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Min Kyung Han, Holly Storkel, Daniel E Bontempo
Many studies have addressed the effect of neighborhood density (phonological similarity among words) on word learning in quiet listening conditions. We explored how noise influences the effect of neighborhood density on children's word learning. One-hundred-and-two preschoolers learned nonwords varied in neighborhood density in one of four listening conditions: quiet, +15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), +6 dB SNR, and 0 dB SNR. Results showed that a high-density advantage for children under quiet listening condition was significantly reduced as noise increased...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Child Language
Xavier M Teitsma, Wei Yang, Johannes W G Jacobs, Attila Pethö-Schramm, Michelle E A Borm, Amy C Harms, Thomas Hankemeier, Jacob M van Laar, Johannes W J Bijlsma, Floris P J G Lafeber
BACKGROUND: We previously identified, in newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, networks of co-expressed genes and proteomic biomarkers associated with achieving sustained drug-free remission (sDFR) after treatment with tocilizumab- or methotrexate-based strategies. The aim of this study was to identify, within the same patients, metabolic pathways important for achieving sDFR and to subsequently study the complex interactions between different components of the biological system and how these interactions might affect the therapeutic response in early RA...
October 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Courtney M Schaal, Namrata Bora-Singhal, Durairaj Mohan Kumar, Srikumar P Chellappan
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths and its incidence is highly correlated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco smoke, cannot initiate tumors, but can promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of cells in vitro and promote tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. This nicotine-mediated tumor promotion is facilitated through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically the α7 subunit. More recently, nicotine has been implicated in promoting self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells from lung cancers...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Elin Borgen, Maria C Rypdal, Maria Soledad Sosa, Anne Renolen, Ellen Schlichting, Per E Lønning, Marit Synnestvedt, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Bjørn Naume
BACKGROUND: The presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) is an independent prognostic factor in early breast cancer but does not uniformly predict outcome. Tumor cells can persist in a quiescent state over time, but clinical studies of markers predicting the awakening potential of DTCs are lacking. Recently, experiments have shown that NR2F1 (COUP-TF1) plays a key role in dormancy signaling. METHODS: We analyzed the NR2F1 expression in DTCs by double immunofluorescence (DIF) staining of extra cytospins prepared from 114 BM samples from 86 selected DTC-positive breast cancer patients...
October 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Stephanie M Davis, Lisa A Collier, Edric D Winford, Christopher C Leonardo, Craig T Ajmo, Elspeth A Foran, Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel, Keith R Pennypacker
BACKGROUND: The migration of peripheral immune cells and splenocytes to the ischemic brain is one of the major causes of delayed neuroinflammation after permanent large vessel stroke. Other groups have demonstrated that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine that promotes neural cell survival through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, promotes an anti-inflammatory phenotype in several types of immune cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether LIF treatment modulates the peripheral immune response after stroke...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hamed Ghaffari, Linda R Petzold
BACKGROUND: In the classical pathway of retinoic acid (RA) mediated gene transcription, RA binds to a nuclear hormone receptor dimer composed of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), to induce the expression of its downstream target genes. In addition to nuclear receptors, there are other intracellular RA binding proteins such as cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP1 and CRABP2) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, whose contributions to the RA signaling pathway have not been fully understood...
October 16, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Hiroki Yoshioka, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Shiori Fukaya, Yoshimi Ichimaru, Akito Nagatsu, Masae Yoshikawa, Hirohisa Fujii, Makoto Nakao
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of Sasa veitchii extract (SE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver fibrosis in mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 dissolved in olive oil (1 g/kg) twice per week for 8 weeks. SE (0.1 mL) was administered orally once per day throughout the study, and body weight was measured weekly. Seventy-two hours after the final CCl4 injection, mice were euthanized and plasma samples were collected...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Robert J Morrison, Nicolas-George Katsantonis, Kevin M Motz, Alexander T Hillel, C Gaelyn Garrett, James L Netterville, Christopher T Wootten, Susan M Majka, Timothy S Blackwell, Wonder P Drake, Alexander Gelbard
Objective To characterize the phenotype and function of fibroblasts derived from airway scar in idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) and to explore scar fibroblast response to interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Study Design Basic science. Setting Laboratory. Subjects and Methods Primary fibroblast cell lines from iSGS subjects, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis subjects, and normal control airways were utilized for analysis. Protein, molecular, and flow cytometric techniques were applied in vitro to assess the phenotype and functional response of disease fibroblasts to IL-17A...
