Read by QxMD icon Read

Natural Killer Cell

Emily M Mace
Human natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in the control of viral infections and malignancy. Their importance in human health and disease is illustrated by severe viral infections in patients with primary immunodeficiencies that affect NK cell function and/or development. The recent identification of patients with phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-signaling pathway mutations that can cause primary immunodeficiency provides valuable insight into the role that PI3K signaling plays in human NK cell maturation and lytic function...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Frank Fasbender, Carsten Watzl
The use of impedance-based label free cell analysis is increasingly popular and has many different applications. Here, we report that a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) can be used to study the stimulation of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Engagement of NK cells via plate-bound antibodies directed against different activating surface receptors could be measured in real time using the label-free detection of impedance. The change in impedance was dependent on early signal transduction events in the NK cells as it was blocked by inhibitors of Src-family kinases and by inhibiting actin polymerization...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chun Gwon Park, Christina A Hartl, Daniela Schmid, Ellese M Carmona, Hye-Jung Kim, Michael S Goldberg
Cancer immunotherapy can confer durable benefit, but the percentage of patients who respond to this approach remains modest. The ability to concentrate immunostimulatory compounds at the site of disease can overcome local immune tolerance and reduce systemic toxicity. Surgical resection of tumors may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy by removing the concentrated immunosuppressive microenvironment; however, it also removes tumor-specific leukocytes as well as tumor antigens that may be important to establishing antitumor immunity...
March 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Marta Magatti, Elsa Vertua, Anna Cargnoni, Antonietta Silini, Ornella Parolini
Among the many cell types useful in developing therapeutic treatments, human amniotic cells from placenta have been proposed as valid candidates. Both human amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal stromal cells, and the conditioned medium generated from their culture, exert multiple immunosuppressive activities. Indeed, they inhibit T and B cell proliferation, suppress inflammatory properties of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and natural killer cells, while promoting induction of cells with regulatory functions such as regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
Dale I Godfrey, Jérôme Le Nours, Daniel M Andrews, Adam P Uldrich, Jamie Rossjohn
Most studies on the immunotherapeutic potential of T cells have focused on CD8 and CD4 T cells that recognize peptide antigens (Ag) presented by polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II molecules, respectively. However, unconventional T cells, which interact with MHC class Ib and MHC-I like molecules, are also implicated in tumor immunity, although their role therein is unclear. These include unconventional T cells targeting MHC class Ib molecules such as HLA-E and its murine ortholog Qa-1b, natural killer T (NKT) cells, mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and γδ T cells...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
Yajuan Shao, Chunmei Bai, Jian Sun, Xin Gao
RATIONALE: T-cell lymphoma is a neoplasm that expresses markers of T-cell or natural killer cell (NK)-origin but not those of B-cell origin. Although B-cell lymphoma with abundant expression of T-cell markers exist, the opposite is very rare. Therefore, little is known about this subtype of lymphoma, including its treatment and prognosis. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old man was diagnosed with T-cell lymphoma with abundant CD20 expression. He was refractory to cyclophosphamide + epirubicin + vincristine + prednisone + etoposide (CHOPE), ifosfamide + cisplatin + etoposide + dexamethasone (DICE), and hyper-cyclophosphamide + vincristine + epirubicin + dexamethasone (CVAD) chemotherapy...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wan-Lin Zhang, Shuang Ma, Rachel Jug, Fan Li, Endi Wang, Huan-Yu Zhao, Hong-Tao Xu, Lin Cai, Cheng-Qian Yu, Shuai Shen, Lian-He Yang
RATIONALE: Primary testicular natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive lymphoid malignancy. At present, only 20 cases have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 32-year-old Chinese man complained of discomfort and swelling of his right testicle for 3 months. Physical examination revealed a 10 × 10 × 9.5 cm mass on the right side of the scrotum area. DIAGNOSES: Pathologic evaluation showed effacement of normal testicular parenchymal architecture by small-to-medium-sized lymphoid cells with irregular nuclear profiles, and immunohistochemical studies positively expressed CD2, CD56, cytoplasmic CD3, granzyme B, perforin, and TIA-1...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chang Ho Yoon, Daeseung Lee, Hyun Jeong Jeong, Jin Suk Ryu, Mee Kum Kim
PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-22 is a cytokine involved in epithelial cell regeneration. Currently, no research studies have analyzed the distribution of the three distinct IL-22-secreting cell populations in human or mouse conjunctiva. This study investigated the distribution of the three main populations of IL-22-secreting immune cells, αβ Th cells, γδ T cells, or innate cells (innate lymphoid cells [ILCs] or natural killer cells), in conjunctival associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) in human and mouse models...
