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T Gambichler, A-L Petig, E Stockfleth, M Stücker
BACKGROUND: In malignant melanoma (MM), the proteins SOX10, ABCB5 and CD271 are strongly expressed, and are associated with tumour-initiating potential and stem cell-like properties. AIM: To compare SOX10, ABCB5 and CD271 expression profiles in melanocytic naevi and MM at different stages, and to correlate these with survival data. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed for SOX10, ABCB5 and CD271 expression in common naevi (n = 14), dysplastic naevi (n = 11), primary MM (n = 39), lymph node metastases (n = 14) and distant metastases (n = 14)...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Carolina S Lopes, Nada Daifalla, Bikul Das, Valdo Dias da Silva, Antonio Campos-Neto
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious and fatal disease. Therapeutic drugs are toxic and non-sterilizing. The etiological agents Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani cause active and asymptomatic diseases. Effective drugs to treat VL exist but unfortunately, post-treatment relapses are common. Little is known why drugs are non-sterilizing or how these intracellular pathogens can escape treatment. Here, using a murine model of VL we found that CD271+/Sca1+ bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are readily infected in vitro and in vivo by L...
2016: PloS One
Powrnima Joshi, Mitra Kooshki, Wayne Aldrich, Daniel Varghai, Maciej Zborowski, Arun D Singh, Pierre L Triozzi
Natural killer (NK) cells are implicated in the control of metastasis in uveal melanoma, a process that has been ascribed to its cancer stem cell subpopulation. NK cell activation is regulated by specific microRNA (miR). The NK cell sensitivity and regulatory miR production of uveal melanoma cancer stem cells was examined. Cancer stem cells enriched from aggressively metastatic MUM2B uveal melanoma cells by selecting CD271(+) cells or propagating as non-adherent spheres in stem-cell supportive were more resistant to NK cell cytolysis than cancer stem cells enriched from less aggressively metastatic OCM1 uveal melanoma cells...
August 26, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Roshanak Ghazanfari, Hongzhe Li, Dimitra Zacharaki, Hooi Ching Lim, Stefan Scheding
Human bone marrow contains a population of non-hematopoietic stromal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs), which play a central role for bone marrow stroma and the hematopoietic microenvironment. However, the precise characteristics and potential stem cell properties of defined BMSC populations have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Using standard adherent colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F) assays, we have previously shown that BMSCs were highly enriched in the non-hematopoietic CD271<sup>pos</sup>/ CD140a<sup>low/neg</sup> fraction of normal adult human bone marrow...
August 15, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Emily T Camilleri, Michael P Gustafson, Amel Dudakovic, Scott M Riester, Catalina Galeano Garces, Christopher R Paradise, Hideki Takai, Marcel Karperien, Simon Cool, Hee-Jeong Im Sampen, A Noelle Larson, Wenchun Qu, Jay Smith, Allan B Dietz, Andre J van Wijnen
BACKGROUND: Clinical translation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) necessitates basic characterization of the cell product since variability in biological source and processing of MSCs may impact therapeutic outcomes. Although expression of classical cell surface markers (e.g., CD90, CD73, CD105, and CD44) is used to define MSCs, identification of functionally relevant cell surface markers would provide more robust release criteria and options for quality control. In addition, cell surface expression may distinguish between MSCs from different sources, including bone marrow-derived MSCs and clinical-grade adipose-derived MSCs (AMSCs) grown in human platelet lysate (hPL)...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Michael Ngo, Arum Han, Anita Lakatos, Debashis Sahoo, Stephanie J Hachey, Kipp Weiskopf, Andrew H Beck, Irving L Weissman, Alexander D Boiko
The high rate of metastasis and recurrence among melanoma patients indicates the existence of cells within melanoma that have the ability to both initiate metastatic programs and bypass immune recognition. Here, we identify CD47 as a regulator of melanoma tumor metastasis and immune evasion. Protein and gene expression analysis of clinical melanoma samples reveals that CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal, correlates with melanoma metastasis. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD47 coupled with targeting of CD271(+) melanoma cells strongly inhibits tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenografts...
