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Christen M Deveney, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, David Pagliaccio, Christopher R Estabrook, Elvira Zobel, James L Burns, Elizabeth S Norton, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft, Lauren S Wakschlag
Irritability is a prominent feature of chronic mental disorders and a developmental marker of their early emergence. The most salient feature of irritability in early childhood is temper tantrums. While temper tantrums are normative in young children, they can be clinically concerning when they are dysregulated, very frequent, and/or occur in unexpected contexts. The present study uses behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures to characterize the relationship between irritability and neural markers of response inhibition in very young children...
October 17, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Christina Luckhardt, Anne Kröger, Leyla Elsuni, Hannah Cholemkery, Stephan Bender, Christine M Freitag
Abnormalities in neurophysiological correlates of social perception are a well-known feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known if and how ASD specific behavioral interventions may affect neural processing in ASD. The aim of the current study was to investigate for the first time, whether the group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA would elicit changes in neurophysiological correlates of social perception in high-functioning ASD individuals aged 8-17 years. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of a facial emotion recognition (FER) and a biological motion perception task were examined...
October 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Amir Erps, Jonathan Roth, Shlomi Constantini, Liat Lerner-Geva, Galia Grisaru-Soen
AIM: To identify independent risk factors for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infection. METHODS: The medial records of all patients aged 0-18 years that underwent shunt-related surgeries for the treatment of hydrocephalus at our institution between January 1996 and December 2015 were reviewed. For each case, 2 randomly selected controls with no shunt infection were chosen. Demographic clinical and microbiological data were abstracted. RESULTS: A total of 1570 shunt-related procedures met the inclusion criteria, yielding 68 infections (in 63 patients)...
October 5, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
R Lindström, T Lepistö-Paisley, T Makkonen, O Reinvall, T Nieminen-von Wendt, R Alén, T Kujala
OBJECTIVE: The present study explored the processing of emotional speech prosody in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but without marked language impairments (children with ASD [no LI]). METHODS: The mismatch negativity (MMN)/the late discriminative negativity (LDN), reflecting pre-attentive auditory discrimination processes, and the P3a, indexing involuntary orienting to attention-catching changes, were recorded to natural word stimuli uttered with different emotional connotations (neutral, sad, scornful and commanding)...
September 6, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Pan Liu, Xiaoxiao Bai, Koraly E Pérez-Edgar
Social information processing is a critical mechanism underlying children's socio-emotional development. Central to this process are patterns of activation associated with one of our most salient socioemotional cues, the face. In this study, we obtained fMRI activation and high-density ERP source data evoked by parallel face dot-probe tasks from 9-to-12-year-old children. We then integrated the two modalities of data to explore the neural spatial-temporal dynamics of children's face processing. Our results showed that the tomography of the ERP sources broadly corresponded with the fMRI activation evoked by the same facial stimuli...
September 27, 2018: NeuroImage
Isaac T Petersen, Caroline P Hoyniak, John E Bates, Angela D Staples, Dennis L Molfese
BACKGROUND: Externalizing problems, including aggression and conduct problems, are thought to involve impaired attentional capacities. Previous research suggests that the P3 event-related potential (ERP) component is an index of attentional processing, and diminished P3 amplitudes to infrequent stimuli have been shown to be associated with externalizing problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the vast majority of this prior work has been cross-sectional and has not examined young children...
October 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Taishi Kawamoto, Kazuo Hiraki
External feedback plays an important role in adapting to the environment; however, feedback processing in preschoolers has not been fully understood. The present event-related brain potential (ERP) study sought to understand the influence of parental presence with encouragement on feedback processing by focusing on reward positivity (RewP: mean amplitude between 200-350 ms). Five-year-old children (N = 21) completed an animal search task both alone (the alone condition) and with a parent who offered words of encouragement (the with a parent condition)...
September 22, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Heather J Ferguson, Victoria E A Brunsdon, Elisabeth E F Bradford
Despite being able to rapidly and accurately infer their own and other peoples' visual perspectives, healthy adults experience difficulty ignoring the irrelevant perspective when the two perspectives are in conflict; they experience egocentric and altercentric interference. We examine for the first time how the age of an observed person (adult vs. child avatar) influences adults' visual perspective-taking, particularly the degree to which they experience interference from their own or the other person's perspective...
September 21, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Jason S Moser, Megan Fisher, Brian M Hicks, Robert A Zucker, C Emily Durbin
The feedback negativity (FN) and reward positivity (RewP) are event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that follow the presentation of negative and positive feedback information, respectively, and have become the focus of recent research on psychopathology because of their associations with symptom severity of and risk for depression. We advanced our understanding of these feedback-related ERPs by examining developmental differences, familial transmission, and associations with error-monitoring ERPs. Parents and their children completed parallel, developmentally-tailored guessing and go/no-go tasks while feedback- and error-related ERPs were measured...
October 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Donna Coch
In an event-related potential (ERP) study using picture stimuli, we explored whether spelling information is co-activated with sound information even when neither type of information is explicitly provided. Pairs of picture stimuli presented in a rhyming paradigm were varied by both phonology (the two images in a pair had either rhyming, e.g., boat and goat , or non-rhyming, e.g., boat and cane , labels) and orthography (rhyming image pairs had labels that were either spelled the same, e.g., boat and goat , or not spelled the same, e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lauren C Shuffrey, Lisa Levinson, Alexis Becerra, Grace Pak, Dayna Moya Sepulveda, Alicia K Montgomery, Heather L Green, Karen Froud
High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine the utility of the P1 event-related potential (ERP) as a marker of visual motion sensitivity to luminance defined low-spatial frequency drifting gratings in 16 children with autism and 16 neurotypical children. Children with autism displayed enhanced sensitivity to large, high-contrast low-spatial frequency stimuli as indexed by significantly shorter P1 response latencies to large vs. small gratings. The current study also found that children with autism had larger amplitude responses to large gratings irrespective of contrast...
