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Zhengjia Liu, Yansui Liu, Muhammad Hasan Ali Baig
The biophysical effect of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on regional climatic regulation is currently of growing interest. However, in water-limited temperate regions, the net biophysical effect of conversion from croplands to grasslands on regional climatic regulation remains poorly understood to date. To answer this concern, a modified land surface model (mEASS) and two different land use scenarios in a typical study area of the Loess Plateau of China were used in this study. We first validated the performances of mEASS model by using observations from six flux tower sites with different land cover and three metrics of the coefficient of determination (R2 ), the root mean square error (RMSE) and the difference between the simulated and observed data (bias)...
August 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Natalie Martschuk, Jane Goodman-Delahunty, Martine B Powell, Nina J Westera
Little is known about the extent to whichinstitutional child sex offending differs from non-institutional offending. Strategies to secure the compliance of child victims were systematically compared to compare the modi operandi (prior to, during and following abuse), and the type of power (intimate, aggressive, coercive) applied by child sexual offenders in institutional versus non-institutional settings. A sample of 59 of the most recent child sexual abuse cases referred for prosecution in three Australian states was manually reviewed and coded...
August 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
D M Gilmore, E Grogan, I D Feurer, H Hoy, S A Rega, J Barnes, R Park, M Staykov, M Via, C M Shaver, C W Pinson, E Lambright
BACKGROUND: While single (SLT) and double lung transplantation (DLT) are associated with differences in morbidity and mortality, the effects of transplant type on patient-reported outcomes are not widely reported and conclusions have differed. Previous studies compared mean health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores but did not evaluate potentially different temporal trajectories in the context of longitudinal follow up. To address this uncertainty, this study is designed to evaluate longitudinal HRQOL after SLT and DLT with the hypothesis that temporal trajectories differ between SLT and DLT...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Kejie Wang, Sixi Chen, Congjie Zhang, Jiatao Huang, Jia Wu, Huaibin Zhou, Liqin Jin, Xu Qian, Jinlong Jin, Jianxin Lyu
Growing evidence shows that enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is an important contributor to obesity and its co-morbidities, but the functional link between ROS and obesity remains elusive. In this study we used the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the role of ROS in obesity. Initially, when ROS production was enhanced by treatment with low concentration of paraquat or juglone, both abnormal high fat accumulation and fatty acid composition were observed in wild type worms. We found that the abnormal fat accumulation was associated with increased expression of fat-5, which encodes an isoform of stearoyl-CoA synthetase, and which is regulated by daf-16 encoding the forkhead transcription factor and being activated by downregulation daf-2...
August 15, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Stephanie Arteaga, Lauren Caton, Anu Manchikanti Gomez
OBJECTIVE: To understand how young people conceptualize planned, unplanned, and "in-between" pregnancies. METHODS: We conducted individual qualitative interviews with 50 young (ages 18-24) women and their male partners (n=100) in the San Francisco Bay Area to investigate prospective pregnancy intentions. In this analysis, we focused on participants' conceptualization of planned and unplanned pregnancies, as well as a status in-between planned and unplanned...
August 15, 2018: Contraception
Numan Karaarslan, Ibrahim Yilmaz, Hanefi Ozbek, Duygu Yasar Sirin, Necati Kaplan, Tezcan Caliskan, Cigdem Ozdemir, Yener Akyuva, Ozkan Ates
In the literature, there have been no studies showing clear results on how radio-contrast pharmaceuticals would affect intact disc tissue cells. In this context, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of Iopromide and Gadoxetic acid, frequently used in the discography, on intact lumbar disc tissue in pharmaco-molecular and histopathological level. Primary cell cultures were prepared from the healthy disc tissue of the patients operated in the neurosurgery clinic. Except for the control group, the cultures were incubated with the indicated radio-contrast agents...
