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Tomoko Miyata-Takata, Shih-Sung Chuang, Katsuyoshi Takata, Tomohiro Toji, Yoshinobu Maeda, Yasuharu Sato, Tadashi Yoshino
AIMS: Although the neoplastic cells of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) usually do not express T-cell antigens, T-cell receptor (TCR) gene might be rearranged and TCR protein expressed. Downstream TCR pathway is important for the development of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), but the expression of TCR pathway components has not been elucidated in ENKTL. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 91 ENKTL samples to immunohistochemically characterise the expression of TCR pathway components...
August 13, 2018: Histopathology
Gagan Chhabra, Debra R Garvey, Chandra K Singh, Charlotte A Mintie, Nihal Ahmad
Melanoma incidences are increasing rapidly, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is believed to be its major contributing factor. UV exposure causes DNA damage in skin which may initiate cutaneous skin cancers including melanoma. Melanoma arises from melanocytes, the melanin-producing skin cells, following genetic dysregulations resulting into hyperproliferative phenotype and neoplastic transformation. Both UVA and UVB exposure to the skin are believed to trigger melanocytic hyperplasia and melanomagenesis...
August 13, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Guido Carpino, Vincenzo Cardinale, Trine Folseraas, Diletta Overi, Krzysztof Grzyb, Daniele Costantini, Pasquale Bartolomeo Berloco, Sabina Di Matteo, Tom Hemming Karlsen, Domenico Alvaro, Eugenio Gaudio
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory cholangiopathy frequently complicated by cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Massive proliferation of biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs), expansion of peribiliary glands (PBGs), and dysplasia were observed in PSC. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the involvement of PBGs and BTSCs in CCA which emerged in PSC patients. Specimens from normal liver (N=5), PSC (N=20), and PSC-associated CCA (N=20) were included. Samples were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence...
August 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Nirali M Patel, Heejoon Jo, David A Eberhard, Xiaoying Yin, Michele C Hayward, Matthew K Stein, David Neil Hayes, Juneko E Grilley-Olson
Neoplastic cellularity contributes to the analytic sensitivity of most present technologies for mutation detection, such that they underperform when stroma and inflammatory cells dilute a cancer specimen's variant fraction. Thus, tumor purity assessment by light microscopy is used to determine sample adequacy before sequencing and to interpret the significance of negative results and mutant allele fraction afterwards. However, pathologist estimates of tumor purity are imprecise and have limited reproducibility...
August 10, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Qian Wang, Ya-Ming Li, Yuan Li, Feng-Chun Hua, Quan-Shi Wang, Xiao-Li Zhang, Chao Cheng, Hua Wu, Zhi-Ming Yao, Wei-Fang Zhang, Qing-Yi Hou, Wei-Bing Miao, Xue-Mei Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical value of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT for the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO) and inflammation of unknown origin (IUO) in Chinese population, as well as the characteristics of PET/CT in different category of etiological disease. METHODS: A total of 376 consecutive patients with FUO/IUO who underwent FDG-PET/CT at 12 hospitals were retrospectively studied. FDG uptake was quantitatively and visually evaluated, by using SUVmax and a 4-grade scale respectively...
August 11, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Joseph Aklinski, Sirin Gandhi, Mark C Preul, Michael T Lawton
BACKGROUND: The side-to-side anastomosis is one of the difficult bypass configurations that may be used in various complex cerebral vascular and neoplastic cases. Few pure arterial models exist for practicing this bypass subtype. OBJECTIVE: To provide an optimized side-to-side anastomosis training model using rat common carotid arteries (CCA). METHODS: Bilateral CCAs were exposed in the neck of 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The arteries were juxtaposed in parallel, using temporary aneurysm clips applied proximally and distally...
