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Abdulaziz Oqalaa Almubarak, Anwar Ul Haq, Ibrahim Alzahrani, Essam Al Shail
Lhermitte-Duclos disease is a rare condition with less than 250 cases reported in the literature. It was considered a neoplastic or hamartomatous growth in the cerebellum. It commonly presents with symptoms of high intracranial pressure or obstructive hydrocephalus. Surgical resection is often curative. The lesion is associated with PTEN gene mutation, and it is considered to be one of the diagnostic criteria of Cowden's syndrome. Vascular tumors are reported in this syndrome, including glioblastomas and meningiomas...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Dustin H. Marks, Adam Friedman
Cannabinoids have demonstrated utility in the management of cancer, obesity, and neurologic disease. More recently, their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified for the treatment of several dermatologic conditions. This review thus assesses the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, endoocannabinoids, and chemically synthetic cannabinoids in the management of cutaneous disease. The PubMed® and Scopus® databases were subsequently reviewed in December 2017 using MeSH and keywords, such as cannabinoid, THC, dermatitis, pruritus, and skin cancer...
November 2018: Skin Therapy Letter
Heloisa Helena Ponchio Pachá, Josimerci Ittavo Lamana Faria, Kleber Aparecido de Oliveira, Lúcia Marinilza Beccaria
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between presence/absence of Pressure Ulcer, socio-demographic factors and hospitalization. METHOD: Case-control study, performed through multiple logistic regression based on information from the adverse event reporting system and the hospital information system, between September/2014 and August/2015. RESULTS: Among the risk factors, after adjustment, age greater than or equal to 60 years, hospitalization due to infectious, parasitic and neoplastic diseases, periods of hospitalization longer than seven days and being hospitalized in ICU other than ICU covenant were highlighted...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Maria Aparecida Scottini, Rachel Duarte Moritz, José Eduardo de Siqueira
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the degree of cognition, functionality, presence of symptoms and medications prescribed for patients under palliative home care. METHOD: Descriptive, cross-sectional study where 55 patients under palliative home care were interviewed. Cognition was evaluated using the Mini-Mental state examination (MM), with patients being separated into two groups: with preserved cognitive ability (MM>24), or altered (MM <24). The functionality was verified by the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) and the patients were divided into two groups: PPS≤50 and PPS≥60...
October 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Felipe S Barros, Victor Hugo R Marussi, Lázaro L F Amaral, Antônio José da Rocha, Christiane M S Campos, Leonardo F Freitas, Thierry A G M Huisman, Bruno P Soares
Phakomatoses, also known as neurocutaneous disorders, comprise a vast number of entities that predominantly affect structures originated from the ectoderm such as the central nervous system and the skin, but also the mesoderm, particularly the vascular system. Extensive literature exists about the most common phakomatoses, namely neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau and Sturge-Weber syndrome. However, recent developments in the understanding of the molecular underpinnings of less common phakomatoses have sparked interest in these disorders...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Jack Brzezinski, Orli Michaeli, Jonathan D Wasserman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hereditary disorders affecting growth (both overgrowth and growth retardation) are frequently associated with heightened risk of neoplastic disease. This review summarizes the tumor spectra associated with these conditions and identifies disease-specific screening approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: An understanding of the molecular events underlying many of these growth disorders has evolved significantly over the past several years. Recognition of genotype-phenotype associations, in many cases, informs the cancer risk profile...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Vera Dugina, Galina Shagieva, Natalya Khromova, Pavel Kopnin
We have shown that cytoplasmic actin isoforms play different roles in neoplastic cell transformation. β-Cytoplasmic actin acts as a tumor suppressor, affecting epithelial differentiation, cell growth, cell invasion and tumor growth of colon and lung carcinoma cells. In contrast, γ-cytoplasmic actin enhances malignant features of tumor cells whose actin network regulation is carried out via the γ-actin isoform. The goal of this study was to describe the role of cytoplasmic actins in cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231...
