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Plasma Sodium

Joshua M Bock, David P Treichler, Samuel L Norton, Kenichi Ueda, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by functional and vascular impairments as well as elevated levels of inflammation which are associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Inorganic nitrate supplementation boosts NO bioavailability potentially improving functional and vasodilatory capacities and may reduce inflammation. Twenty-one patients with PAD were randomly assigned to sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ) or placebo supplementation groups for eight-weeks. Outcome measures included a 6-min walk test (6 MWT), blood flow and vasodilator function in the forearm and calf, as well as plasma inflammatory and adhesion biomarker concentrations...
August 14, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Michael J Jurczak, Saumya Saini, Simona Ioja, Diana K Costa, Nnamdi Udeh, Xiaojian Zhao, Jean M Whaley, Richard G Kibbey
Inhibition of the sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) has received growing acceptance as a novel, safe and effective means to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the renal glucose threshold and reduces plasma glucose by promoting glucose excretion in urine. Both animal studies and clinical trials in man suggest that SGLT2 inhibition has the potential to improve pancreatic β-cell function by reducing glucose toxicity. However, there is limited data exploring how reducing glucotoxicity via SGLT2 inhibition affects rates of β-cell proliferation and death throughout life in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
August 17, 2018: Islets
Samer Khalaf, Jawad H Shoqeir, Laura Scrano, Rafik Karaman, Sabino A Bufo
This study examines the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) semiconductor supported on borosilicate tubes (cut-off 290 nm) towards removal of a mix of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water. For this purpose, two widely used analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ibuprofen (IBU) and mefenamic acid, along with MCPA sodium monohydrate, which is a common herbicide frequently used in the agricultural activities, were selected as a case study. Borosilicate tubes were coated with titanium oxide through two different approaches: sol-gel dip-coating and a hybrid nanoparticle dip-coating and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
L S Shuyskiy, V V Levchenko, Y A Negulyaev, A V Staruschenko, D V Ilatovskaya
Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs) are expressed in different organs and tissues, particularly in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) in the kidney, where they fine tune sodium reabsorption. Dynamic rearrangements of the cytoskeleton are one of the common mechanisms of ENaC activity regulation. In our previous studies, we showed that the actin-binding proteins cortactin and Arp2/3 complex are involved in the cytoskeleton-dependent regulation of ENaC and that their cooperative work decreases a channel's probability of remaining open; however, the specific mechanism of interaction between actin-binding proteins and ENaC is unclear...
April 2018: Acta Naturae
Annika Gross, Lotta A P Pack, Gabriel M Schacht, Sebastian Kant, Hanna Ungewiss, Michael Meir, Nicolas Schlegel, Christian Preisinger, Peter Boor, Nurdan Guldiken, Claudia A Krusche, Gernot Sellge, Christian Trautwein, Jens Waschke, Arnd Heuser, Rudolf E Leube, Pavel Strnad
Desmosomes are the least understood intercellular junctions in the intestinal epithelia and provide cell-cell adhesion via the cadherins desmoglein (Dsg)2 and desmocollin (Dsc)2. We studied these cadherins in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and in newly generated conditional villin-Cre DSG2 and DSC2 knockout mice (DSG2ΔIEC ; DSC2ΔIEC ). CD patients exhibited altered desmosomes and reduced Dsg2/Dsc2 levels. The intestines of both transgenic animal lines were histopathologically inconspicuous. However, DSG2ΔIEC , but not DSC2ΔIEC mice displayed an increased intestinal permeability, a wider desmosomal space as well as alterations in desmosomal and tight junction components...
August 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Zheng Junyuan, Xu Hui, Huang Chunlan, Fan Junjie, Mei Qixiang, Lu Yingying, Lou Lihong, Wang Xingpeng, Zeng Yue
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of quercetin on intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) in rats, and its possible mechanism. METHODS: ANP was established by retrograde injection of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct, and quercetin (50 mg/kg × 3) was administered by intraperitoneal injection prior to and after ANP induction. Pancreatitis was assessed by pancreatic histopathology, plasma amylase, pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 levels...
