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Michael F Dorman, Sarah Cook Natale, Smita Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to determine, in a simulation of a crowded restaurant, the value to speech understanding of (i) a unilateral cochlear implant (CI), (ii) a CI plus CROS (contralateral routing of signals) aid system and (iii) bilateral CIs when tested with and without beamforming microphones. DESIGN: The listeners were 7 CI listeners who had used bilateral CIs for an average of 9 years. The listeners were tested with three device configurations (bilateral CI, unilateral CI + CROS, and unilateral CI), two signal processing conditions (without and with beamformers) and with speech either from +90°, -90°, or from the front...
December 11, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Chenglong Zhao, Dongsheng Wang, Liang Tang, Zhichao Zhang, Song Li, Ming Qian, Zhipeng Wu, Wang Zhou, Mingyao Liu, Jian Luo, Tielong Liu, Zhenxi Li, Jianru Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), one of the most common primary bone tumors, leads to extensive bone destruction. However, the mechanisms underlying GCTB progression remain elusive and prognostic factors and treatment targets are required. In the current study, we explored the function of the chemokine family member CCL20 in GCTB progression. METHODS: We explored the expression of CCL20 in stromal cells (GCTSCs) using microarray. Clinical analyses of the role of CCL20 in tumor progression were performed based on the patient cohort of our institution...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Meihua Gong, Pan Zhang, Chunyang Li, Xu Ma, Daping Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Skin photoaging is primarily caused by the functional attrition of skin stem cells. The skin stem cell niche plays an important role in maintaining stem cell survival and behaviour. In our study, we hypothesized that UVB irradiation induces skin photoaging by changing skin stem cell niches and that transferred adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can remodel the niches by affecting the BMP signalling pathway and transdifferentiating into skin stem cells. METHODS: Sixty-four C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following groups: a control group, the UVB group and the UVB+ADSCs group...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Qin Luo, Hongrui Guo, Ping Kuang, Hengmin Cui, Huidan Deng, Huan Liu, Yujiao Lu, Qin Wei, Linlin Chen, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Junliang Deng, Yinglun Li, Xun Wang, Ling Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Excessive fluoride intake can induce cytotoxicity, DNA damage and cell-cycle changes in many tissues and organs, including the kidney. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of fluoride-induced renal cell-cycle changes are not well understood at present. In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate how sodium fluoride (NaF) induces cell-cycle changes in renal cells. METHODS: Two hundred forty ICR mice were randomly assigned to four equal groups for intragastric administration of NaF (0, 12, 24 and 48 mg/kg body weight/day) for 42 days...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Junxia Feng, Hongyan Li, Yunfang Zhang, Qi Wang, Shili Zhao, Ping Meng, Jingchun Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of our study is to investigate the molecular mechanism by which mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) participates in renal I/R injury through modifying mitophagy and the AMPK-YAP signalling pathway. METHODS: WT mice and Mst1-knockout mice were subjected to renal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. In vitro, the hypoxia-reoxygenation model was used with renal tubular epithelial cells to mimic renal I/R injury. Mitochondrial function was monitored via western blotting and immunofluorescence...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaowei Nie, Youjin Dai, Yuan Zheng, Dan Bao, Qin Chen, Yuan Yin, Heling Fu, Daorong Hou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study investigated the effect of consecutive superovulation on the ovaries and established a premature ovarian failure (POF) model in mice. METHODS: The mouse POF model was induced by 5-15 consecutive superovulation treatments with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Normal adult mice were compared with mice displaying natural ovarian aging. The following serum biochemical parameters were measured: including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), inhibin B (INH B), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiuyuan Li, Zenglei Zhang, Hua Jiang, Qiang Li, Ruliang Wang, Hongliang Pan, Yingying Niu, Fenghai Liu, Hongmei Gu, Xingjun Fan, Jinxia Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are key regulators in the development and progression of human cancers, however its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumorigenesis is not well understood. The aim of this study is to identify the expression level of circPVT1 in NSCLC and further investigated its functional relevance with NSCLC progression both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Quantative real-time PCR was used for the measurement of circPVT1 in NSCLC specimens and cell lines...