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Jason A Davis, Geoffrey Rohlfing, Kenan Sagouspe, Maximino Brambila
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of routine pathologic examination (PE) of femoral head (FH) specimens after arthroplasty for acute femoral neck fractures and to determine the cost. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of 850 acute femoral neck fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty These were evaluated to determine whether the FH was sent for PE, the resultant findings, alterations in medical treatment, and cost...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
L Zadka, M Jerzy Kulus, K Piatek
ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases) is a family of transmembrane proteins described for the first time in the 1990s. Their earliest known role was involvement in gametes fusion. Their adhesion properties in intercellular interactions suggested also the possibility of involvement in the tumor biology. The research conducted further at that time emphasized the importance of ADAM proteins in the regulation of neoplastic processes due to their influence on adhesion, cell migration, proteolysis and cell signaling...
September 4, 2018: Neoplasma
Xiaodong Chen, Min Deng, Xinshe Zhou, Xuyi Wang, Yuchen Ye, Jun Zhu, Huafeng Jiang, Xiaotian Chen, Wenju Zha
OBJECTIVE: Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common malignancies of bone. This study was aimed to explore the anti-metastatic effect of euxanthone on OS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adhesion assay and Transwell assay were used to examine the effect of euxanthone on adhesion, migration and invasion of OS cells. COX-2-over-expressing plasmid was applied to transfect OS cells to assess whether COX-2 affects the anti-metastatic function of euxanthone. PDCD4 knockdown and miR-21 mimic were applied to assess whether euxanthone suppresses the transactivation of c-jun via modulating miR-21-PDCD4 signaling...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Marko Magic, Katarina Zeljic, Stevo Jovandic, Jelena Stepic, Marko Pejovic, Snjezana Colic, Zvonko Magic, Gordana Supic
OBJECTIVES: Genetic variants in the hedgehog signaling pathway and VDR gene are involved in inflammatory responses and neoplastic transformation. Current study investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the hedgehog pathway genes PTCH1, GLI1, SMO, and VDR contribute to susceptibility to odontogenic cystic lesions, odontogenic keratocysts, or inflammatory radicular cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Current study examined polymorphisms of PTCH1 (rs357564) and PTCH1 insertion (IVS1-83), GLI1 (rs2228224, rs2228226), SMO (rs2228617), and VDR (rs2228570, rs731236, rs7975232)...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Arjanneke F van de Merbel, Geertje van der Horst, Maaike H van der Mark, Janneke I M van Uhm, Erik J van Gennep, Peter Kloen, Lijkele Beimers, Rob C M Pelger, Gabri van der Pluijm
Urological malignancies, including prostate and bladder carcinoma, represent a major clinical problem due to the frequent occurrence of therapy resistance and the formation of incurable distant metastases. As a result, there is an urgent need for versatile and predictive disease models for the assessment of the individualized drug response in urological malignancies. Compound testing on ex vivo cultured patient-derived tumor tissues could represent a promising approach. In this study, we have optimized an ex vivo culture system of explanted human prostate and bladder tumors derived from clinical specimens and human cancer cell lines xenografted in mice...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Massimo Rugge, Robert M Genta, Matteo Fassan, Elisa Valentini, Irene Coati, Stefano Guzzinati, Edoardo Savarino, Manuel Zorzi, Fabio Farinati, Peter Malfertheiner
OBJECTIVES: Gastritis OLGA-staging ranks the risk for gastric cancer (GC) in progressive stages (0-IV). This long-term follow-up study quantifies the GC risk associated with each OLGA stage. METHODS: Consecutive patients (7436) underwent esophagogastroscopy (T-0), with mapped gastric biopsies, OLGA staging, and H. pylori status assessment. Patients with neoplastic lesion (invasive or non-invasive) at the index endoscopy (and/or within 12 months) were excluded. All patients were followed-up (T-1) by combining different sources of clinical/pathological information (Regional Registries of: (i) esophagogastroduodenoscopies; (ii) pathology reports; (iii) cancer, (iv) mortality)...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Thomas Daix, Estelle Guérin, Elsa Tavernier, Jean-Philippe Marsaud, Adélaïde Hacan, François Gauthier, Alessandro Piccardo, Philippe Vignon, Jean Feuillard, Bruno François
BACKGROUND: Similarly, to sepsis, cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces major changes in leukocyte subsets. Immature granulocytes (IGs) increase both in sepsis and after open-heart surgery. Secondary infections are a major complication of cardiac surgery with CPB. We hypothesized that the assessment of leukocyte subsets with multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) could help the front-line clinician to better identify patients at high risk of infectious complications in this clinical setting...