August 6, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Agustin J Ramirez, Maria J Sanchez, Ramiro A Sanchez
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension control reduces cardiovascular and renal risks in type 2 diabetes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors prevent renal glucose reabsorption and decrease glucose plasma levels, blood pressure (BP) and weight reduction. Treatment of hypertension and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 are able to improve arterial stiffness. AIMS: To evaluate, in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, the effects of 6 months treatment with canagliflozin, or perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, on central BP and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Noha M Hosny, Noha N Atia, Samia M El-Gizawy, Dalia M Badary, Mohammad S Hareedy
The present study was designed to evaluate the potential protective effects of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor blocker montelukast (MNK) and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat (FBX) and their combination on a model of acute gouty arthritis induced by intraarticular injection of monourate sodium crystal (MUC) injection in rats. Additionally, we established an HPTLC method for the quantitative determination of both drugs simultaneously and applied this method to detect this combination in rat plasma...
August 16, 2018: Analyst
John T Daugirdas
BACKGROUND: Changes in plasma volume during hemodialysis are complex and have been shown to depend on the rate of fluid removal and the degree of fluid overload. We examined changes in total protein concentration during and shortly after a dialysis treatment in archived data from the HEMO study. METHODS: During follow-up months 4 and 36 of the HEMO study, additional blood samples were obtained during a typical dialysis session at 30 and 60 min after dialysis. In 315 studies from 282 patients where complete data were available, we calculated the concentration change in total protein and compared it to the modeled change in both total body water and extracellular fluid space as derived from 2-pool urea kinetic modeling...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Avisek Majumder, Mahavir Singh, Jyotirmaya Behera, Nicholas T Theilen, Akash K George, Neetu Tyagi, Naira Metreveli, Suresh C Tyagi
Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) occurs due to the deficiency in cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) causing skeletal muscle dysfunction, it is still unclear whether this effect is mediated through oxidative/endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress or both. Nevertheless, there is no treatment option available to improve HHcy-mediated muscle injury. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an anti-oxidant compound and patients with CBS mutation do not produce H2 S. In this study, we hypothesized that H2 S mitigates HHcy-induced redox imbalance/ER-stress during skeletal muscle atrophy via JNK-phosphorylation...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Marianne A Mahrouse
Therapeutic drug monitoring of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) has a great impact in blood pressure control in patient with heart failure, hepatic and renal impairment. To provide an efficient tool for drug assessment in plasma, UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of benazepril hydrochloride (BNZ), fosinopril sodium (FOS), captopril (CAP) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in human plasma samples. Solid phase extraction was applied for sample preparation using OASIS® hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced reversed phase sorbents cartridges...
August 14, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Fabio Henrique Silva, Kleber Yotsumoto Fertrin, Eduardo Costa Alexandre, Fabiano Beraldi Calmasini, Carla Fernanda Franco-Penteado, Fernando Ferreira Costa
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients display exaggerated intravascular hemolysis and esophageal disorders. Since excess hemoglobin in the plasma causes reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that esopagheal contraction may be impaired by intravascular hemolysis. This study aimed to analyze the alterations of the esophagus contractile mechanisms in a murine model of exaggerated intravascular hemolysis induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ). For comparative purposes, sickle cell disease (SCD) mice were also studied, a less severe intravascular hemolysis model...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
María Martínez García, Pablo Trincado Aznar, Leticia Pérez Fernández, Isabel Azcona Monreal, María Elena López Alaminos, Javier Acha Pérez, Ramón Albero Gamboa
INTRODUCTION: Both dietary restriction of sodium chloride (NaCl) and treatment with thiazides have been used in hypercalciuric patients. OBJECTIVES: To calculate regular salt intake and investigate the correlation between natriuresis and urinary calcium with usual diet (B) and after changing the amount of NaCl intake and administration of thiazides. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen healthy young individuals had their diet replaced by 2l of Nutrison® Low Sodium (500mg sodium/day) daily for two days...
