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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30183371/self-awareness-deficits-associated-with-lower-treatment-motivation-in-cocaine-addiction
#1
Benjamin R Castine, Natalia Albein-Urios, Oscar Lozano-Rojas, Jose M Martinez-Gonzalez, Jakob Hohwy, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) often display behaviours that are paradoxically misaligned with their situation. Typical examples include poor treatment motivation and inconsistent self-reported craving. These behaviours may reflect impairments in the awareness of one's own behaviour. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether impaired self-awareness of addiction-related frontostriatal dysfunction (i.e., symptoms of apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction) was associated with treatment motivation and craving...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110598/dissecting-executive-control-circuits-with-neuron-types
#2
REVIEW
Tsukasa Kamigaki
Executive control supports our ability to behave flexibly in accordance with a given situation. In order to fully understand how cortical circuits achieve this task, we need to determine the intrinsic physiological and connection profiles of neuron types and analyze their functional roles during behavior. This article introduces current knowledge regarding neuron type classification in the cortex and reviews our understanding of how each neuron type is incorporated in the functional cortical circuit to implement executive control...
August 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027322/bringing-order-to-higher-order-motor-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Maja Kojović, Kailash P Bhatia
Majority of movements in everyday situations are complex and involve volition, planning of the movement and selection of the motor programme, all occurring before movement execution. Higher order motor disorders may be defined as abnormal motor behaviours resulting from disruption of any of the cortical processes that precede execution of the motor act. They are common in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric diseases and structural brain lesions. These abnormal behaviours may be overlooked in the clinic, unless specifically evoked by the examiner...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982344/the-role-of-eating-behavior-traits-in-mediating-genetic-susceptibility-to-obesity
#4
Raphaëlle Jacob, Vicky Drapeau, Angelo Tremblay, Véronique Provencher, Claude Bouchard, Louis Pérusse
Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several genes associated with obesity. The mechanisms through which these genes affect body weight are not fully characterized. Recent studies suggest that eating behavior (EB) traits could be involved, but only a few EB traits were investigated. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to obesity is mediated by EB traits (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, hunger) and their subscales...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923749/chronic-sleep-loss-and-risk-taking-behavior-does-the-origin-of-sleep-loss-matter
#5
Natalia Rusnac, Florence Spitzenstetter, Patricia Tassi
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents and young adults get insufficient sleep. A link between sleep loss and risk-taking behavior has been consistently found in the literature, but surprisingly, the role played by the origin of sleep loss in this link has never been investigated. Sleep loss can be voluntary (instead of sleeping, a significant amount of time is devoted to other activities) or involuntary (caused by a sleep disorder, for example, insomnia). The aim of this research was to investigate whether both types of sleep loss are associated to the same extent with risky behavior...
June 20, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29813176/should-i-text-or-call-here-a-situation-based-analysis-of-drivers-perceived-likelihood-of-engaging-in-mobile-phone-multitasking
#6
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Md Mazharul Haque, Mark King, Simon Washington
This study investigated how situational characteristics typically encountered in the transport system influence drivers' perceived likelihood of engaging in mobile phone multitasking. The impacts of mobile phone tasks, perceived environmental complexity/risk, and drivers' individual differences were evaluated as relevant individual predictors within the behavioral adaptation framework. An innovative questionnaire, which includes randomized textual and visual scenarios, was administered to collect data from a sample of 447 drivers in South East Queensland-Australia (66% females; n = 296)...
October 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793973/cortical-oscillatory-mechanisms-supporting-the-control-of-human-social-emotional-actions
#7
Bob Bramson, Ole Jensen, Ivan Toni, Karin Roelofs
The human anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) is involved in regulating social-emotional behavior, presumably by modulating effective connectivity with downstream parietal, limbic, and motor cortices. Regulating that connectivity might rely on theta-band oscillations (4-8 Hz), a brain rhythm known to create overlapping periods of excitability between distant regions by temporally releasing neurons from inhibition. Here, we used MEG to understand how aPFC theta-band oscillations implement control over prepotent social-emotional behaviors; that is, the control over automatically elicited approach and avoidance actions...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789932/the-cognitive-nuances-of-surprising-events-exposure-to-unexpected-stimuli-elicits-firing-variations-in-neurons-of-the-dorsal-ca1-hippocampus
#8
Ornella Valenti, Nace Mikus, Thomas Klausberger
The ability to recognize novel situations is among the most fascinating and vital of the brain functions. A hypothesis posits that encoding of novelty is prompted by failures in expectancy, according to computation matching incoming information with stored events. Thus, unexpected changes in context are detected within the hippocampus and transferred to downstream structures, eliciting the arousal of the dopamine system. Nevertheless, the precise locus of detection is a matter of debate. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus (dCA1) appears as an ideal candidate for operating a mismatch computation and discriminating the occurrence of diverse stimuli within the same environment...
