependencies between syllables. While different ERP responses in adults and infants suggest that both linguistic rule learning and its link to basic auditory processing undergo developmental changes, systematic investigations of the developmental trajectories are scarce. In the present study, we assessed 2- and 4-year-olds' ERP indicators of pitch discrimination and linguistic rule learning in a syllable-based oddball design...
June 27, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930475/preoperative-profile-of-inflammatory-factors-in-aqueous-humor-correlates-with-postoperative-inflammatory-response-in-patients-with-congenital-cataract
#6
Xiaohang Wu, Zhenzhen Liu, Dongni Wang, Duoru Lin, Erping Long, Zhuoling Lin, Jingjing Chen, Qianzhong Cao, Yi Zhu, Chuan Chen, Xiaoyan Li, Zhihang Liu, Haotian Lin, Weirong Chen, Yizhi Liu
Purpose: To measure the aqueous humor concentrations of inflammatory factors in patients with congenital cataract and to investigate the relationship between the levels and postoperative inflammatory responses. Methods: Aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from 65 eyes of children with congenital cataracts from January to June 2015. The levels of 41 inflammation-related cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in aqueous humor were measured using multiplex bead immunoassay...
2018: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908954/impact-of-early-institutionalization-on-attention-mechanisms-underlying-the-inhibition-of-a-planned-action
#7
Connie Lamm, Sonya V Troller-Renfree, Charles H Zeanah, Charles A Nelson, Nathan A Fox
Institutional rearing is associated with deficits in executive functions, such as inhibitory control, and may contribute to later externalizing behavior problems. In the current study, we explored the impact of institutional rearing on attention in the context of inhibiting a planned action. As part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), children were randomized to either remain in the institutions in which they lived (Care as Usual Group) or be placed into foster family homes (Foster Care Group)...
August 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907920/atypical-predictive-processing-during-visual-statistical-learning-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-an-event-related-potential-study
#8
Sonia Singh, Anne M Walk, Christopher M Conway
Previous research suggests that individuals with developmental dyslexia perform below typical readers on non-linguistic cognitive tasks involving the learning and encoding of statistical-sequential patterns. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a deficit have not been well examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of sequence processing in a sample of children diagnosed with dyslexia using a non-linguistic visual statistical learning paradigm...
July 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892214/exploratory-study-of-rtms-neuromodulation-effects-on-electrocortical-functional-measures-of-performance-in-an-oddball-test-and-behavioral-symptoms-in-autism
#9
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Allan Tasman, Manuel F Casanova
There is no accepted pathology to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but research suggests the presence of an altered excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) bias in the cerebral cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a non-invasive means of modulating the E/I cortical bias with little in terms of side effects. In this study, 124 high functioning ASD children (IQ > 80, <18 years of age) were recruited and assigned using randomization to either a waitlist group or one of three different number of weekly rTMS sessions (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892138/brain-event-related-potentials-to-phoneme-contrasts-and-their-correlation-to-reading-skills-in-school-age-children
#10
Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Nicole Landi, Otto Loberg, Kaisa Lohvansuu, Kenneth Pugh, Paavo H T Leppänen
Development of reading skills has been shown to be tightly linked to phonological processing skills and to some extent to speech perception abilities. Although speech perception is also known to play a role in reading development, it is not clear which processes underlie this connection. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) we investigated the speech processing mechanisms for common and uncommon sound contrasts (/ba/-/da/-/ga/ and /ata/-/at:a/) with respect to the native language of school-age children in Finland and the United States...
May 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876276/weak-surround-suppression-of-the-attentional-focus-characterizes-visual-selection-in-the-ventral-stream-in-autism
#11
Luca Ronconi, Simone Gori, Alessandra Federici, Maria Devita, Serena Carna, Maria E Sali, Massimo Molteni, Luca Casartelli, Andrea Facoetti
Neurophysiological findings in the typical population demonstrate that spatial scrutiny for visual selection determines a center-surround profile of the attentional focus, which is the result of recurrent processing in the visual system. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifest several anomalies in their visual selection, with strengths in detail-oriented tasks, but also difficulties in distractor inhibition tasks. Here, we asked whether contradictory aspects of perception in ASD might be due to a different center-surround profile of their attentional focus...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852136/an-erp-study-on-metacognitive-monitoring-processes-in-children
#12
Nike R H Tsalas, Barbara C N Müller, Jörg Meinhardt, Joëlle Proust, Markus Paulus, Beate Sodian
Little is known about what exactly differentiates metacognitive processes from ordinary cognitive processes particularly early in development, and the underlying developmental aspects. To examine the time-course of metacognition, the present study investigated the neural underpinnings of judgments of learning (JoLs) and compared them with control judgments, using an event-related potentials (ERP) design. During ERP recording, children age seven to eight were presented with cue-target picture pairs and instructed to learn these pairs...