August 7, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Ziyi Li, Chuan Zhou, Ge Chen, Yuhai Bao
BACKGROUND: Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also called sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is an idiopathic, non-neoplastic, lymphoproliferative disorder. Histologically, the disease is characterized by emperipolesis and S-100 immunoreactivity. RDD usually presents with massive painless cervical lymphadenopathy, only 5% affecting the central nervous system (CNS). CASE DESCRIPTION: We here report on a 46-year-old female of isolated RDD of the left cavernous sinus with left facial numbness and weakness of left masticatory muscle...
August 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Abdellah Benadelmouna, Alice Saunier, Christophe Ledu, Marie-Agnès Travers, Benjamin Morga
In the context of the abnormal mass mortality of mussels in France since 2014, Flow CytoMetry (FCM) was used in 2015 and 2016 to study the DNA content and cell cycle characteristics of hemic circulating cells collected from 2000 mussels. The mussels were sampled from 12 wild and cultivated blue mussels stocks distributed along the French Atlantic coast from the south Brittany to Pertuis Charentais areas. During these surveys, various genetic abnormalities were frequently detected, and ploidy characteristics revealed contrasting profiles that corresponded to respective contrasting sanitary status, i...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
D Vázquez-Justes, J Sanahuja, J Diez, E Rubinat, R Begué, C Salas, C Vicandi, M I Gil, F Purroy, D Mauricio
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency and management of incidental findings in nonenhanced brain MRI of a middle-aged population of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the results of 289 brain MRI obtained from subjects between 40-75 years recruited from a previous study. Incidental findings were classified into three categories: 1) Vascular findings; 2) neoplastic findings; and 3) others. On the other side, we made a classification of referral findings...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Shinsuke Aida, Junko Aida, Miho Naoi, Mai Kato, Yukio Tsuura, Ichiro Natsume, Kaiyo Takubo
We estimated the telomere lengths of neoplastic and non-neoplastic mesothelial cells and examined their correlation with asbestos exposure and the expression of markers of mesothelial malignancy. Cell blocks of pleural effusion obtained from 35 cases of non-neoplastic disease (NN), 12 cases of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and 12 cases of carcinomatous effusion due to lung adenocarcinoma (LA) were examined. Fifteen of the 35 NN cases had pleural plaques (NNpp+) suggestive of asbestos exposure, and the other 20 cases had no pleural plaques (NNpp-)...
August 10, 2018: Pathology International
Audrey Bellesoeur, Audrey Thomas-Schoemann, Marie Allard, David Smadja, Michel Vidal, Jérôme Alexandre, François Goldwasser, Benoît Blanchet
The use of anticoagulants in patients with cancer is challenging as several co-morbidities modifying pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and significant drug-drug interactions with concomitant anti-neoplastic therapies may lead to PK variability resulting in increased risk of thrombosis or bleeding. Data on the management of patients with cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) in real life are scarce since patients with cancer presenting with significant comorbidities tend to be excluded from large trials. This review is mostly based on case-reports and pharmacokinetics in an attempt to provide oncologists, with relevant orientation based on our best knowledge to date...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Ankit Hirpara, Mathew Bloomfield, Peter Duesberg
It has been known for over 100 years that cancers have individual karyotypes and arise only years to decades after initiating carcinogens. However, there is still no coherent theory to explain these definitive characteristics of cancer. The prevailing mutation theory holds that cancers are late because the primary cell must accumulate 3⁻8 causative mutations to become carcinogenic and that mutations, which induce chromosomal instability (CIN), generate the individual karyotypes of cancers. However, since there is still no proven set of mutations that transforms a normal to a cancer cell, we have recently advanced the theory that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation...
August 9, 2018: Genes
Bo Liu, Shuo Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a burden on public health worldwide. Therefore, development of novel therapeutic agents for managing HCC is imperative. Amentoflavone (AF), a flavonoid compound extracted from Selaginella tamariscina Spring, reportedly has anti-neoplastic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AF in HCC and the underlying mechanism of action. We found that AF decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in both HCC cell lines but did not affect the viability of a normal hepatic cell line...