October 16, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Seungwha Paik, Jin Kyung Kim, Chaeuk Chung, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Tuberculosis (TB), which is primarily caused by the major etiologic agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a serious infectious disease worldwide. Recently, much effort has been made to develop novel/improved therapies by modulating host responses to TB (i.e., host-directed therapy). Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that helps maintain homeostasis or the removal of invading pathogens via a lysosomal degradation process. The activation of autophagy by diverse drugs or agents may represent a promising treatment strategy against Mtb infection, even to drug-resistant strains...
October 15, 2018: Virulence
Aldo H De-La-Cruz-Montoya, Eric G Ramírez-Salazar, Mayeli M Martínez-Aguilar, Pablo M González-de-la-Rosa, Manuel Quiterio, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Jorge Salmerón, Rafael Velázquez-Cruz
Osteoporosis is the most frequent disorder of bone metabolism, owing to an alteration between osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which results from the interaction of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors. microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs of around 22 nucleotides with important regulatory roles in gene regulation, that target mRNAs for post-transcriptional destabilization have been suggested as biomarkers in several disorders. In this work, we used small RNA sequencing to identify microRNAs from peripheral blood monocytes that were differentially expressed between non-osteoporotic and osteoporotic Mexican postmenopausal women, to elucidate the potential role of microRNAs as non-invasive marker candidates in osteoporosis...
October 15, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Dongsheng Liu, Ang Hu, Kefeng Zhang
Software-defined radio (SDR) is a good solution for complying with the existing and incoming protocols for emerging wireless sensor networks (WSN) and internet of things (IoT) applications. The frequency synthesizer in a SDR tranceiver usually consists of a phase locked loop (PLL) and a post synthesizer. The PLL is the narrow band signal source and the post synthesizer generates wideband outputs by mixing and dividing. Compared with a frequency synthesizer utilizing the wideband PLL, this synthesizer features relatively constant loop parameters and mitigates the requirement for the oscillator...
October 14, 2018: Sensors
Hye-Lim Lee, Abdul S Qadir, Hyun-Jung Park, Eunkyung Chung, Yun-Sil Lee, Kyung Mi Woo, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Hyun Jeong Kim, Jeong-Hwa Baek
Distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5) is a negative regulator of adipogenesis. Dlx5 expression is decreased by adipogenic stimuli, but the mechanisms of Dlx5 downregulation by adipogenic stimuli have not yet been determined. Here, we tested the impact of cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) signaling induced by 3-isobutyl-1 methyl xanthine (IBMX), forskolin, and 8-CPT-cAMP on the expression of Dlx5 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Significant downregulation of Dlx5 mRNA expression and protein production levels were observed via cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling...
October 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sławomir Opałka, Bartłomiej Stasiak, Dominik Szajerman, Adam Wojciechowski
Mental tasks classification is increasingly recognized as a major challenge in the field of EEG signal processing and analysis. State-of-the-art approaches face the issue of spatially unstable structure of highly noised EEG signals. To address this problem, this paper presents a multi-channel convolutional neural network architecture with adaptively optimized parameters. Our solution outperforms alternative methods in terms of classification accuracy of mental tasks (imagination of hand movements and speech sounds generation) while providing high generalization capability (∼5%)...
October 14, 2018: Sensors
Barbara Rath, Maximilian Hochmair, Adelina Plangger, Gerhard Hamilton
Lung cancer is a leading cause of tumor-associated mortality. Fascaplysin, a bis-indole of a marine sponge, exhibit broad anticancer activity as specific CDK4 inhibitor among several other mechanisms, and is investigated as a drug to overcome chemoresistance after the failure of targeted agents or immunotherapy. The cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin was studied using lung cancer cell lines, primary Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) cells, as well as SCLC circulating tumor cell lines (CTCs)...
