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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729290/choroidal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-protection-against-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-retinal-injury
#1
Zhenyang Zhao, Yuejin Liang, Yin Liu, Pei Xu, Miles J Flamme-Wiese, Deming Sun, Jiaren Sun, Robert F Mullins, Yan Chen, Jiyang Cai
γδ T cells located near the epithelial barrier are integral components of local inflammatory and innate immune responses. We have previously reported the presence of choroidal γδ T cells in a model of chronic degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The goals of the current study were to further define the functions of choroidal γδ T cells and to explore the underlying mechanisms of their action. Our data demonstrate that choroidal γδ T cells are activated by RPE injury in response to NaIO3 treatment, and that they express genes that encode immunosuppressive cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10...
July 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726766/the-alternaria-alternata-mycotoxin-alternariol-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation
#2
Shivani Grover, Christopher B Lawrence
The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been shown to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of AOH and AME to modulate innate immunity in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) were investigated. During these studies, it was discovered that AOH and to a lesser extent AME potently suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with AOH resulted in morphological changes including a detached pattern of growth as well as elongated arms...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726741/magnolol-a-natural-polyphenol-attenuates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice
#3
Ling Zhao, Hai-Tao Xiao, Huai-Xue Mu, Tao Huang, Ze-Si Lin, Linda L D Zhong, Guang-Zhi Zeng, Bao-Min Fan, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Magnolol is a lignan with anti-inflammatory activity identified in Magnolia officinalis. Ulcerative colitis (UC), one of the types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a disease that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. To investigate the effect of magnolol in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental UC model, male C57 mice were treated with 2% DSS drinking water for 5 consecutive days followed by intragastric administration with magnolol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. The results showed that magnolol significantly attenuated disease activity index, inhibited colonic shortening, reduced colonic lesions and suppressed myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity...
July 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725001/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-elicited-effects-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-alterations-in-biosynthesis-enterohepatic-circulation-and-microbial-metabolism
#4
Kelly A Fader, Rance Nault, Chen Zhang, Kazuyoshi Kumagai, Jack R Harkema, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant which elicits hepatotoxicity through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Male C57BL/6 mice orally gavaged with TCDD (0.01-30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days exhibited bile duct proliferation and pericholangitis. Mass spectrometry analysis detected a 4.6-fold increase in total hepatic bile acid levels, despite the coordinated repression of genes involved in cholesterol and primary bile acid biosynthesis including Cyp7a1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713383/the-toxicological-mechanisms-of-environmental-soot-black-carbon-and-carbon-black-focus-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-pathways
#5
REVIEW
Rituraj Niranjan, Ashwani Kumar Thakur
The environmental soot and carbon blacks (CBs) cause many diseases in humans, but their underlying mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Both are formed after the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons but differ in their constituents and percent carbon contents. For the first time, "Sir Percival Pott" described soot as a carcinogen, which was subsequently confirmed by many others. The existing data suggest three main types of diseases due to soot and CB exposures: cancer, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular dysfunctions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712079/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-gene-transitions-c-742c-t-c-1661g-a-and-idiopathic-male-infertility-a-case-control-study-with-in-silico-and-meta-analysis
#6
Younes Aftabi, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Faramarz Mehrnejad, Ensiyeh Seyedrezazadeh, Emadoddin Moudi
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is responsible for crucial events in male reproductive biology. Here, the association of the AHR transitions c.-742C>T and c.1661G>A with idiopathic male infertility was investigated in a case-control study, which is followed by a meta-analysis and a bioinformatic investigation. Blood and semen samples were obtained from a total of 135 idiopathic infertile men and 130 healthy controls. Participants were genotyped for the transitions using a PCR-RFLP method. A meta-analysis of five sets of data evaluated the association of c...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711771/toxicity-of-organic-compounds-from-unresolved-complex-mixtures-ucms-to-primary-fish-hepatocytes
#7
Karina Petersen, Maria T Hultman, Steven J Rowland, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Many environmental matrices contaminated with organic pollutants derived from crude oil or degraded petroleum contain mixtures so complex that they are typically unresolved by conventional analytical techniques such as gas chromatography. The resulting chromatographic features have become known as 'humps' or unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). These UCMs often dominate the organic contaminants of polluted environmental samples: for example, in oil sands produced water up to 150mgL(-1) of 'naphthenic acids' appear as UCMs when examined by gas chromatography as the esters...