March 19, 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Ina Bähr, Janine Jahn, Alexander Zipprich, Inge Pahlow, Julia Spielmann, Heike Kielstein
Obesity is associated with alterations in functionality of immune cells, like macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells, leading to an increased risk for severe infections and several cancer types. This study aimed to examine immune cell populations and functional NK cell parameters focusing on NK cell subset phenotypes in normal-weight and obese humans. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from normal-weight and obese individuals and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results show no significant changes in the frequency of monocytes, B lymphocytes, or NKT cells but a significantly increased frequency of T lymphocytes in obesity...
March 20, 2018: Immunologic Research
Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Jody L Clasey, Douglas E Long, R Grace Walton, Morgan Sexton, Marlene E Starr, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson, Charles T Lutz
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hiroaki Senju, Asuka Kumagai, Yoichi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Katsumi Nakatomi, Shota Fukami, Kengo Shiraishi, Yuka Harada, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Haruki Okamura, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Hiroshi Mukae
When pathogenic stresses are recognized by innate immune cells, inflammasomes are assembled and caspase-1 is activated, resulting in the conversion of pro-IL-18 into mature IL-18. Because natural killer (NK) cells express IL-18 receptors, IL-18 may play roles in immune functions of NK cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-18 on NK cells derived from lung cancer patients and healthy adult volunteers. When peripheral blood NK cells were stimulated with IL-2, the cells formed clusters beginning on day 5-6 and proliferated thereafter, in which the number of NK cells increased by 10-fold in 10 days...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Garcia-Chagollan Mariel, Carranza-Torres Irma Edith, Carranza-Rosales Pilar, Guzmán-Delgado Nancy Elena, Ramírez-Montoya Humberto, Martínez-Silva María Guadalupe, Mariscal-Ramirez Ignacio, Barrón-Gallardo Carlos Alfredo, Pereira-Suárez Ana Laura, Aguilar-Lemarroy Adriana, Jave-Suárez Luis Felipe
BACKGROUND: Currently, one of the most used strategies for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer is neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the application of taxanes and anthracyclines. However, despite the high number of patients who develop a complete pathological clinical response, resistance and relapse following this therapy continue to be a clinical challenge. As a component of the innate immune system, the cytotoxic function of Natural Killer (NK) cells plays an important role in the elimination of tumor cells...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jun Takanari, Atsuya Sato, Hideaki Waki, Shogo Miyazaki, Kazuo Uebaba, Tatsuya Hisajima
AHCC® is a functional food from the basidiomycete Lentinula edodes. We evaluated the effects of AHCC® on subjects under different kinds of stress and at rest. Physical stress was imposed using an active standing test, known as Schellong's test. Sympathetic nervous activity in the standing position was significantly greater in AHCC®-treated subjects than in a placebo group. In contrast, AHCC® significantly increased parasympathetic nervous activity at rest. Under mental stress, AHCC® increased sympathetic nervous activity, with no difference in the parasympathetic nervous system...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
Hongxi Wang, Guohua Shen, Chong Jiang, Li Li, Futao Cui, Rong Tian
METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Medline databases for eligible articles. SUVmax, MTV, and TLG on B-PET/CT, DS on I-PET/CT and DS on E-PET/CT were regarded as efficacy data. Combined hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: Nine trials with a total of 535 ENKTL patients were included. SUVmax, MTV and TLG on B-PET/CT were significantly associated with PFS with HRs of 2...