August 18, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Odd L Gammelgaard, Mikkel G Terp, Birgitte Preiss, Henrik J Ditzel
Immunotherapy is one of the most promising cancer treatment modalities, but the lack of appropriate preclinical in vivo models hampers the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we studied the ability of transplanted human cancer cells to form primary tumors and metastasize in humanized immune system mice created by transfer of CD34+ human hematopoietic stem cells. All tested transplanted cancer cell lines developed primary tumors that progressed nearly synchronously. Spontaneous lung and liver metastases developed from both orthotopic and ectotopic transplanted cancer cells, and the ability to spread inversely correlated with the extent of CD8+ infiltration in the primary tumor...
August 18, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Domenico Ribatti, Roberto Tamma, Simona Ruggieri, Tiziana Annese, Andrea Marzullo, Enrico Crivellato
Vasculitides are characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessels leading to vessel occlusion and ischemic damages of tissues. Among the inflammatory cells involved in vasculitides, neutrophils, T cells and macrophages have been identified as the predominant cell type. This review article is focused on the role of mast cells in these chronic inflammatory processes. Mast cells are characterized by their complex plasticity. Increasing evidences document that mast cells exert both pro-and anti-inflammatory functions depending on the cell types and the microenvironment they reside in...
August 18, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Kathryn Berzins, John Baker, Mark Brown, Rebecca Lawton
BACKGROUND: Establishing patient safety priorities in psychiatry has received less international attention than in other areas of health care. This study aimed to identify safety issues as described by people in the United Kingdom identifying as mental health service users, carers and professionals. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed via social media. Identified safety issues were mapped onto the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF) which categorizes factors that contribute to patient safety incidents in general hospital settings...
August 17, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Marielle H S Deurloo, Ekaterina Turlova, Wen-Liang Chen, You Wei Lin, Elaine Tam, Nardos G Tassew, Michael Wu, Ya-Chi Huang, Jacqueline N Crawley, Philippe P Monnier, Alexander J A Groffen, Hong-Shuo Sun, Lucy R Osborne, Zhong-Ping Feng
Williams syndrome (WS) and 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (Dup7q11.23) are neurodevelopmental disorders caused by the deletion and duplication, respectively, of ~ 25 protein-coding genes on chromosome 7q11.23. The general transcription factor 2I (GTF2I, protein TFII-I) is one of these proteins and has been implicated in the neurodevelopmental phenotypes of WS and Dup7q11.23. Here, we investigated the effect of copy number alterations in Gtf2i on neuronal maturation and intracellular calcium entry mechanisms known to be associated with this process...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Rui Prado-Costa, João Rebelo, João Monteiro-Barroso, Ana Sofia Preto
Ultrasound elastography (USE) is a recent technology that has experienced major developments in the past two decades. The assessment of the main mechanical properties of tissues can be made with this technology by characterisation of their response to stress. This article reviews the two major techniques used in musculoskeletal elastography, compression elastography (CE) and shear-wave elastography (SWE), and evaluates the studies published on major electronic databases that use both techniques in the context of tendon pathology...
August 17, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Caterina Vitale, Eva Kisdi
Under the threat of predation, a species of prey can evolve to its own extinction. Matsuda and Abrams (Theor Popul Biol 45:76-91, 1994a) found the earliest example of evolutionary suicide by demonstrating that the foraging effort of prey can evolve until its population dynamics cross a fold bifurcation, whereupon the prey crashes to extinction. We extend this model in three directions. First, we use critical function analysis to show that extinction cannot happen via increasing foraging effort. Second, we extend the model to non-equilibrium systems and demonstrate evolutionary suicide at a fold bifurcation of limit cycles...