October 16, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Pedro Horna, Lynn C Moscinski, Lubomir Sokol, Haipeng Shao
BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary Syndrome (SS) are clinically distinct cutaneous T-cell lymphomas with strikingly similar morphologic and phenotypic features. Prior studies have suggested phenotypic differences based on markers of antigen experience, suggesting a different cell of origin. METHODS: Seventy-nine involved peripheral blood or bone marrow samples from 33 patients with SS and 19 patients with MF were studied by 10-color flow cytometry, including CD62L, CD45RA, CCR4, and PD-1...
October 16, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
M E H Wagner, H Essig, M Rücker, T Gander
BACKGROUND: In complex orbital reconstructions ideal positioning of the bony buttress and surrounding soft tissue is a prerequisite for an aesthetic and functional result. The use of computer-assisted surgery can support the surgeon before and during the reconstruction procedure and facilitate quality control processes. This is illustrated using three clinical examples. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The areas of interest (bony defect areas, surrounding tissues) are segmented in a 3D image series...
October 16, 2018: HNO
Juan Pablo Rivas-de Noriega, Javier Andrés Galnares-Olalde, Javier Zúñiga-Varga, Juan Pablo Herrera-Félix, Marco Antonio Alegría-Loyola, Alonso Turrent-Carriles
Introduction: Inflammatory myopathies are a rare group of diseases characterized by proximal weakness. Incidence ranges from 7.98/million/year and prevalence at 14/100,000. The utility of [18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan is increasing for the complementary diagnosis of myopathies. Case Report: An 84-year-old male was admitted with a history of difficulty rising from a chair and a fall. Laboratory results showed increased creatine kinase levels of more than 50 times the normal reference values...
2018: Case Reports in Rheumatology
Renee D Read
Stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, called niches, that regulate their development and development of their progeny. However, the development and maintenance of niches are poorly understood. In the Drosophila brain, cortex glial cells provide a niche that promotes self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cell-like cells (neuroblasts). In the central brain, neuroblasts and their progeny control post-embryonic morphogenesis of cortex glia through PDGF-like ligands, and that PDGFR receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling in cortex glia is required for expression of DE-cadherin, which sustains neuroblasts...
October 16, 2018: Development
Joana Coutinho, Joaquim de Sa, Filipe Castro Teixeira, Catarina Reis Santos, Raquel Sa Chorão, Rui Alves Filipe, Ernesto Fernandes Rocha
BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) Syndrome is a rare genodermatosis caused by a mutation on folliculin gene, with a strong link to renal cancer. To date few patients with such condition have reached dialysis stage, as nephron-sparing surgery is usually possible at the time of diagnosis. To our best knowledge no patient with BHD syndrome has been submitted to renal transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a woman diagnosed with multifocal bilateral renal cell carcinoma that underwent bilateral radical nephrectomy and was started on a regular hemodialysis program at the age of 29...
October 16, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Shahid Siddique, Florian Mw Grundler
Cyst and root-knot nematodes, the two economically most important groups of plant parasitic nematodes, induce neoplastic feeding sites in the roots of their host plants. The formation of feeding sites is accompanied by large-scale transcriptomic, metabolomic, and structural changes in host plants. However, the mechanisms that lead to such remarkable changes have remained poorly understood until recently. Now, genomic and genetic analyses have greatly enhanced our understanding of all aspects of plant-nematode interaction...
October 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Maria Raffaella Greco, Emeline Bon, Rosa Rubino, Lorenzo Guerra, Manuel Bernabe-Garcia, Stefania Cannone, Maria-Luisa Cayuela, Loredana Ciaccia, Séverine Marionneau-Lambot, Thibauld Oullier, Gaëlle Fromont, Roseline Guibon, Sébastien Roger, Stephan Joel Reshkin, Rosa Angela Cardone
Metastatic cancer cells are highly plastic for the expression of different tumor phenotype hallmarks and organotropism. This plasticity is highly regulated but the dynamics of the signaling processes orchestrating the shift from one cell phenotype and metastatic organ pattern to another are still largely unknown. The scaffolding protein NHERF1 has been shown to regulate the expression of different neoplastic phenotypes through its PDZ domains, which forms the mechanistic basis for metastatic organotropism. This reprogramming activity was postulated to be dependent on its differential phosphorylation patterns...
