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Water Pollutants

Noelia S La Colla, Sandra E Botté, Vanesa L Negrin, Analía V Serra, Jorge E Marcovecchio
Coastal areas are urbanized and industrialized environments, affected by dredging operations, discharges of untreated municipal wastewaters, and farming. Developing countries are in continuous growth and will deal, in a close future, with the highest rate of coastal transformation, posing serious risks for the ecological and environmental value of ecosystem assets. This research aims to study the dissolved and particulate Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn values within an argentinean estuarine environment which is currently under human-induced pressures...
August 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mohit Garg, CaterinaValeo, Rishi Gupta, Shiv Prasher, Neeta Raj Sharma, Peter Constabel
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate an interdisciplinary strategy combining both engineering- and biology-based approaches for stormwater and wastewater treatment. The work involves a novel and environmentally friendly surface material that can withstand urban load over its design service life, allows preliminary treatment through filtration, and diverts water to the subsurface to conduct secondary treatment below the surface through phytoremediation via the extensive rooting systems of trees. The present study highlights an interdisciplinary low-impact development (LID) approach developed for a polluted industrial wastewater site, for a cleaner and greener environment...
August 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yi Hu, Yulian Li, Junyong He, Tao Liu, Kaisheng Zhang, Xingjiu Huang, Lingtao Kong, Jinhuai Liu
Industrial waste, urban sewage and aquaculture have led to severely increased grades of environment pollutants such as dyes, pesticides and fertilizer. The use of technologies for purifying contaminated waters can be difficult and toxic due to the anti-photolysis, anti-oxidation and anti-bio-oxidation characteristics of organic pollutants, and there is therefore a significant need for new approaches. Here, we report methods of Fenton oxidation and EDTA-Fe(III) Fenton-like oxidation which can be used to degrade malachite green (MG: a dye and antibiotic-like substance) from contaminated water...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
J A Grande, R Loayza-Muro, F M Alonso-Chaves, J C Fortes, B Willems, A M Sarmiento, M Santisteban, J M Dávila, M L de la Torre, N Durães, J Diaz-Curiel, A T Luís
This paper is focused on the hydrogeochemical characterization of the Negro River along its course, as well as in the proposal of a functioning model for the contamination processes in order to establish potential cause-effect relationships between water quality, geology (ARD), mining activities (AMD) and the tectonic framework as transmission vector of acidity, metals and sulphates. The scenario shows a heavily-contaminated river compared to the unaffected regional background. By graphical and statistical treatments of physico-chemical data of Negro River and the unaffected values of regional background and other AMD/ARD representative rivers' it is possible to conclude that Antamina Mine, is not the cause of the Negro River contamination, without the need of isotopic tracers, but just through the inexistent concentrations of Cu, Bi and Mo found in the waters...
August 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Habib Bagheri, Gohar Soofi, Hasan Javanmardi, Majid Karimi
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are 3D nanoscaled materials with large potential in solid phase microextraction (SPME). Here, as a case study, an octaglycidyldimethylsilyl modified polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane network is described. It was deposited on a stainless steel wire via a sol-gel method and used as a fiber coating for SPME of aromatic compounds. The uniform pore structure, high surface area, and hydrophobicity of the network make it susceptible toward isolation of non-polar and semi-polar chemical compounds...
August 17, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Majken Elley Nielsen, Peter Roslev
Fluoxetine and propranolol are neuroactive human pharmaceuticals that occur frequently as pollutants in surface waters. The potential effects of these pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms have raised concern but many adverse effects are not well characterized for a broad range of concentrations and endpoints. In this study, 6 biological parameters in the freshwater Cladoceran Daphnia magna were compared for their responses to fluoxetine or propranolol exposure: mobility (dichotomous response), active swimming time, swimming distance, swimming velocity, swimming acceleration speed, and survival in the absence of food (starvation-survival)...
August 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Zheng Hao, Changhui Wang, Zaisheng Yan, Helong Jiang, Huacheng Xu
The separation and recovery of pollutant-loaded magnetic carbon materials from organic contaminated environment is recently concerned, but the change of sorption ability and mechanism of activated carbon and biochar caused by magnetic particles modification still need to be explored. Here, the magnetic modification of two coconut shell-, coal-derived activated carbon and one biochar, and its effect on the removal of phenol from water were investigated. Magnetic activated carbon (MAC) and magnetic biochar (MBC) were prepared by co-precipitation...