2018: PloS One
Honglin Jin, Chao Wan, Zhenwei Zou, Guifang Zhao, Lingling Zhang, Yuanyuan Geng, Tong Chen, Ai Huang, Fagang Jiang, Jue-Ping Feng, Jonathan F Lovell, Jing Chen, Gang Wu, Kunyu Yang
Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments (TMEs) create tremendous obstacles for an effective cancer therapy. Herein, we developed a melittin-RADA32 hybrid peptide hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for a potent chemoimmunotherapy against melanoma through the active regulation of TMEs. The formed melittin-RADA32-DOX (MRD) hydrogel has an interweaving nanofiber structure and exhibits excellent biocompatibility, controlled drug release properties both in vitro and in vivo, and an enhanced killing effect to melanoma cells...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Guillaume Le Saux, Avishay Edri, Yossi Keydar, Uzi Hadad, Angel Porgador, Mark Schvartzman
Studying of how different signaling pathways spatially integrate in cells requires selective manipulation and control of different transmembrane ligand-receptor pairs at the same time. This work explores a novel method for precisely arranging two arbitrarily chosen ligands on a micron-scale 2D pattern. The approach is based on lithographic patterning of Au and TiO2 films, followed by their selective functionalization with Ni-NTA/histidine and biotin/avidin chemistries, respectively. The selectivity of chemical and biological functionalizations is demonstrated by XPS and immunofluorescence imaging, respectively...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Korbinian N Kropp, Stefanie Maurer, Kathrin Rothfelder, Bastian J Schmied, Kim L Clar, Moritz Schmidt, Benedikt Strunz, Hans-Georg Kopp, Alexander Steinle, Frank Grünebach, Susanne M Rittig, Helmut R Salih, Daniela Dörfel
The first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has clinical efficacy in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) which resulted in its incorporation in treatment algorithms for this disease. Impairment of proteasomal function by bortezomib is mediated via inhibition of the 20S core particle. However, proteasome function can also be modified by targeting upstream components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Recently, b-AP15 has been identified as a small molecule achieving proteasome inhibition by targeting the deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of the 19S regulatory subunit and was found to inhibit cancer cell growth in preclinical analyses...
March 19, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Wei Zhang, Xinyan Xie, Huijing Mi, Jinwan Sun, Shaoxue Ding, Lijuan Li, Hui Liu, Huaquan Wang, Rong Fu, Zonghong Shao
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis that lead to leukemia. Disorders of the immune system serve important functions in the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. Different levels or mechanisms of natural killer (NK) cells in patients with MDS have been measured in previous studies, making it challenging to understand the pathogenesis of NK cytotoxicity. The present study investigated the frequency of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and explored the function of NK cells by their activating receptors, inhibition signals, degranulation and cytotoxicity factors...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Mark W Cunningham, Javier Castillo, Tarek Ibrahim, Denise C Cornelius, Nathan Campbell, Lorena Amaral, Venkata Ramana Vaka, Nathan Usry, Jan M Williams, Babbette LaMarca
Women with preeclampsia produce AT1-AA (agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor), which stimulate reactive oxygen species, inflammatory factors, and hypertensive mechanisms (ET [endothelin] and sFlt-1 [soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1]) in rodent models of preeclampsia. The placental ischemic reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of preeclampsia exhibits many of these features. In this study, we examined the maternal outcomes of AT1-AA inhibition ('n7AAc') in RUPP rats...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension
Huan Liu, Andrew R Osterburg, Jennifer Flury, Shuo Huang, Francis X McCormack, Stephania A Cormier, Michael T Borchers
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory tract infection in vulnerable populations. Natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DC) are important for the effector functions of both cell types following infection. Methods: Wild type and NKG2D deficient mice were infected with RSV. Lung pathology, was assessed by histology. DC function and phenotype was evaluated by ELISA and flow cytometry. The expression of NKG2D ligands on lung and lymph node DCs was measured by immunostaining and flow cytometry...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"