August 9, 2016: Cell Reports
Mai Mochizuki, Keiichi Tamai, Takayuki Imai, Sayuri Sugawara, Naoko Ogama, Mao Nakamura, Kazuto Matsuura, Kazunori Yamaguchi, Kennichi Satoh, Ikuro Sato, Hozumi Motohashi, Kazuo Sugamura, Nobuyuki Tanaka
CD271 (p75 neurotrophin receptor) plays both positive and negative roles in cancer development, depending on the cell type. We previously reported that CD271 is a marker for tumor initiation and is correlated with a poor prognosis in human hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC). To clarify the role of CD271 in HPC, we established HPC cell lines and knocked down the CD271 expression using siRNA. We found that CD271-knockdown completely suppressed the cells' tumor-forming capability both in vivo and in vitro. CD271-knockdown also induced cell-cycle arrest in G0 and suppressed ERK phosphorylation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ruifeng Yang, Xiaowei Xu
The hair follicle undergoes lifelong cycling and growth. Previous studies have been focused on epithelial stem cells in the hair follicles. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are pluripotent cells that can persist in adult tissues. We have previously demonstrated that human NCSCs can be isolated from hair follicles. Here, we present a protocol to isolate NCSCs from human hair follicles based on their specific surface-marker expression of CD271/HNK1 or CD271/CD49D (alpha4 integrin). NCSCs can be expanded in the culture as neural spheres or attached cells...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ting-Chen Tseng, Fu-Yu Hsieh, Niann-Tzyy Dai, Shan-Hui Hsu
Cell- and gene-based therapies have emerged as promising strategies for treating neurological diseases. The sources of neural stem cells are limited while the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have risk of tumor formation. Here, we proposed the generation of self-renewable, multipotent, and neural lineage-related neural crest stem-like cells by chitosan substrate-mediated gene transfer of a single factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) for the use in neural repair. A simple, non-toxic, substrate-mediated method was applied to deliver the naked FOXD3 plasmid into human fibroblasts...
September 2016: Biomaterials
Annalisa Saltari, Francesca Truzzi, Marika Quadri, Roberta Lotti, Elisabetta Palazzo, Giulia Grisendi, Natascia Tiso, Alessandra Marconi, Carlo Pincelli
CD271 is a neurotrophin receptor variably expressed in melanoma. Although contradictory data are reported on its role as a marker of tumor-initiating cells, little is known about its function in tumor progression. CD271 expression was higher in spheroids derived from freshly isolated cells of primary melanomas and in primary WM115 and WM793-B cell lines, and it decreased during progression to advanced stages in cells isolated from metastatic melanomas and in metastatic WM266-4 and 1205Lu cell lines. Moreover, CD271 was scarcely detected in the highly invasive spheroids (SKMEL28 and 1205Lu)...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Samantha E Boyle, Clare G Fedele, Vincent Corbin, Elisha Wybacz, Pacman Szeto, Jeremy Lewin, Richard J Young, Annie Wong, Robert Fuller, John Spillane, David Speakman, Simon Donahoe, Miklos Pohl, David Gyorki, Michael A Henderson, Ricky W Johnstone, Anthony T Papenfuss, Mark Shackleton
The stability of markers that identify cancer cells that propagate disease is important to the outcomes of targeted therapy strategies. In human melanoma, conflicting data exist as to whether hierarchical expression of CD271/p75/NGFR (nerve growth factor receptor) marks cells with enriched tumorigenicity, which would compel their specific targeting in therapy. To test whether these discrepancies relate to differences among groups in assay approaches, we undertook side-by-side testing of published methods of patient-derived melanoma xenografting (PDX), including comparisons of tissue digestion procedures or coinjected Matrigel formulations...
July 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Xiang Zhou, Qian Hao, Peng Liao, Shiwen Luo, Minhong Zhang, Guohui Hu, Hongbing Liu, Yiwei Zhang, Bo Cao, Melody Baddoo, Erik K Flemington, Shelya X Zeng, Hua Lu
Cancer develops and progresses often by inactivating p53. Here, we unveil nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR, p75NTR or CD271) as a novel p53 inactivator. p53 activates NGFR transcription, whereas NGFR inactivates p53 by promoting its MDM2-mediated ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and by directly binding to its central DNA binding domain and preventing its DNA-binding activity. Inversely, NGFR ablation activates p53, consequently inducing apoptosis, attenuating survival, and reducing clonogenic capability of cancer cells, as well as sensitizing human cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents that induce p53 and suppressing mouse xenograft tumor growth...