August 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ibnouf Sulieman, Ahmed Mahfouz, Einas AlKuwari, Lajos Szabados, Walid Elmoghazy, Ahmed Elaffandi, Hatem Khalaf
INTRODUCTION: Most patients with pancreatic masses pose a diagnostic challenge when a benign lesion is suspected, and often, resection is needed before a benign diagnosis is confirmed. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 57 years old male patient presented with a pancreatic head mass, obstructive jaundice and submandibular lymph node enlargement. He also had a history of recurrent eye pain and redness, skin lesions, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. MRI showed a pancreatic head mass with double duct sign, aortic thickening, bilateral renal lesions, diffuse lymph node enlargement, and prostatic enlargement...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Xiu-He Lv, Bo-Ling Wang, Guo-Wu Cao
BACKGROUND: The role of narrow band imaging (NBI) for surveillance colonoscopy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is debatable. We aim to compare NBI versus other endoscopic techniques in surveillance of IBD basing on current evidences. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted for relevant studies. To assess the detection efficacy, we estimated risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Emilio J Inarejos Clemente, María Navallas, Mirkamal Tolend, Mariona Suñol Capella, Josep Rubio-Palau, Asteria Albert Cazalla, Monica Rebollo Polo
Parotid gland lesions in children can be divided into benign or malignant. The age of the patient helps narrow the differential diagnosis, with vascular and congenital lesions being more frequent in the 1st year of life, while solid tumors are more frequent in older children. Inflammatory disease usually has rapid onset in comparison with that of neoplastic or congenital processes, which have more gradual clinical evolution. Currently, multiple imaging techniques are available to study the parotid region, such as US, CT, and MRI...
August 10, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Diana M Cárdenas, Roberto V Cucalón, Lex G Medina-Magües, Karina Jones, Rubén A Alemán, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez, Washington B Cárdenas
Fibropapillomatosis is a neoplastic disease that afflicts sea turtles. Although it is disseminated worldwide, cases of the disease have not been reported in the southeastern Pacific region. We describe a case of fibropapillomatosis in a green sea turtle ( Chelonia mydas) during its rehabilitation at the Machalilla National Park Rehabilitation Center, Ecuador. Viral presence was confirmed by PCR, targeting fragments of the chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) unique long (UL) genes, UL27, UL28, and UL30. The amplicons were sequenced and included in a global phylogenetic analysis of the virus with other reported sequences from GenBank...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Xijin Mao, Hairong Liu, Jing Du, Ning Yu, Liang Chen, Lin Zhang
RATIONALE: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs), particularly breast IMTs, are rare neoplastic lesions typically associated with a favorable prognosis. Breast IMTs are easily misdiagnosed as other types of malignant lesions, and therefore there is a significant unmet need for a better preoperational differential diagnosis based on imaging manifestations. Here, we report the imaging findings of a breast IMT and compare our findings with previously published features of breast IMTs...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jayson Miedema, Shane R Starr, May P Chan
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare entity with initial descriptions in the mid 1990's.1 It typically affects elderly patients with a slight male predominance (M:F ratio 2-3:1).2,3 Clinically, BPDCN is characterized by abrupt onset of rapidly progressive nodules or ecchymotic plaques with concurrent or subsequent involvement of the bone marrow and peripheral blood.3 Prognosis is dismal.2 Histopathologically, the neoplastic infiltrate is composed of monomorphous medium-sized to large cells expressing CD4, CD56, CD123, and TCL1...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Fengjun Guo, Haina Zhang, Zanhui Jia, Manhua Cui, Jingyan Tian
Endometrial cancer tends to be an aggressive malignancy. Although the disease prognosis can be good at the early stages of disease, the advanced condition is not curable. Chemotherapy regimens and hormone-based therapy in combination with surgery are major approaches for the management of endometrial cancers. However, intrinsic chemoresistance reduces the success rate and increases the possibility of disease relapse. Investigation of underlying mechanisms revealed altered activation of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), mTOR and WNT pathways and reduced gene expression of tumor suppressor p53 in recurrent endometrial cancer...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
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