June 29, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710019/effects-of-human-blood-levels-of-two-pah-mixtures-on-the-ahr-signalling-activation-pathway-and-cyp1a1-and-comt-target-genes-in-granulosa-non-tumor-and-granulosa-tumor-cell-lines
#8
Karolina Zajda, Anna Ptak, Agnieszka Rak, Elżbieta Fiedor, Adam Grochowalski, Tomasz Milewicz, Ewa L Gregoraszczuk
Epidemiological studies have shown a link between problems with offspring of couples living in a contaminated environment in comparison to those who live in an uncontaminated environment. We measured the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in maternal and cord blood. To explore the mechanism of the effects of PAH mixtures on nonluteinized granulosa cells (HGrC1) and granulosa tumor cells (COV434), as well as cell proliferation and apoptosis, we investigated the effect of PAH mixtures on the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) genes, as well as the expression and activity of target genes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703805/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-restores-filaggrin-expression-via-ovol1-in-atopic-dermatitis
#9
Gaku Tsuji, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Mari Kiyomatsu-Oda, Masaki Takemura, Fumitaka Ohno, Takamichi Ito, Saori Morino-Koga, Chikage Mitoma, Takeshi Nakahara, Hiroshi Uchi, Masutaka Furue
Filaggrin (FLG) mutation is a well-confirmed genetic aberration in atopic dermatitis (AD). Genome-wide association studies on AD have revealed other susceptibility genes, for example, Ovo-like 1 (OVOL1). Nonetheless, the relation between FLG and OVOL1 is unclear. Because aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR; a ligand-activated transcription factor), plays a role in FLG expression in keratinocytes, we hypothesized that AHR regulates FLG expression via OVOL1. To demonstrate this mechanism, we analyzed FLG expression in OVOL1-overexpressing or OVOL1-knockdown normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs)...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701769/perfluorooctane-sulfonate-affects-intestinal-immunity-against-bacterial-infection
#10
Caixia Suo, Zhiqin Fan, Liang Zhou, Ju Qiu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental contaminant that has been manufactured to be used as surfactants and repellents in industry. Due to long half-life for clearance and degradation, PFOS is accumulative in human body and has potential threat to human health. Previous studies have shown the development and function of immune cells can be affected by PFOS. Although PFOS has a high chance of being absorbed through the oral route, whether and how PFOS affects immune cells in the gut is unknown...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699004/a-delayed-proinflammatory-response-of-human-preadipocytes-to-pcb126-is-dependent-on-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#11
Francoise A Gourronc, Larry W Robertson, Aloysius J Klingelhutz
Inflammation in adipose tissue is recognized as a causative factor in the development of type II diabetes. Adipocyte hypertrophy as well as bacterial and environmental factors have been implicated in causing inflammation in mature adipocytes. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with the development of type II diabetes. We show here that PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, activates a robust proinflammatory state in fat cell precursors (preadipocytes)...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696214/epigenetic-regulation-by-agonist-specific-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-recruitment-of-metastatic-associated-protein-2-selectively-induces-stanniocalcin-2-expression
#12
Aditya D Joshi, Ekram Hossain, Cornelis J Elferink
The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates a plethora of target genes. Historically, the AhR has been studied as a regulator of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genes, notably cytochrome P4501A1 encoded by CYP1A1, in response to the exogenous prototypical ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). AhR activity depends on binding to the xenobiotic response element (XRE) in partnership with the AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt). Recent studies identified stanniocalcin 2 (Stc2) as a novel AhR target gene responsive to the endogenous AhR agonist, cinnabarinic acid (CA)...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695261/molecular-mechanisms-of-crude-oil-developmental-toxicity-in-fish
#13
John P Incardona
