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Water Pollutants

Yue Yang, Sen Qiao, Ruofei Jin, Jiti Zhou, Xie Quan
A novel anaerobic treatment system that combines the impact of applied voltage with membrane filtration over carbon nanotubes hollow fiber membranes (CNTs-HFMs) was developed at low-temperature (15-20 °C) to mitigate membrane fouling, treat wastewater and recover energy (CH4). Herein, electro-assisted CNTs-HFMs served a dual function as the cathode and membrane filtration. In contrast with other two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs; polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membranes and CNTs-HFMs without electro-assistance), the CNTs-HFMs with electro-assistance (-1...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Luis Fernando Perez-Mercado, Cecilia Lalander, Abraham Joel, Jakob Ottoson, Mercedes Iriarte, Carla Oporto, Björn Vinnerås
In dry areas, the need for irrigation to ensure agricultural production determines the use of all available water sources. However, the water sources used for irrigation are often contaminated by untreated or minimally treated wastewater. Microbial risks from reusing wastewater for vegetable irrigation can be addressed by installing environmental barriers that pathogens must cross to reach humans in the reuse system. Knowledge of pathogen flows inside the system and pathogen removal potential is the first step towards devising a risk management strategy...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Leonardo Capeleto de Andrade, Fabrício Fernandes Coelho, Sayed M Hassan, Lawrence A Morris, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira Camargo
Urbanization and anthropogenic activities create many environmental issues in urban water supply reservoirs, especially in metropolitan regions. Thus, this study was carried out aiming to evaluate the variance in the physical-chemical characteristics of bottom sediment along the Lake Guaíba, Brazil. Lake Guaíba is a freshwater lake situated in a metropolitan region in southern Brazil, being the main water supply to the region. Surface sediment was evaluated to pH, electrical conductivity, particle-size, total organic carbon and nitrogen, metals and inorganic elements (Fe, Al, Ca, Ba, Sr, Co, Tl, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg), and organic compounds...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Avelino Núñez-Delgado, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Sabry M Shaheen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Mahmoud M Fouad, Taha M A Razek, Ahmed S El-Gendy
  Although surface water treatment presents a good solution for pollutants in rivers and freshwater lakes, the purification process itself presents a great threat to the aquatic environment through aluminum waste disposal. Recent studies have introduced coagulants recovery from treatment sludge as a green solution for waste handling and cost reduction. This article aims to evaluate repeated aluminum coagulants recovery from sludge using sulfuric acid. The waste from El-Sheikh Zaid Water Treatment Plant (ESZ-WTP) was characterized, then sequential coagulants recovery using optimum conditions was conducted...
December 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Valdis Krumins, Weimin Sun, Jia Guo, Staci Capozzi, Donna E Fennell, Lisa A Rodenburg
  Sediments of combined sewers are seeded with microbes from a variety of sources, and experience varying biogeochemical conditions. A variety of redox processes have been demonstrated to occur within sewer systems, as well as transformation of several recalcitrant xenobiotic contaminants. Illumina sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene from sediments of three combined sewer systems in the northeastern United States resulted in 10 000 to 47 000 operational taxonomic units per sample. Whereas orders Clostridiales and Bacteroidales, considered human fecal indicators, were dominant in one city's sediments; other cities had communities suggestive of diverse redox processes, including reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds...
December 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Wei Gao, Yong Tian, Huan Liu, Yaqi Cai, Aifeng Liu, Yong-Liang Yu, Zongshan Zhao, Guibin Jiang
Rapid detection of ultratrace pollutants in complex matrices is a great challenge for studying their environmental behaviors and impacts. In this work, a method is developed by combining covalent organic framework (COF) based solid phase microextraction (SPME) with constant flow desorption ionization mass spectrometry for rapid detection of trace tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in multiple water media. The limits of detection and qualification are 0.92 and 3.1 ng L-1 for TBBPA, respectively. The linear range is between 0...
