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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322144/mitochondrial-arabidopsis-thaliana-trxo-isoforms-bind-an-iron%C3%A2-sulfur-cluster-and-reduce-nfu-proteins-in-vitro
#1
Flavien Zannini, Thomas Roret, Jonathan Przybyla-Toscano, Tiphaine Dhalleine, Nicolas Rouhier, Jérémy Couturier
In plants, the mitochondrial thioredoxin (TRX) system generally comprises only one or two isoforms belonging to the TRX h or o classes, being less well developed compared to the numerous isoforms found in chloroplasts. Unlike most other plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two TRXo isoforms whose physiological functions remain unclear. Here, we performed a structure⁻function analysis to unravel the respective properties of the duplicated TRXo1 and TRXo2 isoforms. Surprisingly, when expressed in Escherichia coli , both recombinant proteins existed in an apo-monomeric form and in a homodimeric iron⁻sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-bridged form...
October 13, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322083/a-genome-wide-association-study-reveals-candidate-genes-related-to-salt-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-at-the-germination-stage
#2
Jie Yu, Weiguo Zhao, Wei Tong, Qiang He, Min-Young Yoon, Feng-Peng Li, Buung Choi, Eun-Beom Heo, Kyu-Won Kim, Yong-Jin Park
Salt toxicity is the major factor limiting crop productivity in saline soils. In this paper, 295 accessions including a heuristic core set (137 accessions) and 158 bred varieties were re-sequenced and ~1.65 million SNPs/indels were used to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of salt-tolerance-related phenotypes in rice during the germination stage. A total of 12 associated peaks distributed on seven chromosomes using a compressed mixed linear model were detected. Determined by linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks analysis, we finally obtained a total of 79 candidate genes...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322023/comprehensive-analysis-of-cucumber-gibberellin-oxidase-family-genes-and-functional-characterization-of-csga20ox1-in-root-development-in-arabidopsis
#3
Hong Sun, Baoya Pang, Jun Yan, Ting Wang, Lina Wang, Chunhua Chen, Qiang Li, Zhonghai Ren
Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide and gibberellins (GAs) play important roles in the regulation of cucumber developmental and growth processes. GA oxidases (GAoxs), which are encoded by different gene subfamilies, are particularly important in regulating bioactive GA levels by catalyzing the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway. Although GAoxs are critical enzymes in GA synthesis pathway, little is known about GAox genes in cucumber, in particular about their evolutionary relationships, expression profiles and biological function...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321482/a-metabolome-based-core-hybridization-strategy-for-the-prediction-of-rice-grain-weight-across-environments
#4
Zhiwu Dan, Yunping Chen, Yanghong Xu, Junran Huang, Jishuai Huang, Jun Hu, Guoxin Yao, Yingguo Zhu, Wenchao Huang
Marker-based prediction holds great promise for improving current plant and animal breeding efficiencies. However, the predictabilities of complex traits are always severely affected by negative factors, including distant relatedness, environmental discrepancies, unknown population structures, and indeterminate numbers of predictive variables. In this study, we utilized two independent F1 hybrid populations in the years 2012 and 2015 to predict rice thousand grain weight (TGW) using parental untargeted metabolite profiles with a partial least squares regression method...
October 15, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321386/rice-leaf-folder-larvae-alter-their-shelter-building-behavior-and-shelter-structure-in-response-to-heat-stress
#5
Muhammad Adnan Bodlah, Ling-Ling Gu, Gao-Rong Wang, Xiang-Dong Liu
Behavioral thermoregulation is a key strategy for insects to cope with heat stress. The rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae usually fold one leaf to construct a leaf shelter. The larvae are vulnerable to heat stress, and the temperature in summer is often beyond the optimal range of them. Shelters confer protection against environmental stress but unclear whether larvae will alter shelter-building behavior when encountering heat stress. We observed the shelter-building behavior of larvae during and after heat shock, and then examined the shape and structure of shelters...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321274/the-effects-of-whole-grain-compared-with-refined-wheat-rice-and-rye-on-the-postprandial-blood-glucose-response-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Kathy Musa-Veloso, Theresa Poon, Laura S Harkness, Marianne O'Shea, YiFang Chu
Background: Whole grains are often referred to collectively, despite differences in their composition, physical structure, processing, and potential health benefits. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the postprandial blood glucose response of whole-grain with refined wheat, rice, or rye, while controlling for the food delivery matrix and the processing of the grain (e.g., grinding, germination). Design: Eleven electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies published up to and including November 2017...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321192/large-scale-docking-predicts-that-sorf-encoded-peptides-may-function-through-protein-peptide-interactions-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Rashmi R Hazarika, Nikolina Sostaric, Yifeng Sun, Vera van Noort