August 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
Ryan J Giuliano, Christina M Karns, Leslie E Roos, Theodore A Bell, Seth Petersen, Elizabeth A Skowron, Helen J Neville, Eric Pakulak
Multiple theoretical frameworks posit that interactions between the autonomic nervous system and higher-order neural networks are crucial for cognitive regulation. However, few studies have simultaneously examined autonomic physiology and brain activity during cognitive tasks. Such research is promising for understanding how early adversity impacts neurocognitive development in children, given that stress experienced early in life impacts both autonomic function and regulatory behaviors. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as a neural measure of auditory selective attention, and cardiovascular measures of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) and preejection period (PEP), in 105 3-5-year-old children with varying degrees of socioeconomic risk...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
Anna Dacewicz, Aneta Szymaszek, Kamila Nowak, Elzbieta Szelag
The brain's ability to recognize acoustic changes occurring in rapid temporal succession is important for speech and successful language development. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are characterized by deficient dynamics of temporal information processing (TIP) in the millisecond time range accompanied by disordered language development. Furthermore, previous studies have found that intervention based on amelioration of TIP resulted in improvement of both language and other cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
F Quinzi, R L Perri, M Berchicci, V Bianco, S Pitzalis, F Zeri, F Di Russo
BACKGROUND: Motor and inhibitory control rely on frontal cortex activity, which is known to reach full maturation only in late adolescence. The development of inhibitory control has been studied using event-related potentials (ERP), focusing on reactive processing (i.e. the N2 and the P3 components). Scarce information exists concerning pre-stimulus activity as that represented by the Bereinshafstpotential (BP) and by the prefrontal negativity (pN). Further, no literature exists concerning the post-stimulus components originating within the anterior insula (pN1, pP1, pP2)...
August 18, 2018: Biological Psychology
Hannah Spencer, Ivo Heitland, Estrella R Montoya, Susan J T Branje, Peter A Bos
Abundant research has highlighted a disadvantage experienced by children of ethnic minority groups in, for example, educational and health care settings. In order to understand implicit attitudes that contribute to ethnic disparities, underlying neural correlates have been widely studied. However, this has been limited to the context of adults. Using a sample of nulliparous Caucasian females (N = 46), the current study is the first to examine how early attentional and facial perceptual processing stages, assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs), differentiate for stimuli of young ingroup (of the same ethnicity) or outgroup (of a different ethnicity) children...
August 18, 2018: Biological Psychology
Jennifer M McDermott, Adaeze C Egwuatu
Affective images engage motivational systems that shape emotional experience and cognitive processes. However, relatively little work has examined motivated attention toward distinct categories of approach motivation, particularly social motivation, in children. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected while children (n = 43; 22 females; Mage = 8.49 years) completed a picture-viewing task using a novel stimulus set of child relevant images representing social and non-social categories of reward-related images...
August 16, 2018: Biological Psychology
Benjamin Balas, Alyson Saville, Jamie Schmidt
During infancy, vision becomes tuned to environmental statistics. For example, infant face recognition "narrows" in response to the frequency of face categories in the visual world, inducing out-group effects that disadvantage other-race, other-species, and other-age face recognition. There are many other low-level statistical regularities in visual experience that infants may also become tuned to during this period. In particular, natural scenes have lawful properties that adults and children are sensitive to...
July 22, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Yuyang Xu, Shijun Liu, Xinren Che, Yan Liu, Xuechao Zhang, Jian Du, Xiaoping Zhang, Jun Wang, Erping Xu
Objective To delineate seroepidemiology of VZV in children aged 1-14 years in Hangzhou, to evaluate immunological response of VarV via 2 dose regimen immunization of VarV, for improving immunization strategy of VarV. Methods From 2014-2016, a multi-stage stratified random sampling method was employed to select participants included via physical examination for children in the Community Health Centre in Hangzhou. Results were compared among 11 various age groups: 1-,2-,3-,4-,5-,6-,7-,8-,9-,10-,11-14 years...
July 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Olga V Sysoeva, John N Constantino, Andrey P Anokhin
Background: Inherited abnormalities of perception, recognition, and attention to faces have been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including abnormal components of event-related brain potentials (ERP) elicited by faces. Methods: We examined familial aggregation of face processing ERP abnormalities previously implicated in ASD in 49 verbal individuals with ASD, 36 unaffected siblings (US), 18 unaffected fathers (UF), and 53 unrelated controls (UC)...
2018: Molecular Autism
Carolien Konijnenberg, Nils Martin Jondalen, Mikael Falkhaugen Husby, Annika Melinder
Much is still unknown about the potential long-term effects of prenatal methadone and buprenorphine exposure. We examined neural correlates of cognitive control in 19 prenatally methadone and buprenorphine exposed and 21 nondrug exposed children, aged 9-11 years. Children performed a modified version of the Eriksen Flanker task, which taps into selective attention, conflict response, and response inhibition mechanisms. We investigated behavioral responses and the ERP components N1, P2, N2, P3, and the late positive component (LPC)...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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