September 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628512/hot-news-sexually-transmitted-infections-on-the-rise-in-prep-users
#9
Pablo Barreiro
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral Truvada (tenofovir plus emtricitabine) is effective at preventing HIV infection in high-risk homosexual men. In the United States, PrEP was approved in 2012 and is reimbursed by Medicaid and the majority of private insurers. The situation is diverse and not uniform in the European Union, being PrEP more widely used in France than in the rest of countries. Concerns have been raised that PrEP use may be accompanied by the phenomena of risk compensation or behavioral disinhibition, whereby PrEP users' perception of decreased risk of HIV acquisition may lead them to engage in overall riskier sexual practices and increase their chances of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Blumenthal, et al...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559426/weight-stigma-goes-viral-on-the-internet-systematic-assessment-of-youtube-comments-attacking-overweight-men-and-women
#10
Yongwoog Andrew Jeon, Brent Hale, Eric Knackmuhs, Michael Mackert
BACKGROUND: Anonymous verbal attacks against overweight individuals on social media are common and widespread. These comments often use negative, misogynist, or derogatory words, which stigmatize the targeted individuals with obesity. These verbal attacks may cause depression in overweight individuals, which could subsequently promote unhealthy eating behavior (ie, binge eating) and further weight gain. To develop an intervention policy and strategies that tackle the anonymous, Web-based verbal attacks, a thorough understanding of the comments is necessary...
March 20, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518937/generalized-unsafety-theory-of-stress-unsafe-environments-and-conditions-and-the-default-stress-response
#11
REVIEW
Jos F Brosschot, Bart Verkuil, Julian F Thayer
Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always "on" but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS) states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416869/cultural-differences-in-food-and-shape-related-attitudes-and-eating-behavior-are-associated-with-differences-of-body-mass-index-in-the-same-food-environment-cross-sectional-results-from-the-seafarer-nutrition-study-of-kiribati-and-european-seafarers-on-merchant
#12
Joachim Westenhoefer, Robert von Katzler, Hans-Joachim Jensen, Birgit-Christiane Zyriax, Bettina Jagemann, Volker Harth, Marcus Oldenburg
Background: Overweight and obesity is quite prevalent among seafarers. The present study examined differences in BMI and their association with weight, shape and nutrition related attitudes and perceptions among seafarer from Kiribati, a Pacific Island Group, and European origin. Methods: The Seafarer Nutrition Study compared 48 Kiribati and 33 European male seafarers from 4 commercial merchant ships. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. Attitudes to weight, shape and nutrition and disinhibition of control as a characteristic of eating behavior were assessed in a structured interview...
2018: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403132/can-plasticity-transform-functions-in-neurodegeneration-in-children-as-well-as-adults-an-observational-study
#13
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Safwan Ahamed, Chandra Sasitharan Vidhya Annapoorni
Introduction: Creativity is a physiological need based biological function very essential for survival. However, generally in disorders of progressive cognitive dysfunction creative skills are lost. However there are situations where these potentials are temporarily enhanced. Patients and Methods: We did an observational study of children and adults, 5 adults and 2 childrens, who showed extraordinary creativity evaluated based on evidence shown by patient, peers and re produced in test situation...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395699/problematising-lgbtiq-drug-use-governing-sexuality-and-gender-a-critical-analysis-of-lgbtiq-health-policy-in-australia
#14
Kiran Pienaar, Dean A Murphy, Kane Race, Toby Lea
It is well-established that a high prevalence of substance use is found in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) populations; a finding that researchers attribute to the stigmatised status of non-normative sexual and gender expression, and the role of illicit drug use in the collective production of socio-sexual pleasures, expressivity and disclosure in LGBTIQ communities. Despite the connections between sexual experimentation and substance use, LGBTIQ consumption practices have rarely received the attention they deserve within the alcohol and other drug (AOD) field...