Several recent studies indicate that small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) embedded within multiple eukaryotic non-coding RNAs can be translated into bioactive peptides of up to 100 amino acids in size. However, the functional roles of the 607 Stress Induced Peptides (SIPs) previously identified from 189 Transcriptionally Active Regions (TARs) in Arabidopsis thaliana remain unclear. To provide a starting point for functional annotation of these plant-derived peptides, we performed a large-scale prediction of peptide binding sites on protein surfaces using coarse-grained peptide docking...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320960/an-rxlr-effector-secreted-by-phytophthora-parasitica-is-a-virulence-factor-and-triggers-cell-death-in-various-plants
#8
Guiyan Huang, Zhirou Liu, Biao Gu, Hong Zhao, Jinbu Jia, Guangjin Fan, Yuling Meng, Yu Du, Weixing Shan
RXLR effectors encoded by Phytophthora species play a central role in pathogen-plant interactions. Understanding the biological functions of RXLR effectors are conducive to illuminating pathogenic mechanisms and developing disease-control strategies. However, the virulence function of Phytophthora parasitica RXLR effectors is poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of a P. parasitica RXLR effector gene, PPTG00121 (PpE4), which is highly transcribed during the early stages of infection and conserved among various Phytophthora species...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320882/fine-tuning-of-rbohf-activity-is-achieved-by-differential-phosphorylation-and-ca-2-binding
#9
Jian-Pu Han, Philipp Köster, Maria M Drerup, Martin Scholz, Shizhen Li, Kai H Edel, Kenji Hashimoto, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Michael Hippler, Jörg Kudla
RBOHF from Arabidopsis thaliana represents a multifunctional NADPH oxidase regulating biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, developmental processes and guard cell aperture. The molecular components and mechanisms determining RBOHF activity remain to be elucidated. Here we combined protein interaction studies, biochemical and genetic approaches with pathway reconstitution analyses to identify and characterize proteins that confer RBOHF regulation and elucidated mechanisms that adjust RBOHF activity. While the Ca2+ sensor activated kinases CIPK11 and CIPK26 constitute alternative paths for RBOHF activation, the combined activity of CIPKs and the kinase open stomata 1 (OST1) triggers complementary activation of this NADPH oxidase which is efficiently counteracted through dephosphorylation by the phosphatase ABI1...
October 15, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320749/analysis-of-thylakoid-membrane-protein-complexes-by-blue-native-gel-electrophoresis
#10
Marjaana Rantala, Virpi Paakkarinen, Eva-Mari Aro
Photosynthetic electron transfer chain (ETC) converts solar energy to chemical energy in the form of NADPH and ATP. Four large protein complexes embedded in the thylakoid membrane harvest solar energy to drive electrons from water to NADP+ via two photosystems, and use the created proton gradient for production of ATP. Photosystem PSII, PSI, cytochrome b6f (Cyt b6f) and ATPase are all multiprotein complexes with distinct orientation and dynamics in the thylakoid membrane. Valuable information about the composition and interactions of the protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane can be obtained by solubilizing the complexes from the membrane integrity by mild detergents followed by native gel electrophoretic separation of the complexes...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320669/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome-data-from-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-in-spain
#11
Juan J Díaz, Beatriz Espín, Oscar Segarra, Gloria Domínguez-Ortega, Javier Blasco-Alonso, Beatriz Cano, Ana Rayo, Ana Moreno
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, epidemiological and management characteristics of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) cases in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multicenter observational retrospective study. FPIES cases diagnosed in specialized units in Spain over 12 months in 2017 (January to December) according to the recently published international diagnostic criteria were included. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients (53...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320265/interpretation-on-nanoporous-network-structure-in-rice-husk-silica-layer-a-graph-model
#12
Won Jun Lee, Steven L Bernasek, Chong Soo Han
The rice plant produces an amorphous silica layer in the husk covering the brown rice grain as a part of a protective respiration system. The layer shows high permeation molecular flow while the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm indicates the existence of nanometer-sized pores. Here, we interpret the inner structure of the layer as a porous network consisting of void spheres with a degree of 2-5 and tunnels with a length of 2-7 nm based on the transmission electron microscopy images. In the network, the gas molecules travel through the tunnels and move in random directions after collisions with the walls of the spheres...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320233/targeted-cleavage-of-nad6-mrna-induced-by-a-modified-pentatricopeptide-repeat-protein-in-plant-mitochondria
#13
Catherine Colas des Francs-Small, Lilian Vincis Pereira Sanglard, Ian Small
Mitochondrial genes encode key components of the cellular energy machinery, but their genetic analysis is difficult or impossible in most organisms (including plants) because of the lack of viable transformation approaches. We report here a method to block the expression of the mitochondrial nad6 gene encoding a subunit of respiratory complex I in Arabidopsis tha liana , via the modification of the specificity of the RNA-binding protein RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 2 (RPF2). We show that the modified RPF2 binds and specifically induces cleavage of nad6 RNA, almost eliminating expression of the Nad6 protein and consequently complex I accumulation and activity...