September 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851513/reduced-dual-task-gait-speed-is-associated-with-visual-go-no-go-brain-network-activation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-concussion
#13
David R Howell, William P Meehan, Kim D Barber Foss, Amit Reches, Michal Weiss, Gregory D Myer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between dual-task gait performance and brain network activation (BNA) using an electroencephalography (EEG)-based Go/No-Go paradigm among children and adolescents with concussion. METHODS: Participants with a concussion completed a visual Go/No-Go task with collection of electroencephalogram brain activity. Data were treated with BNA analysis, which involves an algorithmic approach to EEG-ERP activation quantification. Participants also completed a dual-task gait assessment...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803515/print-sublexical-and-lexical-processing-in-children-with-reading-and-or-spelling-deficits-an-erp-study
#14
Ferenc Kemény, Chiara Banfi, Melanie Gangl, Corinna M Perchtold, Ilona Papousek, Kristina Moll, Karin Landerl
Findings on the neurophysiological correlates of developmental dyslexia are mixed, due to the differential conceptualization of the impairment. Studies differ on whether participants with developmental dyslexia are recruited based on reading skills only or reading as well as spelling skills. The current study contrasts the contribution of impaired reading and spelling to ERP correlates of print sensitivity, lexico-semantic access and sensitivity to orthographic regularities. Four groups of children were recruited: isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined reading and spelling deficit, and typically developing...
August 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798116/-research-on-activity-evolution-of-cerebral-cortex-and-hearing-rehabilitation-of-congenitally-deaf-children-after-cochlear-implant
#15
X J Wang, M J Liang, J P Zhang, H Huang, Y Q Zheng
Objective: There is a significant difference in the hearing rehabilitation between the congenitally deaf children after cochlear implant(CI). The intrinsic mechanism that affects the hearing rehabilitation in patients was discussed from the perspective of evoked EEG source activity. Method: Firstly, we collected the ERP data from 23 patients and 10 control group children during 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after CI. According to the hearing rehabilitation during 12 months after CI, the patients were divided into two groups: rehabilitation of "the good" and "the poor"...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761951/-research-on-cortical-cross-modal-reorganization-of-children-with-congenital-severe-deafness-after-cochlear-implant
#16
Xianjun Wang, Maojin Liang, Junpeng Zhang, Hua Huang, Yiqing Zheng
Cochlear implant (CI) is the only method for efficacious treatment of congenital severe deafness at present. However, for children with congenital severe deafness after CI, the mechanism of the structural and functional changes of their cerebral cortex is not clear. This study was based on the cross-modal reorganization of deaf patients. Event related potential (ERP) and source localization technique were used to visualize the change of cortical activity in children with congenital severe deafness during 1-year period (0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after CI)...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761932/attentional-selection-and-suppression-in-children-and-adults
#17
Meirong Sun, Encong Wang, Jing Huang, Chenguang Zhao, Jialiang Guo, Dongwei Li, Li Sun, Boqi Du, Yulong Ding, Yan Song
The fundamental role of covert spatial attention is to enhance the processing of attended items while simultaneously ignoring irrelevant items. However, relatively little is known about how brain electrophysiological activities associated with target selection and distractor suppression are involved as they develop and become fully functional. The current study aimed to identify the neurophysiological bases of the development of covert spatial attention, focusing on electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of attentional selection (N2pc) and suppression (PD )...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756794/neurodevelopment-of-conflict-adaptation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#18
Xiuying Liu, Tongran Liu, Fangfang Shangguan, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Qian Liu, Jiannong Shi
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation effects (CAEs), with faster response times on current incongruent trials preceded by incongruent trials (iI trials) compared with current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials (cI trials)...
July 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740298/working-memory-updating-training-improves-mathematics-performance-in-middle-school-students-with-learning-difficulties
#19
Hongxia Zhang, Lei Chang, Xiaoying Chen, Liang Ma, Renlai Zhou
Working memory (WM) deficit is considered the key cause of learning difficulties (LDs). Studies have shown that WM is plastic and thus can be improved through training. This positive effect is transferable to fluid intelligence and academic performance. This study investigated whether WM updating ability and academic performance in children with LDs could be improved through WM updating training and explored the effects of this training on the children's brain activity. We used a running memory task lasting approximately 40 min per day for 28 days to train a group of 23 children with LDs (TLDs group)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723729/cortical-associates-of-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-childhood-stuttering
#20
Hatun Zengin-Bolatkale, Edward G Conture, Alexandra P Key, Tedra A Walden, Robin M Jones
PURPOSE: This study sought to determine the cortical associates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation (as indexed by the amplitude of evoked response potentials [ERP]) in young children who do and do not stutter during passive viewing of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. METHOD: Participants were 17 young children who stutter and 22 young children who do not stutter (between 4 years 0 months to 6 years 11 months). The dependent measures were (1) mean amplitude of late positive potential (LPP, an ERP sensitive to emotional stimuli) during passive (i...
June 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
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