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yingliang Wei, Zhaofeng Jin, He Zhang, Shang Piao, Jinghan Lu, Lunhao Bai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chondrocyte apoptosis is a central pathological feature of cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). Accumulating evidence suggests that calcium ions (Ca2+) are an important regulator of apoptosis. Previously, we reported that the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid (TRPV5) is upregulated in monoiodoacetic acid (MIA)-induced OA articular cartilage. METHODS: The protein levels of TRPV5, phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (p-CaMKII), and total CaMKII were detected in vivo using western blotting techniques...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yi-Ting Tsai, Shih-Hurng Loh, Chung-Yi Lee, Shiao-Ping Lee, Yen-Lin Chen, Tzu-Hurng Cheng, Chien-Sung Tsai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes is associated with increased incidence of myocardial dysfunction, which is partly characterized by interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. Cardiac fibroblasts have been identified as an important participant in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Exposure of cultured cardiac fibroblasts to high glucose resulted in increased collagen synthesis. Tanshinone IIA can alleviate the ventricular fibrosis that develops in a number of different experimental conditions...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Elisabetta Lambertini, Letizia Penolazzi, Marco Angelozzi, Leticia Scussel Bergamin, Cristina Manferdini, Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesca Paolella, Gina Lisignoli, Roberta Piva
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold considerable promise in bone tissue engineering, but their poor survival and potency when in vivo implanted limits their therapeutic potential. For this reason, the study on culture conditions and cellular signals that can influence the potential therapeutic outcomes of MSCs have received considerable attention in recent years. Cell maintenance under hypoxic conditions, in particular for a short period, is beneficial for MSCs, as low O2 tension is similar to that present in the physiologic niche, however the precise mechanism through which hypoxia preconditioning affects these cells remains unclear...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Martin Knytl, Tereza Tlapakova, Tereza Vankova, Vladimir Krylov
The African clawed frogs of the subgenus Silurana comprise both diploid and tetraploid species. The root of the polyploidization event leading to the extant Xenopus calcaratus, X. mellotropicalis, and X. epitropicalis is not fully understood so far. In X. mellotropicalis, we previously proposed 2 evolutionary scenarios encompassing complete (scenario A) or incomplete (scenario B) translocation of a heterochromatic block from chromosome 9 to 2 in a diploid ancestor. To resolve this puzzle, we performed FISH coupled with tyramide signal amplification (FISH-TSA) using 5 X...
December 11, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Sanya Aggarwal, Celion Tang, Kristen Sing, Hyun Wook Kim, Robert P Millar, Javier A Tello
<br>Background/Aims: The medial amygdala (MeA) responds to olfactory stimuli and alters reproductive physiology. However, the neuronal circuit that relays signals from the MeA to the reproductive axis remains poorly defined. This study aimed to test whether MeA kisspeptin (MeAKiss) neurons in male mice are sensitive to sexually relevant olfactory stimuli and transmit signals to alter reproductive physiology. We also investigated whether MeAKiss neurons have the capacity to elaborate glutamate and GABA neurotransmitters and potentially contribute to reproductive axis regulation...
December 10, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Shuang Deng, Guo Dai, Sen Chen, Zhigang Nie, Jianlin Zhou, Hongsong Fang, Hao Peng
BACKGROUND: Osteoblasts play important roles in the process of osteogenesis and prevention of osteonecrosis. Dexamethasone (Dex), a type of glucocorticoids (GCs), induces apoptosis of osteoblasts and leads to the occurrence of non-traumatic osteonecrosis. This study aimed to explore the effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Protein kinase 3 (PI3K/AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) on Dex-induced osteoblasts apoptosis. METHODS: Viabilities, proliferation, and apoptosis of primary osteoblasts and pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells after Dex treatment were detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, FITC-Annexin V/PI staining and western blotting, respectively...