December 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Chunmei Li, Siyu Yu, Xiaoxu Zhang, Yun Wang, Chunbo Liu, Gang Chen, Hongjun Dong
It is still a challenging work to realize the universality of photocatalytic materials for unselective removing various organic pollutants in water. Here a surface dual-doped Cu/Cl-g-C3 N4 photocatalyst is firstly prepared, which exhibits much more superior photocatalytic performance for degrading multifarious persistent organic pollutants including tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl), o-chlorophenol, bisphenol A and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in water than pure g-C3 N4 . The high-efficiency and unselective photocatalytic degradation performance derives from the surface dual-doped effect of Cu/Cl elements on g-C3 N4 , which results in the extended visible light harvest range, elevated CB potential and improved the separation efficiency of charge carriers...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Tilen Genov, Paul D Jepson, Jonathan L Barber, Ana Hace, Stefania Gaspari, Tina Centrih, Jan Lesjak, Polona Kotnjek
Marine top predators, including marine mammals, are known to bio-accumulate persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a serious conservation concern for these species. Although PCBs declined in European seas since the 1970s-1980s ban, considerable levels still persist in European and Mediterranean waters. In cetaceans, stranded animals are a valuable source of samples for pollutant studies, but may introduce both known and unknown biases. Biopsy samples from live, free-ranging cetaceans offer a better alternative for evaluating toxicological burdens of populations, especially when linked to known histories of identified individuals...
December 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Céline Laurencé, Narimane Zeghbib, Michael Rivard, Sonia Lehri-Boufala, Isabelle Lachaise, Caroline Barau, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Thierry Martens, Laure Garrigue-Antar, Christophe Morin
Pharmaceuticals and their by-products are increasingly a matter of concern, because of their unknown impacts on human health and ecosystems. The lack of information on these transformation products, which toxicity may exceed that of their parent molecules, makes their detection and toxicological evaluation impossible. Recently we characterized the Pyridinium of furosemide (PoF), a new transformation product of furosemide, the most widely used diuretic and an emerging pollutant. Here, we reveal PoF toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells leading to alpha-synuclein accumulation, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptosis...
December 8, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Lin Luo, Jieming Li, Zhong Zhang, Yue Yuan
Microcystis growth and physiological responses to chloramphenicol (CAP)-stress were explored at different phosphorus (P) concentrations during 20-day exposure. Under CAP-stress, Microcystis exhibited (i) stronger total protein synthesis and antioxidant defenses at 5 mg/L P than 0.05-0.5 mg/L P in early test period (before day 8), and (ii) greater CAP-removal via biodegradation at 5 mg/L P in mid-late period. Due to above mechanisms, 5 mg/L P largely alleviated the inhibitory effect of CAP on Microcystis growth until test end, thus minimizing CAP toxicity to Microcystis, compared with 0...
December 7, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Teresa Hernandez, Carmen Chocano, Maria Dolores Coll, Carlos Garcia
The use of treated organic products as fertilizers and soil amendments not only results in economic benefits for the small-scale farmer, but it also reduces pollution due to reduced nutrient run-off and N leaching. In this work, the feasibility of using composts as fertilizers and soil improvers has been evaluated at the field level, in barley and soft wheat crops (two successive cultivations of each crop). The applied treatments consisted of two commercial composts (compost manure and sewage sludge compost) added to the soil either alone (T1 and T3) or in combination with inorganic fertilizers (T2 and T4) and a conventional mineral fertilization (T5)...
December 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Atta Rasool, Tangfu Xiao
Trace elements contamination in sediment is regarded as the global crisis with a large share in developing countries like China. Water and sediment samples were collected during (2016) from Qingshui Stream and analyzed for major physicochemical properties and trace elements by using ICP-MS. Our result of sediments showed that studied trace elements (except Pb, Cd, Co) had a concentration higher than Chinese sediment guideline as well as stream water data for studied trace elements (except Cr, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) had a higher concentration than the maximum permissible safe limit of WHO...
December 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shinichi Enami, Agustín J Colussi
Air pollutants generate reactive oxygen species on lung surfaces. Here we report how hydroxyl radicals (·OH) injected on the surface of water react with SP-B1-25 , a 25-residue polypeptide surrogate of human lung surfactant protein B. Our experiments consist of intersecting microjets of aqueous SP-B1-25 solutions with O3 /O2 /H2 O/N2 (g) gas streams that are photolyzed into ·OH(g) in situ by 266 nm laser nanosecond pulses. Surface-sensitive mass spectrometry enables us to monitor the prompt (<10 μs) and simultaneous formation of primary O n -containing products/intermediates ( n ≤5) triggered by the reaction of ·OH with interfacial SP-B1-25 ...