October 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Patrice Adret, Kimberly A Dingess, Christini B Caselli, Jan Vermeer, Jesus M Martínez, Jossy C Luna Amancio, Silvy M van Kuijk, Lucero M Hernani Lineros, Robert B Wallace, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Anthony Di Fiore
Long-range vocal communication in socially monogamous titi monkeys is mediated by the production of loud, advertising calls in the form of solos, duets, and choruses. We conducted a power spectral analysis of duets and choruses (simply "duets" hereafter) followed by linear discriminant analysis using three acoustic parameters-dominant frequency of the combined signal, duet sequence duration, and pant call rate-comparing the coordinated vocalizations recorded from 36 family groups at 18 sites in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador...
October 13, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Jing Fang, Shaohai Hu, Xiaole Ma
In this paper, we propose a boosting synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image despeckling method based on non-local weighted group low-rank representation (WGLRR). The spatial structure information of SAR images leads to the similarity of the patches. Furthermore, the data matrix grouped by the similar patches within the noise-free SAR image is often low-rank. Based on this, we use low-rank representation (LRR) to recover the noise-free group data matrix. To maintain the fidelity of the recovered image, we integrate the corrupted probability of each pixel into the group LRR model as a weight to constrain the fidelity of recovered noise-free patches...
October 13, 2018: Sensors
Zeyuan Wang, Jianfeng Cai, Qing Fu, Lingping Cheng, Lehao Wu, Weiyue Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yu Jin, Chunzhi Zhang
Fifteen unreported compounds in Anemarrhena asphodeloides , iriflophene ( 3 ), hostaplantagineoside C ( 7 ), tuberoside G ( 8 ), spicatoside B ( 9 ), platycodin D ( 14 ), platycoside A ( 15 ), platycodin D2 ( 16 ), polygalacin D2 ( 17 ), platycodin D3 ( 18 ), isovitexin ( 20 ), vitexin ( 21 ), 3,4-dihydroxyallylbenzene-3- O -α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside ( 22 ), iryptophan ( 24 ), adenosine ( 25 ), α-d-Glucose monoallyl ether ( 26 ), together with eleven known compounds ( 1 , 2 , 4 ⁻ 6 , 10 ⁻ 13 , 19 and 23 ), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides ...
October 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
J Omar Muñoz-Bello, Leslie Olmedo-Nieva, Leonardo Josué Castro-Muñoz, Joaquín Manzo-Merino, Adriana Contreras-Paredes, Claudia González-Espinosa, Alejandro López-Saavedra, Marcela Lizano
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation and differentiation and its aberrant activation in cervical cancer has been described. Persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important factor for the development of this neoplasia, since E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins alter cellular processes, promoting cervical cancer development. A role of HPV-16 E6 in Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proposed, although the participation of HPV-18 E6 has not been previously studied...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fábio Leitão, Eurico Moreira, Filipe Alves, Mário Lourenço, Olga Azevedo, João Gaspar, Luis A Rocha
Several devices and measurement approaches have recently been developed to perform ballistocardiogram (BCG) and seismocardiogram (SCG) measurements. The development of a wireless acquisition system (hardware and software), incorporating a novel high-resolution micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer for SCG and BCG signals acquisition and data treatment is presented in this paper. A small accelerometer, with a sensitivity of up to 0.164 µs/µg and a noise density below 6.5 µg/ Hz is presented and used in a wireless acquisition system for BCG and SCG measurement applications...
October 13, 2018: Sensors
Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Helle Nygaard Lærke, Mette Skou Hedemann, Tina Skau Nielsen, Anne Krog Ingerslev, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund Nielsen, Peter Kappel Theil, Stig Purup, Stine Hald, Anne Grethe Schioldan, Maria L Marco, Søren Gregersen, Kjeld Hermansen
A major challenge in affluent societies is the increase in disorders related to gut and metabolic health. Chronic over nutrition by unhealthy foods high in energy, fat, and sugar, and low in dietary fibre is a key environmental factor responsible for this development, which may cause local and systemic inflammation. A low intake of dietary fibre is a limiting factor for maintaining a viable and diverse microbiota and production of short-chain fatty acids in the gut. A suppressed production of butyrate is crucial, as this short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) can play a key role not only in colonic health and function but also at the systemic level...
October 13, 2018: Nutrients
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