December 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Li Zhang, Hui-Xia Li, Wu-Si Pan, Farhan Ullah Khan, Cheng Qian, Feng-Rong Qi-Li, Xiaojun Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. We aim to characterize the hepatoprotective effects of Leonurine hydrochloride (LH) and the possible pathway in a cell and rodent model of diet-induced steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: For in vitro studies, Palmitic acid (PA) and free fatty acid (FFA) induced HepG2 and HL7702 steatosis cell models were used...
December 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hongmei Li, Guochun Ou, Yonglong He, Long Ren, Xiaohong Yang, Mei Zeng
TAK1 is closely associated with the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In the present study, we aimed to explore the relationship between TAK1 and gout as well as the effects of resveratrol on TAK1 activity and MSU crystal-induced inflammation. The expression levels of total TAK1 and phosphorylated TAK1 in gout patients were detected by western blotting. The influence of resveratrol on TAK1 activity and MSU crystal-induced inflammation was investigated in THP-1 cell and murine models of gout. The results showed that TAK1 and p-TAK1 were highly expressed in gouty arthritis patients...
December 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Asiye Sezgin, Cansu Altuntaş, Mehmet Demiralay, Salih Cinemre, Rabiye Terzi
Protective compounds such as non-enzymatic antioxidants, osmolytes and signal molecules have been applied to plants exposed to various environmental stresses to increase their stress tolerance. However, there are not enough records about the response of plants to alpha lipoic acid (ALA) application with antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the function of exogenous ALA on the photosynthetic performance of maize seedlings grown in hydroponic conditions under drought stress. Three weeks old seedlings were treated with or without ALA (12 μM) and they were subjected to drought stress induced by 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG6000 ) for 24 h...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Keita Kashihara, Tomonori Onohata, Yuki Okamoto, Yuya Uji, Susumu Mochizuki, Kazuya Akimitsu, Kenji Gomi
The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) plays an important role in defense response and plant development. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins act as transcriptional repressors of plant responses to JA. In this study, we found that OsNINJA1, which is a JAZ-interacting adaptor protein, plays an important role in JA signaling that is positively regulated by the transcription factor OsMYC2 in rice. The expression of OsNINJA1 was upregulated at an early phase after JA treatment, and OsNINJA1 interacted with several OsJAZ proteins in a C domain-dependent manner...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Péter Poór, Péter Borbély, Zalán Czékus, Zoltán Takács, Attila Ördög, Boris Popović, Irma Tari
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many salt stress-related processes of plants such as water balance, osmotic stress tolerance and photosynthesis. In this study we investigated the responses of wild type (WT) and the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) to sublethal and lethal salt stress elicited by 100 mM and 250 mM NaCl, respectively. Sitiens mutants displayed much higher decrease in water potential, stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation rate under high salinity, especially at lethal salt stress, than the WT...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Meng Li, XingYu Liu, XiZeng Feng
Deltamethrin is widely used because of its low toxicity and high efficiency. Although its potential toxicity has been reported, its effects on cardiovascular system and motor behavior and its underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. In this study, the effects of deltamethrin on the development, cardiovascular system and motor behavior of zebrafish larvae and their possible mechanisms were evaluated using the transgenic zebrafish Tg (kdrl:mCherry) and Tg(myl7:GFP). At 72 hpf, the body length of larvae shortened, the head and eye area decreased, and the hatching rate increased...
December 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Dusadee Ospondpant, Suttinee Phuagkhaopong, Kran Suknuntha, Kant Sangpairoj, Thitima Kasemsuk, Chutima Srimaroeng, Pornpun Vivithanaporn
Cadmium is a highly neurotoxic heavy metal impairing neurogenesis and induces neurodegenerative disorders. Toxic concentrations of cadmium induce astrocytic apoptosis by depleting intracellular glutathione levels, elevating intracellular calcium levels, altering mitochondria membrane potentials, and activating JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cadmium suppresses cell proliferation in kidney epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and primary myelocytes; however, cadmium's effects on proteins regulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in astrocytes are less known...
December 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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