December 5, 2018: Cell Cycle
Neha Kaushik, Seungmo Kim, Yongjoon Suh, Su-Jae Lee
Cancer is a systemic disease in which neoplastic cells interact with multiple types of non-neoplastic stromal cells as well as non-cellular components. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular component that is aberrantly regulated in many types of tumor microenvironments. Since the ECM generally maintains the tissue structure and provides mechanical forces in the tumor microenvironment, it has been simply assumed to act as a physical barrier for cancer metastasis and have a passive role in cancer progression...
December 4, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Sabra I Djomehri, Boris Burman, Maria E Gonzalez, Shuichi Takayama, Celina G Kleer
While 3D cellular models are useful to study biological processes, gel-embedded organoids have large variability. This paper describes high-yield production of large (~1 mm diameter), scaffold-free, highly-spherical organoids in a one drop-one organoid format using MCF10A cells, a non-tumorigenic breast cell line. These organoids display a hollow lumen and secondary acini, and express mammary gland-specific and progenitor markers, resembling normal human breast acini. When subjected to treatment with TGF-β, the hypoxia-mimetic reagent CoCl2 , or co-culture with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), the organoids increase collagen I production and undergo large phenotypic and morphological changes of neoplastic progression, which were reproducible and quantifiable...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
C P Coyne, Lakshmi Narayanan
Background - Traditional chemotherapeutics of low-molecular weight diffuse passively across intact membrane structures of normal healthy cells found in tissues and organ systems in a non-specific unrestricted manner which largely accounts for the induction of most sequelae which restrict dosage, administration frequency, and duration of therapeutic intervention. Molecular strategies that offer enhanced levels of potency, greater efficacy and broader margins-of-safety include the discovery of alternative candidate therapeutics and development of methodologies capable of mediating properties of selective "targeted" delivery...
December 3, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Riccardo Rizzo, Gabriele Lisi, Nino Marino, Giuseppe Lauriti, Dacia Di Renzo, Pierluigi Lelli Chiesa
Gastric duplication cysts (GDCs) represent 4-9% of alimentary tract duplications. Early diagnosis and surgical excision are essential to avoid morbidity or neoplastic degeneration. Roboticassisted excision of GDCs has never been described in childhood. We report an asymptomatic male patient with 2 gastric cystic masses at ultrasonography (US)-study (diameter 25mm and 8mm), increasing in size at follow-up. At 20 months of age, magnetic- resonance-imaging-scan confirmed 2 round gastric masses (44×35mm and 16×12mm, respectively)...
December 4, 2018: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Russell Emmons, Guanying Xu, Diego Hernandez-Saavedra, Adam Kriska, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Hong Chen, Michael De Lisio
Obesity-induced inflammation associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of diet and exercise in modulating increased CRC risk in obesity, and the potential role of altered hematopoiesis as a contributor to these effects remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine how weight loss induced during CRC induction with or without exercise alter CRC initiation and their relationship to altered hematopoiesis. Mice consumed either a control (CON) or high fat diet to induce obesity...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Valeria Barresi, Simona Lionti, Lilli La Rocca, Samuel Caliri, Maria Caffo
Due to their widely variable clinical behavior, the post-surgical treatment of atypical meningiomas is controversial. Therefore, prognostic factors able to identify high-risk cases, which may benefit from adjuvant treatments, are warranted. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) belongs to the PI3K-AKT pathway. Its phosphorylated form (p-mTOR Ser2448) is involved in cell growth, differentiation and tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate p-mTOR Ser2448 expression and its eventual correlation with clinicopathological features, recurrence, or disease-free survival (DFS), in atypical meningiomas...