August 17, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Erika L Thompson, Brittany L Rosen, Sarah B Maness
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to reduce the burden of anogenital cancers. Vaccine uptake remains suboptimal, especially among young adults. Social determinants of health (SDOH) are societal level conditions that may indirectly influence health behaviors, including HPV vaccination. The purpose of this study was to assess HPV vaccination and SDOH among young adult women and men. The 2016 National Health Interview Survey was restricted to participants ages 18-26 (n = 3593). The Healthy People 2020 SDOH Framework was used to identify variables for economic stability, health and healthcare, education, social and community context, and neighborhood and built environment...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Y Chowaniec, F Luyckx, G Karam, P Glemain, J Dantal, J Rigaud, J Branchereau
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of transplant nephrectomy on morbidity and mortality and HLA immunization. METHODS: All patients who underwent transplant nephrectomy in our centre between 2000 and 2016 were included in this study. A total of 2822 renal transplantations and 180 transplant nephrectomies were performed during this period. RESULTS: The indications for transplant nephrectomy were graft intolerance syndrome: 47.2%, sepsis: 22.2%, vascular thrombosis: 15...
August 17, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Eric M Thompson, Daniel Landi, David Ashley, Stephen T Keir, Darell Bigner
INTRODUCTION: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare Grade II and III glioma. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, however, adjuvant therapy is sometimes necessary. Given the rarity of PXA, chemotherapeutic efficacy data is limited. The importance of the BRAF V600E mutation in the context of MAP kinase pathway inhibition is unknown. The purpose of this study was to perform an in vivo screen of a variety to agents to determine efficacy against both V600E mutant and non-mutant PXA...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
S J Bayless, A J Harvey, W Kneller, C D Frowd
RATIONALE: The effect of alcohol intoxication on witness memory and performance has been the subject of research for some time, however, whether intoxication affects facial composite construction has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: Intoxication was predicted to adversely affect facial composite construction. METHODS: Thirty-two participants were allocated to one of four beverage conditions consisting of factorial combinations of alcohol or placebo at face encoding, and later construction...
August 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Elena Plante, Rebecca L Gómez
Purpose: Statistical learning research seeks to identify the means by which learners, with little perceived effort, acquire the complexities of language. In the past 50 years, numerous studies have uncovered powerful learning mechanisms that allow for learning within minutes of exposure to novel language input. Method: We consider the value of information from statistical learning studies that show potential for making treatment of language disorders faster and more effective...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Sabrina Horvath, Elizabeth McDermott, Kathleen Reilly, Sudha Arunachalam
Purpose: Our goal was to investigate whether preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can begin to learn new word meanings by attending to the linguistic contexts in which they occur, even in the absence of visual or social context. We focused on verbs because of their importance for subsequent language development. Method: Thirty-two children with ASD, ages 2;1-4;5 (years;months), participated in a verb-learning task. In a between-subjects design, they were randomly assigned to hear novel verbs in either transitive or intransitive syntactic frames while watching an unrelated silent animation or playing quietly with a toy...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Valeria Lis Le Gall, Guilherme Marcondes Klafke, Tatiana Teixeira Torres
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most important ectoparasites with great sanitary and economic impact for cattle rearing worldwide. Ivermectin is commonly used to control tick populations, but its use over the last 30 years has led to the development of resistant populations of R. microplus, and a concomitant loss of efficacy. In this context, we aimed to determine the metabolic mechanisms that contribute to ivermectin resistance in a resistant strain of this species. We performed lethal time bioassays with inhibitors of detoxifying enzymes and xenobiotic transporters (four detoxification pathways) using two strains of ticks: a susceptible strain, Mozo, and a resistant strain, Juarez...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
V Andrews-Goff, S Bestley, N J Gales, S M Laverick, D Paton, A M Polanowski, N T Schmitt, M C Double
Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) populations typically undertake seasonal migrations, spending winters in low latitude breeding grounds and summers foraging in high latitude feeding grounds. Until recently, a broad scale understanding of whale movement has been derived from whaling records, Discovery marks, photo identification and genetic analyses. However, with advances in satellite tagging technology and concurrent development of analytical methodologies we can now detail finer scale humpback whale movement, infer behavioural context and examine how these animals interact with their physical environment...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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