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arabidopsis OR rice

Xuemei Zhou, Ce Shi, Peng Zhao, Mengxiang Sun
Plant zygotes usually undergo asymmetrical cell division, giving rise to the formation of two daughter cells with distinct developmental cell fate. The small apical cell will develop into the major part of embryo proper, whereas the larger basal cell will divide to form a transient suspensor. Thus, the apical and basal cell lineages are an excellent model to study cell fate determination in relation to zygote polarity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the differentiation of two distinct cell lineages is not yet understood, possibly due to the technique limitations...
December 13, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Silvia Coolen, Johan A Van Pelt, Saskia C M Van Wees, Corné M J Pieterse
In this genome-wide association study, we obtained novel insights into the genetic basis of the effect of herbivory or drought stress on the level of resistance against the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In nature, plants function in complex environments where they encounter different biotic and abiotic stresses individually, sequentially or simultaneously. The adaptive response to a single stress does not always reflect how plants respond to such a stress in combination with other stresses. To identify genetic factors that contribute to the plant's ability to swiftly adapt to different stresses, we investigated the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to infection by the necrotrophic fungus B...
December 14, 2018: Planta
Robert C Moseley, Ritesh Mewalal, Francis Motta, Gerald A Tuskan, Steve Haase, Xiaohan Yang
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) improves photosynthetic efficiency under limited water availability relative to C3 photosynthesis. It is widely accepted that CAM plants have evolved from C3 plants and it is hypothesized that CAM is under the control of the internal circadian clock. However, the role that the circadian clock plays in the evolution of CAM is not well understood. To identify the molecular basis of circadian control over CAM evolution, rhythmic gene sets were identified in a CAM model plant species ( Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi ) and a C3 model plant species ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) through analysis of diel time-course gene expression data using multiple periodicity detection algorithms...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maxim S Kovalev, Anna A Igolkina, Maria G Samsonova, Sergey V Nuzhdin
The impact of deleterious variation on both plant fitness and crop productivity is not completely understood and is a hot topic of debates. The deleterious mutations in plants have been solely predicted using sequence conservation methods rather than function-based classifiers due to lack of well-annotated mutational datasets in these organisms. Here, we developed a machine learning classifier based on a dataset of deleterious and neutral mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana by extracting 18 informative features that discriminate deleterious mutations from neutral, including 9 novel features not used in previous studies...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Justine Claverie, Suzanne Balacey, Christelle Lemaître-Guillier, Daphnée Brulé, Annick Chiltz, Lucie Granet, Elodie Noirot, Xavier Daire, Benoît Darblade, Marie-Claire Héloir, Benoit Poinssot
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous molecules that can activate the plant innate immunity. DAMPs can derive from the plant cell wall, which is composed of a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin polysaccharides. Fragments of pectin, called oligogalacturonides (OG), can be released after wounding or by pathogen-encoded cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) such as polygalacturonases (PGs). OG are known to induce innate immune responses, including the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), production of H2 O2 , defense gene activation, and callose deposition...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Raimund Nagel, John E Bieber, Mark G Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S Nett, Reuben J Peters
The ability of plant-associated microbes to produce gibberellin A (GA) phytohormones was first described for the fungal rice pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi in the 1930s. Recently the capacity to produce GAs was shown for several bacteria, including symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria (α-rhizobia) and gamma-proteobacteria phytopathogens. All necessary enzymes for GA production are encoded by a conserved operon, which appears to have undergone horizontal transfer between and within these two phylogenetic classes of bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lautaro Hilbert, Eduardo Góes Neves, Francisco Pugliese, Bronwen S Whitney, Myrtle Shock, Elizabeth Veasey, Carlos Augusto Zimpel, José Iriarte
In the HTML version of this Article originally published, Fig. 4 was a duplicate of Fig. 1. This has now been amended.