2018: Communications biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320230/assembling-the-genome-of-the-african-wild-rice-oryza-longistaminata-by-exploiting-synteny-in-closely-related-oryza-species
#14
Stefan Reuscher, Tomoyuki Furuta, Kanako Bessho-Uehara, Michele Cosi, Kshirod K Jena, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Nori Kurata, Motoyuki Ashikari
The African wild rice species Oryza longistaminata has several beneficial traits compared to cultivated rice species, such as resistance to biotic stresses, clonal propagation via rhizomes, and increased biomass production. To facilitate breeding efforts and functional genomics studies, we de-novo assembled a high-quality, haploid-phased genome. Here, we present our assembly, with a total length of 351 Mb, of which 92.2% was anchored onto 12 chromosomes. We detected 34,389 genes and 38.1% of the genome consisted of repetitive content...
2018: Communications biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319843/a-study-of-the-quality-characteristics-of-frozen-korean-rice-cake-by-using-different-thawing-methods
#15
Su-Kyung Ku, Jung-Sun Hong, Hee-Don Choi, Jong-Dae Park, Young-Boong Kim, Hyun-Wook Choi, Tae-Kyung Kim, Yun-Sang Choi
The characteristics of frozen rice cakes after thawing them using different methods, such as standing at room temperature (NT), running water (RWT), pan-grill (PT), steam (ST), microwave (MWT), and superheated steam thawing (SHST), were compared. Frozen rice cakes treated by MWT or SHST showed the shortest thawing time of 3 min. The MWT treatment showed the largest thawing loss, while the ST treatment showed the highest moisture content. The ST, RWT, and MWT treatments showed the highest water activity values...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319673/sub-epidermal-expression-of-enhancer-of-triptychon-and-caprice1-and-its-role-in-root-hair-formation-upon-pi-starvation
#16
Louai Rishmawi, Heike Wolff, Andrea Schrader, Martin Hülskamp
Root hair patterning is best studied in Arabidopsis thaliana . A pattern of root hair and non-root hair files is governed by a gene-regulatory network of activators and inhibitors. Under phosphate starvation conditions, extra root hairs are formed in non-root hair positions. This raises the question, whether and how this environmental stimulus is mediated by the known root hair gene network. In this study, we provide genetic and molecular data on the role of ETC1 in the phosphate starvation induced ectopic root hair formation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319672/getting-to-the-roots-a-developmental-genetic-view-of-root-anatomy-and-function-from-arabidopsis-to-lycophytes
#17
REVIEW
Frauke Augstein, Annelie Carlsbecker
Roots attach plants to the ground and ensure efficient and selective uptake of water and nutrients. These functions are facilitated by the morphological and anatomical structures of the root, formed by the activity of the root apical meristem (RAM) and consecutive patterning and differentiation of specific tissues with distinct functions. Despite the importance of this plant organ, its evolutionary history is not clear, but fossils suggest that roots evolved at least twice, in the lycophyte (clubmosses and their allies) and in the euphyllophyte (ferns and seed plants) lineages...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319671/non-destructive-plant-morphometric-and-color-analyses-using-an-optoelectronic-3d-color-microscope
#18
Hugo G Lazcano-Ramírez, Andrea Gómez-Felipe, David Díaz-Ramírez, Yolanda Durán-Medina, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Stefan de Folter, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez
Gene function discovery in plants, as other plant science quests, is aided by tools that image, document, and measure plant phenotypes. Tools that acquire images of plant organs and tissues at the microscopic level have evolved from qualitative documentation tools, to advanced tools where software-assisted analysis of images extracts quantitative information that allows statistical analyses. They are useful to perform morphometric studies that describe plant physical characteristics and quantify phenotypes, aiding gene function discovery...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318228/synergistic-effect-of-cellulose-nanofibres-and-bio-extracts-for-fabricating-high-strength-sodium-alginate-based-composite-bio-sponges-with-antibacterial-properties
#19
Chandravati Yadav, Pradip K Maji
This study investigates the synergistic potential of natural bio-extracts for preparing "all-natural" composite bio-sponges of sodium alginate (SA) with the reinforcement of a natural bio-nanomaterial i.e., cellulose nanofibres (CNFs). Aqueous suspensions of SA and CNFs in various combinations of bio-extracts (Rice water (Rw) and Giloy extract (Ge)) were freeze-dried to obtain the composite bio-sponges. Composites prepared using Rw resulted in structurally more stable samples with porosity above 75% that showed a compact honeycomb-like microstructure with interlocked CNFs network structures...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317699/role-of-pyrimidine-salvage-pathway-in-the-maintenance-of-the-organellar-and-nuclear-genome-integrity
#20
Pedroza-García José Antonio, Nájera-Martínez Manuela, Mazubert Christelle, Aguilera-Alvarado Paulina, Drouin-Wahbi Jeannine, Sánchez-Nieto Sobeida, José M Gualberto, Raynaud Cécile, Plasencia Javier
Nucleotide biosynthesis proceeds through a de novo pathway and a salvage route. In the latter, free bases and/or nucleosides are recycled to generate the corresponding nucleotides. Thymidine kinase (TK) is the first enzyme in the salvage pathway to recycle thymidine nucleosides as it phosphorylates thymidine to yield thymidine monophosphate. The Arabidopsis genome contains two TK genes -TK1a and TK1b- that show similar expression patterns during development. In this work, we studied the respective roles of the two genes during early development and in response to genotoxic agents targeting the organellar or the nuclear genome...
October 13, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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