August 10, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Romy Técher, Magali Houde, Jonathan Verreault
Developing bird embryos may be affected by a number of thyroid disrupting chemicals through maternal transfer. However, thyroid disruption in developing embryos of wild birds remains largely unstudied, especially with respect to exposure to ubiquitous environmental contaminant classes including halogenated flame retardants (HFRs). The objective of the present study was to investigate responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of developing birds that are exposed to elevated concentrations of HFRs in their environment...
July 31, 2018: Chemosphere
Eugenio Cersosimo, John M Miles
BACKGROUND & INTRODUCTION: The advent of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors [SGLT-2i] provides an additional tool to combat diabetes and complications. The use of SGLT-2i leads to effective and durable glycemic control with important reductions in body weight/fat and blood pressure. These agents may delay beta-cell deterioration and improve tissue insulin sensitivity, which might slow the progression of the disease. METHODS & RESULTS: In response to glycosuria, a compensatory rise in endogenous glucose production, sustained by a decrease in plasma insulin with an increase in glucagon has been described...
August 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Jeriel T R Keeney, Xiaojia Ren, Govind Warrier, Teresa Noel, David K Powell, Jennifer M Brelsfoard, Rukhsana Sultana, Kathryn E Saatman, Daret K St Clair, D Allan Butterfield
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is now widely recognized as a real and too common complication of cancer chemotherapy experienced by an ever-growing number of cancer survivors. Previously, we reported that doxorubicin (Dox), a prototypical reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing anti-cancer drug, results in oxidation of plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) leading to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-mediated oxidative stress in plasma and brain. We also reported that co-administration of the antioxidant drug, 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate sodium (MESNA), prevents Dox-induced protein oxidation and subsequent TNF-α elevation in plasma...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Sema Karabel Ocal, Javier Patarroyo, N Burak Kiremitler, Sami Pekdemir, Victor F Puntes, M Serdar Onses
Approaches are needed for the tailored assembly of plasmonic building blocks on the surface of substrates to synergistically enhance their properties. Here we demonstrate selective immobilization and assembly of gold nanorods (NRs) on substrates modified and patterned with end-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layers. The ligand exchange from the initial cetyltrimethylammonium bromide to sodium citrate was necessary for the immobilization of gold NRs onto PEG grafted substrates. Linear nanopatterns of PEG were fabricated using electrospun nanofibers as masks in oxygen plasma etching...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jose Alejandro Buendia, Edgar Perez-Lopez, Ayyaswamy Venkattraman
The treatment of distilled water with varying amounts of dissolved sodium bicarbonate (representing alkalinity) is considered using an atmospheric pressure electrical discharge. The discharge ignited between a capillary tube (used as powered electrode) and a ground electrode wrapped around the beaker holding the treated water consists of streamers propagating in ambient air and striking the water surface. The streamer interaction with water is shown to lead to a decrease in pH and an increase in nitrate concentration...
August 2, 2018: Water Research
Moupia Rahman, Md Jakariya, Nazmul Haq, Mohammad Amirul Islam
The phytoaccummulation of arsenic by Brassica juncea (L.) was investigated for varying concentrations selected within the range that is evident in Bangladeshi soil. B. juncea (Rai and BARI-11) was grown in the hydroponic media under greenhouse condition with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 15, 30, 50 and 100 ppm) of sodium arsenite. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used to analyze the data. Mapping of potential area of phytoaccumulation of arsenic by B. juncea was done using Geographic information system (GIS)...
August 24, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Daniel Christiadi, Richard F Singer
Calciphylaxis has high mortality. Vitamin K deficiency is common in haemodialysis patients and may be a trigger for calciphylaxis due to its role in activating matrix Gla protein (a tissue inhibitor of calcification). We report the case of a 43-year-old female haemodialysis patient who developed calciphylaxis. Two months prior to the diagnosis she was found to have an undetectable plasma vitamin K concentration. The calciphylaxis completely resolved with vitamin K supplementation and an increase in haemodialysis frequency...
August 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
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