August 9, 2018: Chemosphere
M Rajesh Kumar, A Manikandan, A Sivakumar, V Violet Dhayabaran
A green and efficient straightforward tactic for the one-pot regioselective synthesis of novel 10,10-dimethyl-9,10,11,11a-tetrahydro-6H-spiro[chromeno[4,3-b]chromene-7,3'-indoline]-2',6,8 (7aH) -triones (4a-n) in one-pot modus has been established using eco-friendly p-toluenesulphonic acid as catalyst. Among the solvents that were used for synthesis, 4a-n were suitably synthesized with maximum yield (90-98%) in water. We avoided column purification and the formed by-product in the process is environmental-friendly...
August 6, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Costanza Scopetani, Alessandra Cincinelli, Tania Martellini, Emilia Lombardini, Alice Ciofini, Alessia Fortunati, Vittorio Pasquali, Samuele Ciattini, Alberto Ugolini
The presence and accumulation of plastic waste into the marine environment are well known environmental issues. Microplastics (MPs) end up in sea waters and, due to their hydrophobicity and high surface/volume ratio, POPs tend to sorb and accumulate to their surface. The supralittoral amphipod Talitrus saltator (T. saltator) was selected to study the role of MPs in the transfer of organic pollutants and to investigate if ingested MPs could either transfer contaminants to biota or clean it adsorbing pollutants taken from the diet...
July 23, 2018: Environmental Research
Nian Hong, An Liu, Panfeng Zhu, Xu Zhao, Yuntao Guan, Mengting Yang, Hongyang Wang
Benzene series compounds (BTEX) are toxic pollutants primarily generated by traffic activities in an urban environment. BTEX pollutants can be deposited (build-up) on urban road surfaces during dry periods and then washed-off into stormwater runoff. Since BTEX pollutants can pose high human health risks, they can undermine stormwater reuse safety after they enter stormwater runoff. In this study, the BTEX pollutants build-up loads on urban road surfaces were investigated in Shenzhen, China. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach and two conventional regression modelling approaches were compared in terms of estimating BTEX build-up loads based on land use related parameters...
August 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Li Gao, Lanfang Han, Wenqi Peng, Bo Gao, Dongyu Xu, Xiaohong Wan
Source identification of trace metals in the water environment is important in understanding its environmental behavior and in the prevention and remediation of further pollution. Here, the regional geochemical baseline (RGB) and Pb isotopic ratios are combined to decipher the anthropogenic contribution rate, main anthropogenic source, and transport pathway of trace metals in sediments collected from the largest freshwater lake in northern China, Baiyangdian (BYD) Lake. The established RGB values of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were 63...
August 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhuotong Zeng, Shujing Ye, Haipeng Wu, Rong Xiao, Guangming Zeng, Jie Liang, Chang Zhang, Jiangfang Yu, Yilong Fang, Biao Song
Antibiotic concentrations in surface waters far exceed the pollution limit due to the abuse of pharmaceuticals, resulting in an urgent need for an approach with potential efficiency, sustainability and eco-friendliness to remove antibiotic pollutants. A novel biochar-based nanomaterial was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis and was investigated for its removal potential for tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) from both artificial and real wastewater. The associative facilitation between biochar and g-MoS2 nanosheets was proposed, revealing the favorable surface structures and adsorption properties of the composite...
August 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Li Gao, Bo Gao, Dongyu Xu, Wenqi Peng, Jin Lu
Response of trace metals to the consecutive water level fluctuation in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) sediments remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the influence of consecutive stages of water level fluctuation on trace metal pollution using multiple analytical approaches. The spatio-temporal distributions of trace metals in TGR sediments were investigated for five consecutive water impoundment stages from 2015 to 2017. Anthropogenic contributions and trace metal stocks in the TGR were quantitatively estimated using a combination of a regional geochemical baseline (RGB) and annual sediment load...