2016: ELife
Hongzhe Li, Roshanak Ghazanfari, Dimitra Zacharaki, Hooi Ching Lim, Stefan Scheding
Bone marrow (BM) contains a rare population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which have been characterized as nonhematopoietic skeletal progenitor cells with central importance for the hematopoietic microenvironment. Classically, MSCs are isolated by plastic adherence and subsequent culture. However, as cultured stromal cells differ from their in vivo progenitors, it is important to identify the phenotype of the primary MSCs to study these cells in more detail. In the past years, several surface markers have been reported to be suitable for effective enrichment of BM-MSCs, and recent data indicate that the putative MSC stem/progenitor cell population in human adult BM is highly enriched in Lin(-) CD45(-) CD271(+) CD140a (PDGFRα)(low/-) cells...
April 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Z Kozovska, V Gabrisova, L Kucerova
Malignant melanoma represents a neoplasm stemming from melanocytes or the cells that develop from melanocytes. Melanocytes, pigment-producing cells, arise from the neural crest and migrate to their final destinations in the skin, uveal tract, meninges, and mucosa. Most melanocytes are found at the epidermal-dermal junction of the skin, and the vast majority of melanocytes arise from cutaneous sites. Cancerous growths develop when unrepaired DNA damage to skin cells (most often caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds) triggers mutations (genetic defects) that lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumours...
2016: Neoplasma
A Islam, A K Hansen, C Mennan, I Martinez-Zubiaurre
Many researchers world over are currently investigating the suitability of stromal cells harvested from foetal tissues for allogeneic cell transplantation therapies or for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, we have investigated the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from whole sections of human umbilical cord or mixed cord (UCSCs-MC), and compared them with cells isolated from synovial membrane (SMSCs), Hoffa's fat pad (HFPSCs) and cartilage. All MSCs were positive for surface markers including CD73, CD90, CD105, CD44, CD146 and CD166, but negative for CD11b, CD19, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR in addition to CD106 and CD271...
2016: European Cells & Materials
Caroline E Gargett, Shanti Gurung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Ariane Dimitrov, Nathalie Deshayes, Gaïanne Genty, Maryline Paris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Experimental Dermatology
K Roellecke, E L Virts, R Einholz, K Z Edson, B Altvater, C Rossig, D von Laer, K Scheckenbach, M Wagenmann, D Reinhardt, C M Kramm, A E Rettie, C Wiek, H Hanenberg
Engineering autologous or allogeneic T cells to express a suicide gene can control potential toxicity in adoptive T-cell therapies. We recently reported the development of a novel human suicide gene system that is based on an orphan human cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP4B1, and the naturally occurring alkylator prodrug 4-ipomeanol. The goal of this study was to systematically develop a clinically applicable self-inactivating lentiviral vector for efficient co-expression of CYP4B1 as an ER-located protein with two distinct types of cell surface proteins, either MACS selection genes for donor lymphocyte infusions after allogeneic stem cell transplantation or chimeric antigen receptors for retargeting primary T cells...
July 2016: Gene Therapy
Mohammad R Khan, Anil Chandrashekran, Roger K W Smith, Jayesh Dudhia
The clinical potential of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has led to the essential development of analytical tools such as antibodies against membrane-bound proteins for the immunophenotypic characterization of human and rodent cells. Such tools are frequently lacking for emerging large animal models like the sheep that have greater relevance for the study of human musculoskeletal diseases. The present study identified a set of commercial nonspecies specific monoclonal antibodies for the immunophenotypic characterization of ovine MSCs...
May 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Iman Mansour, Rania A Zayed, Fadwa Said, Lamyaa Abdel Latif
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The microenvironment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is suppressive for immune cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been recognized to play a role in helping leukemic cells to evade immunesurveillance. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are essential contributors in immunomodulation of the microenvironment as they can promote differentiation of Tregs via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the expression of IDO in bone marrow derived MSCs and to study its correlation to percentage of Tregs...
September 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
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