October 13, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Takahide Shinagawa, Keisuke Hata, Teppei Morikawa, Hirotoshi Takiyama, Shigenobu Emoto, Koji Murono, Manabu Kaneko, Kazuhito Sasaki, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Kazushige Kawai, Masashi Fukayama, Hiroaki Nozawa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The appropriate site for targeted biopsy during surveillance colonoscopy for ulcerative colitis (UC) is still unclear. We aimed to clarify key endoscopic findings suggestive of neoplastic lesions for targeted biopsy in UC. METHODS: First, we created 769 stereomicroscopic pictures (509 neoplastic, 260 non-neoplastic) mimicking magnifying colonoscopic images from surgically resected specimens, including areas surrounding 25 neoplastic lesions in 15 patients with colitis-associated cancer at a single referral center...
October 13, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Nick Savidov, Tatyana A Gloriozova, Vladimir V Poroikov, Valery M Dembitsky
This mini review is devoted to highly oxygenated isoprenoid lipids (HOIL) that are produced by fungi and fungal endophytes from various ecological niches, both terrestrial and aquatic. Steroids were distributed as from edible cultivated fungi, as well as fungi collected in forests. Fungal endophytes were generally isolated from plants and cultured to obtain sufficient biomass. Marine fungi were obtained from marine brown and red algae and marine invertebrates such as sponges, corals, worms, crustacea or from marine sediments...
October 13, 2018: Steroids
Bernice Y Yan, Sandra Garcet, Nicholas Gulati, Felix Kiecker, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Patricia Gilleaudeau, Mary Sullivan-Whalen, Avner Shemer, Hiroshi Mitsui, James G Krueger
Dysplastic nevi (DN) are benign lesions with atypical features intermediate between that of common melanocytic nevi (CMN) and malignant melanoma (MM). Debate remains over whether DN represent progressive lesions from CMN. Through gene expression profiling and analysis of molecular gene signatures, our study revealed progressive increases in immune activation and regulation, along with pathways implicated in melanomagenesis, from CMN to DN to MM. Using criteria of 1.5 fold change and false discovery rate ≤ 0...
October 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Swagatika Das, H Inci Gul, Umashankar Das, Jan Balzarini, Stephen G Dimmock, Jonathan R Dimmock
BACKGROUND: Cancer continues to be the major health burden worldwide. There is an urgent need for the development of novel antineoplastic compounds to treat this devastating condition. Various alkylating anticancer drugs have been employed in the clinic for treating cancers. Unsaturated conjugated ketones are a group of alkylators which are of significant interest as potent antineoplastic agents. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to discover unsaturated conjugated ketones which are novel potent cytotoxins displaying growth-inhibitory properties towards neoplasms and also to serve as cytotoxic warheads in drug development...
October 15, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Yohei Sekino, Naohide Oue, Shoichiro Mukai, Yoshinori Shigematsu, Keisuke Goto, Naoya Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Sentani, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Jun Teishima, Akio Matsubara, Wataru Yasui
Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignancy worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. The standard therapy for advanced PCa is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Although ADT, including bicalutamide treatment, is initially effective, resistance to bicalutamide frequently occurs and leads to the development of castration-resistant PCa. Thus, clarifying the mechanisms of bicalutamide resistance is urgently needed. We designed this study to assess the expression and function of PCDHB9, which encodes the protocadherin B9 protein...
October 16, 2018: Prostate
Ludivine Coudière Morrison, Nazanin Tatari, Tamra E Werbowetski-Ogilvie
Utilization of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a model system to study highly malignant pediatric cancers has led to significant insight into the molecular mechanisms governing tumor progression and has revealed novel therapeutic targets for these devastating diseases. Here, we describe a method for generating heterogeneous populations of neural precursors from both normal and neoplastic hESCs and the subsequent injection of neoplastic human embryonic neural cells (hENs) into intracerebellar or intracranial xenograft models...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
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