August 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Masada Tzabari, Amit Lerner, David Iluz, Carynelisa Haspel
The influence of internal inhomogeneities within hydrosol particles on the polarization characteristics of light is investigated by combining an accurate coated sphere (core-shell) single-scattering model with a radiative transfer model that employs Stokes formalism and considers refraction of direct solar radiation at the air-water interface followed by single scattering. A Junge particle size distribution is assumed. Variations in what we call the "linear polarization phase function" (the degree of linear polarization as a function of scattering angle and the E-vector orientation as a function of scattering angle) are examined as a function of variations in the characteristics of the hydrosol particles...
July 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Naohiro Manago, Yohei Takara, Fuminori Ando, Naoki Noro, Makoto Suzuki, Hitoshi Irie, Hiroaki Kuze
We have developed a method to monitor the slant column density of nitrogen dioxide in the lower troposphere using a compact hyperspectral camera with a high spectral resolution of 1 nm at the full width half-maximum. Measurements of skylight spectra were conducted in wavelength regions of 460-490 nm and 550-610 nm to retrieve the slant column densities of nitrogen dioxide, in addition to water vapor and oxygen dimer. The results of ground-based measurements are shown for the cases of urban air pollution and aircraft emission near an airport runway...
July 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Lin Zhu, Qingshan Xu, Chen Cheng, Xiongwei Sun, Pengfei Wu, Lei Yang
The water-leaving radiances for shortwave infrared (SWIR) channels can be negligible, and these channels also contain information on aerosol particle size. Therefore, the satellite-based data of SWIR channels can be used to estimate aerosol particle size over inland waters [Appl. Opt.39, 887 (2000)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.39.000887]. Supposing the actual atmospheric aerosol size distribution is based on the Junge power law, in this paper an iterative algorithm is used to simultaneously determine the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the exponent of the Junge power law from Aqua MODIS L1B reflectance data of channels 1...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Zhaozhong Feng, Lijun Jiang, Vicent Calatayud, Lulu Dai, Elena Paoletti
Wheat is a major staple food and its sensitivity to the gas pollutant ozone (O3 ) depends on the cultivar. However, few chamber-less studies assessed current ambient O3 effects on a large number of wheat cultivars. In this study, we used ethylenediurea (EDU), an O3 protectant whose protection mechanisms are still unclear, to test photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, antioxidants, and yield of 15 cultivars exposed to 17.4 ppm h AOT40 (accumulated O3 over an hourly concentration threshold of 40 ppb) over the growing season at Beijing suburb, China...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Samer Khalaf, Jawad H Shoqeir, Laura Scrano, Rafik Karaman, Sabino A Bufo
This study examines the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) semiconductor supported on borosilicate tubes (cut-off 290 nm) towards removal of a mix of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water. For this purpose, two widely used analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ibuprofen (IBU) and mefenamic acid, along with MCPA sodium monohydrate, which is a common herbicide frequently used in the agricultural activities, were selected as a case study. Borosilicate tubes were coated with titanium oxide through two different approaches: sol-gel dip-coating and a hybrid nanoparticle dip-coating and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J Kowalczyk, J Numata, B Zimmermann, R Klinger, F Habedank, P Just, H Schafft, M Lahrssen-Wiederholt
Wildlife species, such as roe deer, moose, brown hare, wild boar, etc., are known to accumulate persistent environmental contaminants and thus are useful as bioindicators for environmental pollution. Wild boars become exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) from flora, fauna, water, and soil. The main exposure pathway to PFOA and PFOS is assumed to be the oral intake. From studies in domestic pigs (belonging to the same species Sus scrofa), it has been established that the oral exposure results in the liver accumulation of PFOA and PFOS...
August 16, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Paula Kostecka-Sochoń, Barbara M Onopiuk, Ewa Dąbrowska
Cadmium is one of the main chemical pollutants found in the daily environment of developed countries. Cigarettes are a significant source of that metal, which makes it important in terms of oral cavity health. The aim of this study was to determine if increased supply of zinc in chronic exposure to cadmium might protect the sublingual gland structure against oxidative damage. The experiment took 12 months and was conducted on 72 adult male rats. They were randomized into 9 groups. Eight groups received cadmium in drinking water (as CdCl2 ) at 5 or 50 mg Cd/dm3 and/or zinc (as ZnCl2 ) at 30 or 60 mg Zn/dm3 ...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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