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June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
The Distal-less (Dlx) homeobox transcription factors (TFs) play a prominent role in regulating multiple facets of vertebrate biology. Though widely studied as mediators of tissue development, recent work has uncovered a role for this TF family in modulating the vertebrate hematopoietic compartment. Pertinent to our study, murine Dlx1-3 are expressed in an innate lymphocyte population known as natural killer (NK) cells, and they are implicated to assume a functional role in the NK cell maturation pathway. However, Dlx target genes are poorly understood...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Juliana Paula Felipe de Oliveira, Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira, Adryanne Marjorie Souza Vitor Alves, Ana Caroline Cerqueira de Melo, Ida Barbosa de Andrade, Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna, Leonardo José Assis de Barros, Tobias Tobit de Barros Melo, Janaina de Lima Silva
The effects of replacement of sugarcane by spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 % on dry matter (DM) basis) were evaluated on intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, and performance of finishing lambs. Thirty-six non-castrated Santa Ines lambs at 4 months of age and an initial body weight of 22 ± 2.3 kg were assigned in a randomized block design. A quadratic effect was found for intake of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and digestible organic matter (DOM), with maximum values of 1...
January 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Adrienne E Ng, Ernesto Sandoval, Terence M Murphy
Lophophora williamsii (peyote) is a small, spineless, greenish-blue cactus found in Mexico and the southwestern United States. Ingestion of the cactus can result in hallucinations due to its content of mescaline. In the United States, L. williamsii is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. In this study, we use DNA analysis of the chloroplast trnL/trnF region and chloroplast rbcL gene to identify the individuals of Lophophora. Using the rbcL gene, Lophophora specimens could be distinguished from outgroups, but species within the genus could not be distinguished...
January 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Michael Perry, Michiyo Kinoshita, Giuseppe Saldi, Lucy Huo, Kentaro Arikawa, Claude Desplan
Butterflies rely extensively on colour vision to adapt to the natural world. Most species express a broad range of colour-sensitive Rhodopsin proteins in three types of ommatidia (unit eyes), which are distributed stochastically across the retina. The retinas of Drosophila melanogaster use just two main types, in which fate is controlled by the binary stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless in R7 photoreceptors. We investigated how butterflies instead generate three stochastically distributed ommatidial types, resulting in a more diverse retinal mosaic that provides the basis for additional colour comparisons and an expanded range of colour vision...
14, 2016: Nature
Panat Anuracpreeda, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul, Prasert Sobhon
Adult Orthocoelium parvipapillatum are common parasites that reside in the rumen and reticulum of ruminants, i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, and buffaloes. The fluke is conical-shaped and slightly concave ventrally and convex dorsally, and measures bout 2.4-3.9 mm in length and 1.0-2.3 mm in width across the mid-section. The tegument of the adult worm is examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under LM, the tegument appears as a thick homogeneous layer containing folds alternated with grooves without spines...
July 2016: Parasitology Research
Sabrina Carla Rodrigues Felix, Ricardo Alexandre Silva Pessoa, Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira, Luciana Felizardo Pereira Soares, Janaina de Lima Silva, Karen Santos Felix de Abreu, Ana Caroline Cerqueira de Melo
To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC)...
February 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Flor Zamudio-Hernández, Claudia Anahí Pérez-Torres, Victor A Albert, Enrique Ramírez-Chávez, Jorge Molina-Torres, Araceli Fernández-Cortes, Carlos Calderón-Vázquez, José Luis Olivares-Romero, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis Herrera-Estrella
BACKGROUND: Lophophora williamsii (commonly named peyote) is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline. Peyote utilizes crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), an alternative form of photosynthesis that exists in succulents such as cacti and other desert plants. Therefore, its transcriptome can be considered an important resource for future research focused on understanding how these plants make more efficient use of water in marginal environments and also for research focused on better understanding of the overall mechanisms leading to production of plant natural products and secondary metabolites...
2015: BMC Genomics
Fatma Gomaa, Jun Yang, Edward A D Mitchell, Wen-Jing Zhang, Zheng Yu, Milcho Todorov, Enrique Lara
Planktonic arcellinid testate amoebae exhibit a broad-range of morphological variability but it is currently unclear to what extent this variability represents phenotypic plasticity or if it is genetically determined. We investigated the morphology and phylogenetic relationships of three endemic east-asian Difflugia taxa 1) the vase-shaped D. mulanensis, 2) and a spinose and a spineless morphotypes of D. tuberspinifera using scanning electron microscopy and two ribosomal genetic markers (SSU rDNA and ITS sequences)...
February 2015: Protist
Panat Anuracpreeda, Sumittra Phutong, Arin Ngamniyom, Busaba Panyarachun, Prasert Sobhon
Adult Carmyerius spatiosus or stomach fluke has an elongate, cylindrical-shaped, straight to slightly curved body, with conical anterior end and truncated posterior end. The worm measures about 8.7-11.2mm in body length and 2.3-3.0mm in body width across the mid-section. When observed by SEM, the tegumental surface in all part of the body appears highly corrugated with ridges and furrows, and having no spines. The ventral surface has more complex corrugation than those of the dorsal surface. Both anterior and posterior suckers have thick edges covered with transverse folds and appear spineless...
March 2015: Acta Tropica
Andrew D C MacColl, Beth Aucott
In a recent paper in this journal, Spence et al. (2013) sought to identify the ecological causes of morphological evolution in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus, by examining phenotypic and environmental variation between populations on the island of North Uist, Scotland. However, by using simple qualitative assessments of phenotype and inappropriate measures of environmental variation, Spence et al. have come to a conclusion that is diametrically opposite to that which we have arrived at in studying the same populations...