December 14, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Yasir Hamid, Lin Tang, Xiaozi Wang, Bilal Hussain, Muhammad Yaseen, Muhammad Zahir Aziz, Xiaoe Yang
Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils has posed a risk to environment and human health. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of soil amendments for reducing cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L) in a contaminated field. The soil amendments used include lime, DaSan Yuan (DASY), DiKang No.1 (DEK1), biochar, Fe-biochar, Yirang, phosphorus fertilizer, (Green Stabilizing Agent) GSA-1, GSA-2, GSA-3, and GSA-4, applied at 1% rate in a field experiment. The results exposed that GSA-4 treatment showed best effects on reducing Cd and Pb phytoavailability in soil and uptake by early rice...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tomohiro Uemura, Ryohei Thomas Nakano, Junpei Takagi, Yiming Wang, Katharina Kramer, Iris Finkemeier, Hirofumi Nakagami, Kenichi Tsuda, Takashi Ueda, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Akihiko Nakano
Spatiotemporal coordination of protein trafficking between organelles is essential for eukaryotic cells, and the post-Golgi interface, including the trans-Golgi network (TGN), is a pivotal hub for multiple trafficking pathways. The Golgi-released independent TGN (GI-TGN) is a compartment described only in plant cells, and its cellular and physiological roles remain elusive. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the SYP4 group Qa-SNARE (soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) membrane fusion proteins are shared components of TGN and GI-TGN and regulate secretory and vacuolar transport...
December 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Sunok Moon, Lae-Hyeon Cho, Yu-Jin Kim, Yun-Shil Gho, Ho Young Jeong, Woo-Jong Hong, Chanhui Lee, Hyon Park, Nam-Soo Jwa, Sarmina Dangol, Yafei Chen, Hayeong Park, Hyun-Soo Cho, Gynheung An, Ki-Hong Jung
Root hairs are important for absorption of nutrients and water from the rhizosphere. The ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE-SIX LIKE (RSL) Class Ⅱ family of transcription factors is expressed preferentially in root hairs and has a conserved role in root hair development in land plants. We functionally characterized the seven members of the RSL Class II subfamily in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. In root hairs, six of these genes were preferentially expressed and four were strongly expressed. Phenotypic analysis of each mutant revealed that Os07g39940 plays a major role in root hair formation, based on observations of a short root hair phenotype in those mutants...
December 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Huakun Zheng, Zhenhui Zhong, Mingyue Shi, Limei Zhang, Lianyu Lin, Yonghe Hong, Tian Fang, Yangyan Zhu, Jiayuan Guo, Limin Zhang, Jie Fang, Hui Lin, Justice Norvienyeku, Xiaofeng Chen, Guodong Lu, Hongli Hu, Zonghua Wang
BACKGROUND: A number of Pyricularia species are known to infect different grass species. In the case of Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae), distinct populations are known to be adapted to a wide variety of grass hosts, including rice, wheat and many other grasses. The genome sizes of Pyricularia species are typical for filamentous ascomycete fungi [~ 40 Mbp for P. oryzae, and ~ 45 Mbp for P. grisea]. Genome plasticity, mediated in part by deletions promoted by recombination between repetitive elements [Genome Res 26:1091-1100, 2016, Nat Rev Microbiol 10:417-430,2012] and transposable elements [Annu Rev Phytopathol 55:483-503,2017] contributes to host adaptation...
December 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Lianping Sun, Xiaojiao Xiang, Zhengfu Yang, Ping Yu, Xiaoxia Wen, Hong Wang, Adil Abbas, Riaz Muhammad Khan, Yingxin Zhang, Shihua Cheng, Liyong Cao
In flowering plants, ideal male reproductive development requires the systematic coordination of various processes, in which timely differentiation and degradation of the anther wall, especially the tapetum, is essential for both pollen formation and anther dehiscence. Here, we show that OsGPAT3 , a conserved glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene, plays a critical role in regulating anther wall degradation and pollen exine formation. The gpat3-2 mutant had defective synthesis of Ubisch bodies, delayed programmed cell death (PCD) of the inner three anther layers, and abnormal degradation of micropores/pollen grains, resulting in failure of pollen maturation and complete male sterility...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qing-Hua Chen, Feng Zhu, Zhihua Tian, Wan-Min Zhang, Rong Guo, Wancai Liu, Lieming Pan, Yongjun Du
Several lepidopteran species share the same pheromone blend consisting of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) at different ratios and active doses. In rice pest Chilo suppressalis , (Z)-11-hexadecenol, (Z11-16:OH) and octadecanal (18:Ald) were identified as minor components in the pheromone gland of female moths, and these components were previously not considered as part of the sex pheromone of C. suppressalis . Z11-16:Ald, Z9-16:Ald and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13-18:Ald) frequently trapped other lepidopteran species, such as rice pests Scirpophaga incertulas and Mythimna separate , corn and vegetable pests Helicoverpa armigera in the field, suggesting a lack of specificity in the pheromone blend...