May 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725569/psychiatric-adult-onset-of-urea-cycle-disorders-a-case-series
#15
Adrien Bigot, Paul Brunault, Christian Lavigne, François Feillet, Sylvie Odent, Elsa Kaphan, Christel Thauvin, Vanessa Leguy, Pierre Broué, Michel C Tchan, François Maillot
Adult onset urea cycle disorders (UCD) may present with psychiatric symptoms, occasionally as the initial presentation. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients presenting with a psychiatric adult-onset of UCDs, to discuss which signs could suggest this diagnosis in such a situation, and to determine which tests should be conducted. A survey of psychiatric symptoms occurring in teenagers or adults with UCD was conducted in 2010 among clinicians involved in the French society for the study of inborn errors of metabolism (SFEIM)...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587900/altered-reactivity-of-central-amygdala-to-gaba-a-r-antagonist-in-the-bachd-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#16
Charlotte Lamirault, Libo Yu-Taeger, Valérie Doyère, Olaf Riess, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Nicole El Massioui
In Huntington's disease (HD), dysfunctional affective processes emerge as key symptoms of disturbances. In human HD and transgenic rat models of the disease, the amygdala was previously shown to have a reduced volume and to carry a high load of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) aggregates. In search of the pathophysiology of affective dysregulation in HD, we hypothesized a specific role of the central amygdala (CeA), known to be particularly involved in emotional regulation. Using transgenic BACHD rats carrying full-length human mHTT, we compared behavioral consequences of pharmacological modulation of CeA function by infusing GABAA receptor (GABAA R) antagonist picrotoxin into ∼4...
September 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591789/delta-subunit-containing-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-a-receptor-disinhibits-lateral-amygdala-and-facilitates-fear-expression-in-mice
#17
Zhi-Peng Liu, Qing-Hai He, Han-Qing Pan, Xiao-Bin Xu, Wen-Bing Chen, Ye He, Jin Zhou, Wen-Hua Zhang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Ping Ying, Ren-Wen Han, Bao-Ming Li, Tian-Ming Gao, Bing-Xing Pan
BACKGROUND: Maintaining gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) inhibition in the amygdala within a physiological range is critical for the appropriate expression of emotions such as fear and anxiety. The synaptic GABA type A receptor (GABAA R) is generally known to mediate the primary component of amygdala inhibition and prevent inappropriate expression of fear. However, little is known about the contribution of the extrasynaptic GABAA R to amygdala inhibition and fear. METHODS: By using mice expressing green fluorescent protein in interneurons (INs) and lacking the δ subunit-containing GABAA R (GABAA (δ)R), which is exclusively situated in the extrasynaptic membrane, we systematically investigated the role of GABAA (δ)R in regulating inhibition in the lateral amygdala (LA) and fear learning using the combined approaches of immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and behavior...
June 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279213/midbrain-circuits-for-defensive-behaviour
#18
Philip Tovote, Maria Soledad Esposito, Paolo Botta, Fabrice Chaudun, Jonathan P Fadok, Milica Markovic, Steffen B E Wolff, Charu Ramakrishnan, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth, Cyril Herry, Silvia Arber, Andreas Lüthi
Survival in threatening situations depends on the selection and rapid execution of an appropriate active or passive defensive response, yet the underlying brain circuitry is not understood. Here we use circuit-based optogenetic, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological, and neuroanatomical tracing methods to define midbrain periaqueductal grey circuits for specific defensive behaviours. We identify an inhibitory pathway from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey that produces freezing by disinhibition of ventrolateral periaqueductal grey excitatory outputs to pre-motor targets in the magnocellular nucleus of the medulla...
June 9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259803/the-default-response-to-uncertainty-and-the-importance-of-perceived-safety-in-anxiety-and-stress-an-evolution-theoretical-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Jos F Brosschot, Bart Verkuil, Julian F Thayer
From a combined neurobiological and evolution-theoretical perspective, the stress response is a subcortically subserved response to uncertainty that is not 'generated' but 'default': the stress response is 'always there' but as long as safety is perceived, the stress response is under tonic prefrontal inhibition, reflected by high vagally mediated heart rate variability. Uncertainty of safety leads to disinhibiting the default stress response, even in the absence of threat. Due to the stress response's survival value, this 'erring on the side of caution' is passed to us via our genes...
June 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254890/optimising-the-management-of-bipolar-disorder
#20
MsAbda Mahmood, Klaus R Ebmeler
NICE recommends that when adults present in primary care with depression, they should be asked about previous periods of overactivity or disinhibited behaviour. If this behaviour lasted for four or more days referral for a specialist mental health assessment should be considered. Although depressive episodes are not necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, they are common and dominate the lifetime pattern of the condition: 50% of the time is spent in a euthymic (well) state, 38% in a depressed and 12% in a manic state...
May 2015: Practitioner
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