September 2014: Ecology and Evolution
Evan G Williams, Laurent Mouchiroud, Michael Frochaux, Ashutosh Pandey, Pénélope A Andreux, Bart Deplancke, Johan Auwerx
The BXD genetic reference population is a recombinant inbred panel descended from crosses between the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) strains of mice, which segregate for about 5 million sequence variants. Recently, some of these variants have been established with effects on general metabolic phenotypes such as glucose response and bone strength. Here we phenotype 43 BXD strains and observe they have large variation (-5-fold) in their spontaneous activity during waking hours. QTL analyses indicate that -40% of this variance is attributable to a narrow locus containing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor with well-established roles in development and xenobiotic metabolism...
September 2014: PLoS Genetics
Ana Rosa Vázquez-Bader, Adolfo Gracia, Rafael Lemaitre
A new species of squat lobster, Munidopsis shulerae sp. nov., from the Gulf of Mexico and western Caribbean, is fully described and illustrated. This new species is named in honor of the late Barbara Shuler Mayo (1945-1988), who first recognized this new taxon in her 1974 unpublished doctoral dissertation, but never formalized it. This new species is placed in the Anoplonotus group based on the presence of simple, narrow rostrum, spineless eyes, fused sternites 3 and 4, well-marked carapace regions, unarmed pleonal tergites, and smooth dactyls of pereopods 2-4...
2014: Zootaxa
Ozren Bogdanović
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2014: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Carolina Corrêa de Figueiredo Monteiro, Airon Aparecido Silva de Melo, Marcelo Andrade Ferreira, José Mauricio de Souza Campos, Julyana Sena Rodrigues Souza, Evannielly Thuanny Dos Santos Silva, Rafael de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Emmanuelle Cordeiro da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker...
October 2014: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar, Kareem Morsy, Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Heinz Mehlhorn, Saleh Al Quraishy, Sanna Mohammed
Seventy specimens of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata of the Red Sea were collected during the period from March to November 2013; they were dissected and examined for parasitic acanthocephalans. Only 40 (57.14%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with Serrasentis sagittifer belonging to family Rhadinorhynchidae. The infection was recorded in the intestine, pyloric ceca, and the external surfaces of some internal organs of the infected fish. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was increased to 77...
July 2014: Parasitology Research
Boris A Kuzin, Ekaterina A Nikitina, Roman O Cherezov, Julia E Vorontsova, Mikhail S Slezinger, Olga G Zatsepina, Olga B Simonova, Grigori N Enikolopov, Elena V Savvateeva-Popova
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is essential for biological responses to endogenous and exogenous toxins in mammals. Its Drosophila homolog spineless plays an important role in fly morphogenesis. We have previously shown that during morphogenesis spineless genetically interacts with CG5017 gene, which encodes a nucleosome assembly factor and may affect cognitive function of the fly. We now demonstrate synergistic interactions of spineless and CG5017 in pathways controlling oxidative stress response and long-term memory formation in Drosophila melanogaster...
2014: PloS One
Frank W Smith, David R Angelini, Elizabeth L Jockusch
The antenna was the first arthropod ventral appendage to evolve non-leg identity. Models of antennal evolution have been based on comparisons of antennal and leg identity specification mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which appendages develop from highly derived imaginal discs during the larval period. We test for conservation of the Drosophila antennal identity specification mechanism at metamorphosis in Tribolium castaneum and three other flour beetle species (Tribolium confusum, Tribolium brevicornis and Latheticus oryzae) in the family Tenebrionidae...
May 2014: Mechanisms of Development
Marta Bastos Oliveira, Simon Eckerström Liedholm, Jordi Estefa Lopez, Annalena A Lochte, Magdalena Pazio, Jesus Pena Martin, Patrik Rödin Mörch, Seela Salakka, Julia York, Andrew Yoshimoto, Ralf Janssen
A current hypothesis states that the ancestral limb of arthropods is composed of only two segments. The proximal segment represents the main part of the modern leg, and the distal segment represents the tarsus and claw of the modern leg. If the distal part of the limb is an ancestral feature, one would expect conserved regulatory gene networks acting in distal limb development in all arthropods and possibly even their sister group, the onychophorans. We investigated the expression patterns of six genes known to function during insect distal limb development in the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis, i...
March 2014: Development Genes and Evolution
Robert J Johnston, Claude Desplan
Sensory systems use stochastic mechanisms to diversify neuronal subtypes. In the Drosophila eye, stochastic expression of the PAS-bHLH transcription factor Spineless (Ss) determines a random binary subtype choice in R7 photoreceptors. Here, we show that a stochastic, cell-autonomous decision to express ss is made intrinsically by each ss locus. Stochastic on or off expression of each ss allele is determined by combinatorial inputs from one enhancer and two silencers acting at long range. However, the two ss alleles also average their frequency of expression through up-regulatory and down-regulatory interallelic cross-talk...
February 7, 2014: Science
Zheng Yu, Wenjing Zhang, Lemian Liu, Jun Yang
Difflugia is a morphologically diverse genus of testate amoebae, which are common components of freshwater ecosystems. We observed a new morphotype similar to Difflugia tuberspinifera but without spine in four Xiamen reservoirs, Fujian Province, southeast China. We investigated its morphology and biometry using light and scanning electron microscopy. The linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis of biometric characters revealed that the spiny and spineless forms of D. tuberspinifera differed only in the presence or absence of spine...
April 2014: European Journal of Protistology
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