December 3, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
O Servitje, F Climent, L Colomo, N Ruiz, A García-Herrera, F Gallardo, S Mercadal, H Pomares, C Muniesa, C Martin-Callizo, J Marcoval, R Rovira, T Estrach, R M Pujol
BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous follicular center-cell lymphoma (PCFCL) is one of the most common types of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Differences in immunohistochemical expression of BCL2 and CD10 antigens along with the presence of t(14:18) translocation in neoplastic cells have been postulated as relevant clues in differentiating PCFCL from cutaneous lesions secondary to a systemic follicular lymphoma (SCFL). The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and usefulness of these parameters in a large series of patients...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Heather Katz, Steven Sagun, Doreen Griswold, Mohamed Alsharedi
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by an over accumulation of incompetent neoplastic lymphocytes. Bone metastasis in CLL/SLL is very rare. We report a case of a 76-year-old Caucasian female presented with an unresolving pulmonary infiltrate with mediastinal lymphadenopathy concerning for malignancy. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) showed an infiltrative mass in the mediastinum with diffuse uptake and a hypermetabolic mass within the left iliac bone...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
A Ray, J Fornsaglio, S Dogan, S Hedau, D Naik, A De
Obesity has an influence on the risk and prognosis of different types of cancers of the female reproductive tract. In the uterus, a common site for neoplasms is the endometrium, the inner lining tissue. Generally, obesity has been documented to be involved in endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium. Obesity may influence the cancer risk by various mechanisms such as chronic inflammation, dysregulation of sex hormones and abnormal secretion of hormone-like cytokines or adipokines from adipose tissue. One of the important pro-inflammatory adipokines is leptin, which acts via its transmembrane receptors (Ob-R)...
March 2018: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Yousef Yahyapour, Rabeae Rahmani, Majid Alipour, Ahad Alizadeh, Aynaz Khademian, Farzin Sadeghi
Background: Studies concerning on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) etiological factors have been done for several decades, however, results reported from various investigations were not consistent. The present investigation aimed to explore the presence of 3 oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in the neoplastic and non- neoplastic esophageal lesions collected from Mazandaran, a high risk area of Iran. Methods: In total, 168 esophageal specimens (100 with ESCC confirmed diagnosis and 68 without esophageal malignancy) were analyzed for HPV, EBV and MCPyV by Real Time PCR...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Adriana Vaz Safatle-Ribeiro, Elisa Ryoka Baba, Rodrigo Corsato Scomparin, Sheila Friedrich Faraj, Marcelo Simas de Lima, Luciano Lenz, Bruno Costa Martins, Carla Gusmon, Fábio Shiguehissa Kawaguti, Caterina Pennacchi, Bruno Zilberstein, Ulysses Ribeiro, Fauze Maluf-Filho
Objective: Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) technique may improve the diagnosis of gastric mucosal lesions allowing acquisition of high-resolution in vivo images at the cellular and microvascular levels. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of pCLE for the differential diagnosis of non-neoplastic and neoplastic gastric lesions. Methods: Twenty gastric mucosal lesions from 10 patients were evaluated during endoscopic procedure and were examined by pCLE...
October 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Jiahao Chen, Yun-Ruei Kao, Daqian Sun, Tihomira I Todorova, David Reynolds, Swathi-Rao Narayanagari, Cristina Montagna, Britta Will, Amit Verma, And Ulrich Steidl
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) frequently progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the cells leading to malignant transformation have not been directly elucidated. As progression of MDS to AML in humans provides a biological system to determine the cellular origins and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation, we studied highly fractionated stem cell populations in longitudinal samples of patients with MDS who progressed to AML. Targeted deep sequencing combined with single-cell sequencing of sorted cell populations revealed that stem cells at the MDS stage, including immunophenotypically and functionally defined pre-MDS stem cells (pre-MDS-SC), had a significantly higher subclonal complexity compared to blast cells and contained a large number of aging-related variants...
December 3, 2018: Nature Medicine
Mark R Wick, James W Patterson
Non-neoplastic skin lesions comprise a sizable group of disorders with variable etiologies and clinical manifestations. They can be grouped into vesiculopustular dermatitides; spongiotic and psoriasiform diseases; lichenoid dermatitides; lymphoid infiltrates of the dermis; granulomatous processes; bullous disorders; vasculopathies; panniculitides; deposition disorders; and defects in maintenance of dermal connective tissue. The use of histochemical methods continues to be an indispensable adjunct to conventional microscopy in the further characterization of such lesions...
November 2018: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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