December 12, 2018: Insects
Workie Anley Zegeye, Yingxin Zhang, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
Most Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and gene isolation approaches, such as positional- or map-based cloning, are time-consuming and low-throughput methods. Understanding and detecting the genetic material that controls a phenotype is a key means to functionally analyzing genes as well as to enhance crop agronomic traits. In this regard, high-throughput technologies have great prospects for changing the paradigms of DNA marker revealing, genotyping, and for discovering crop genetics and genomic study. Bulk segregant analysis, based on whole genome resequencing approaches, permits the rapid isolation of the genes or QTL responsible for the causative mutation of the phenotypes...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lavinia L Ruta, Melania A Banu, Aurora D Neagoe, Ralph Kissen, Atle M Bones, Ileana C Farcasanu
The various applications of Ag(I) generated the necessity to obtain Ag(I)-accumulating organisms for the removal of surplus Ag(I) from contaminated sites or for the concentration of Ag(I) from Ag(I)-poor environments. In this study we obtained Ag(I)-accumulating cells by expressing plant metallothioneins (MTs) in the model Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The cDNAs of seven Arabidopsis thaliana MTs (AtMT1a, AtMT1c, AtMT2a, AtMT2b, AtMT3, AtMT4a and AtMT4b) and four Noccaea caerulescens MTs (NcMT1, NcMT2a, NcMT2b and NcMT3) fused to myrGFP displaying an N -terminal myristoylation sequence for plasma membrane targeting were expressed in S...
December 11, 2018: Cells
Alexey V Pigolev, Dmitry N Miroshnichenko, Alexander S Pushin, Vasily V Terentyev, Alexander M Boutanayev, Sergey V Dolgov, Tatyana V Savchenko
Jasmonates are plant hormones that are involved in the regulation of different aspects of plant life, wherein their functions and molecular mechanisms of action in wheat are still poorly studied. With the aim of gaining more insights into the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in wheat growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses, we have generated transgenic bread wheat plants overexpressing Arabidopsis 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE 3 ( AtOPR3 ), one of the key genes of the JA biosynthesis pathway...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chen Liu, Miaolin Zeng, Meiling Zhang, Canwei Shu, Erxun Zhou
The complete genome of a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named as Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 5 (RsPV5), isolated from rice sheath blight fungus R. solani AG-1 IA strain C24, was sequenced and analysed. RsPV5 consists of two segments, dsRNA-1 (1899 nucleotides) and dsRNA-2 (1787 nucleotides). DsRNA-1 has an open reading frame (ORF) 1 that potentially codes for a protein of 584 amino acid (aa) containing the conserved motifs of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA-2 also contains a ORF 2, encoding a putative capsid protein (CP) of 513 aa...
December 11, 2018: Viruses
Xiaorong Guo, Junfeng Niu, Xiaoyan Cao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes post-transcriptionally; they are known to play major roles in development and responses to abiotic stress. MicroRNA408 (miR408) is a conserved small RNA in plants; it was reported that miR408 genes were involved in abiotic stress in Arabidopsis . However, miR408 in Salvia miltiorrhiza has been rarely investigated. In this study, we cloned Sm-MIR408 , the miR408 precursor sequence, and its promoter sequence from S...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xin-Jie Shen, Yan-Yan Wang, Yong-Xing Zhang, Wei Guo, Yong-Qing Jiao, Xin-An Zhou
Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been suggested to play crucial roles in the response to diverse abiotic and biotic stress factors but there is little molecular evidence of this role in soybean plants. In this work, we identified and functionally characterized an R2R3-MYB TF, namely, GsMYB15 , from the wild soybean ED059. Protein and promoter sequence analysis indicated that GsMYB15 is a typical R2R3-MYB TF and contains multiple stress-related cis- elements in the promoter region. GsMYB15 is located in the nucleus and exhibits transcriptional activation activity...
December 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hiromitsu Moriyama, Syun-Ichi Urayama, Tomoya Higashiura, Tuong Minh Le, Ken Komatsu
Magnaporthe oryzae , the fungus that causes rice blast, is the most destructive pathogen of rice worldwide. A number of M. oryzae mycoviruses have been identified. These include Magnaporthe oryzae. viruses 1, 2, and 3 (MoV1, MoV2, and MoV3) belonging to the genus, Victorivirus , in the family, Totiviridae ; Magnaporthe oryzae. partitivirus 1 (MoPV1) in the family, Partitiviridae ; Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1 strains A and B (MoCV1-A and MoCV1-B) belonging to cluster II of the family, Chrysoviridae ; a mycovirus related to plant viruses of the family, Tombusviridae ( Magnaporthe oryzae...
December 8, 2018: Viruses
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