2018: Mass Spectrometry
Sebastian Salazar-Colores, Eduardo Cabal-Yepez, Juan M Ramos-Arreguin, Guillermo Botella, Luis M Ledesma-Carrillo, Sergio Ledesma
Outdoor images are used in a vast number of applications, such as surveillance, remote sensing, and autonomous navigation. The greatest issue with these types of images is the effect of environmental pollution: haze, smog, and fog originating from suspended particles in the air, such as dust, carbon and water drops, which cause degradation to the image. The elimination of this type of degradation is essential for the input of computer vision systems. Most of the state-of-the-art research in dehazing algorithms is focused on improving the estimation of transmission maps, which are also known as depth maps...
December 7, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Richard S Quilliam, Jessica Taylor, David M Oliver
The main objectives of the European Union (EU) Bathing Water Directive (BWD) 2006/7/EC are to safeguard public health and protect designated aquatic environments from microbial pollution. The BWD is implemented through legislation by individual EU Member States and uses faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) as microbial pollution compliance parameters to determine season-end bathing water classifications (either 'Excellent', 'Good', 'Sufficient' or 'Poor'). These classifications are based on epidemiological studies that have linked human exposure to FIOs with the risk of contracting a gastrointestinal illness (GI)...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Chenglong Zhang, Shanshan Guo, Fan Zhang, Bernard A Engel, Ping Guo
This study presents an inexact joint-probabilistic double-sided stochastic chance-constrained programming (IJDSCCP) model for sustainable water resources planning and pollution control in water quality management systems under uncertainty. Techniques of interval parameter programming (IPP), joint-probabilistic programming (JPP) and double-sided stochastic chance-constrained programming (DSCCP) are incorporated into a modeling framework. The IJDSCCP can not only address uncertainties presented as interval parameters and double-sided randomness (i...
December 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nathan Egnew, Nilima Renukdas, Yathish Ramena, Amit K Yadav, Anita M Kelly, Rebecca T Lochmann, Amit Kumar Sinha
Waterborne ammonia is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to all aquatic animals. However, ammonia induced toxicity as well as compensatory mechanisms to defend against high environmental ammonia (HEA) are not well documented at present for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a high value fish for culture and sport fisheries in the United States. To provide primary information on the sensitivity of this species to ammonia toxicity, a 96 h-LC50 test was conducted. Thereafter, responses at physiological, ion-regulatory and transcript levels were determined to get insights into the underlying adaptive strategies to ammonia toxicity...
November 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Léa Maitre, Cathrine Thomsen, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Leda Chatzi, Valérie Siroux, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Lydiane Agier, Sandra Andrusaityte, Maribel Casas, Montserrat de Castro, Audrius Dedele, Line S Haug, Barbara Heude, Regina Grazuleviciene, Kristine B Gutzkow, Norun H Krog, Dan Mason, Rosemary R C McEachan, Helle M Meltzer, Inga Petraviciene, Oliver Robinson, Theano Roumeliotaki, Amrit K Sakhi, Jose Urquiza, Marina Vafeiadi, Dagmar Waiblinger, Charline Warembourg, John Wright, Rémy Slama, Martine Vrijheid, Xavier Basagaña
Characterization of the "exposome", the set of all environmental factors that one is exposed to from conception onwards, has been advocated to better understand the role of environmental factors on chronic diseases. Here, we aimed to describe the early-life exposome. Specifically, we focused on the correlations between multiple environmental exposures, their patterns and their variability across European regions and across time (pregnancy and childhood periods). We relied on the Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project, in which 87 environmental exposures during pregnancy and 122 during the childhood period (grouped in 19 exposure groups) were assessed in 1301 pregnant mothers and their children at 6-11 years in 6 European birth cohorts...
December 6, 2018: Environment International
Gloria Ntombenhle Hlongwane, Patrick Thabang Sekoai, Meyya Meyyappan, Kapil Moothi
The steady increase in population, coupled with the rapid utilization of resources and continuous development of industry and agriculture has led to excess amounts of wastewater with changes in its composition, texture, complexity and toxicity due to the diverse range of pollutants being present in wastewater. The challenges faced by wastewater treatment today are mainly with the complexity of the wastewater as it complicates treatment processes by requiring a combination of technologies, thus resulting in longer treatment times and higher operational costs...
November 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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