With major oil spills in Korea, the United States, and China in the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of studies characterizing the developmental toxicity of crude oil and its associated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The use of model fish species with associated tools for genetic manipulation, combined with high throughput genomics techniques in nonmodel fish species, has led to significant advances in understanding the cellular and molecular bases of functional and morphological defects arising from embryonic exposure to crude oil...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695255/biomarkers-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activity-in-gulf-killifish-fundulus-grandis-from-northern-gulf-of-mexico-marshes-following-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#14
Benjamin Dubansky, Charles D Rice, Lester F Barrois, Fernando Galvez
Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, shorelines throughout the Barataria Basin of the northern Gulf of Mexico in Louisiana were heavily oiled for months with Macondo-252 oil, potentially impacting estuarine species. The Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) has been identified as a sentinel species for the study of site-specific effects of crude oil contamination on biological function. In November and December 2010, 4-5 months after the Macondo well was plugged and new oil was no longer spilling into the Gulf waters, Gulf killifish were collected across the Barataria Basin from 14 sites with varying degrees of oiling...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695231/erratum-to-role-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-carcinogenesis-and-potential-as-an-anti-cancer-drug-target
#15
Siva Kumar Kolluri, Un-Ho Jin, Stephen Safe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694077/molecular-adaptation-to-high-pressure-in-cytochrome-p450-1a-and-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-systems-of-the-deep-sea-fish-coryphaenoides-armatus
#16
Benjamin Lemaire, Sibel I Karchner, Jared V Goldstone, David C Lamb, Jeffrey C Drazen, Jean François Rees, Mark E Hahn, John J Stegeman
Limited knowledge of the molecular evolution of deep-sea fish proteomes so far suggests that a few widespread residue substitutions in cytosolic proteins binding hydrophilic ligands contribute to resistance to the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HP). Structure-function studies with additional protein systems, including membrane bound proteins, are essential to provide a more general picture of adaptation in these extremophiles. We explored molecular features of HP adaptation in proteins binding hydrophobic ligands, either in lipid bilayers (cytochrome P450 1A - CYP1A) or in the cytosol (the aryl hydrocarbon receptor - AHR), and their partners P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), respectively...
July 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689792/functional-role-of-kynurenine-and-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-axis-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#17
Heng Wang, Danh C Do, Jinxin Liu, Baofeng Wang, Jingjing Qu, Xia Ke, Xiaoyan Luo, Ho Man Tang, Ho Lam Tang, Chengping Hu, Mark E Anderson, Zheng Liu, Peisong Gao
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is associated with mast cell-mediated inflammation and heightened oxidant stress. Kynurenine (KYN), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, can promote allergen-induced mast cell activation through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). OBJECTIVES: Determine the role of the KYN/AhR axis and oxidant stress in mast cell activation and the development of CRSwNP. METHODS: We measured expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO2), KYN, and oxidized calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (ox-CaMKII) in nasal polyps and controls...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685820/pi3k-akt-pathway-enhances-the-differentiation-of-il-27-induced-type-1-regulatory-t-cells
#18
Niken Adiba Nadya, Hiroyuki Tezuka, Toshiaki Ohteki, Satoshi Matsuda, Miyuki Azuma, Shigenori Nagai
Interleukin 27 (IL-27) has been identified as a potent cytokine in the differentiation of type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells through interactions with several key elements, including transcription factors such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor and IL-21. Autocrine production of IL-21 is known to be important for maintaining IL-10 expression by Tr1 cells. Although previous studies have shown that the PI3K-Akt axis contributes to the differentiation of helper T cell subsets, the role of the PI3K pathway on Tr1 cell differentiation remains to be elucidated...
July 6, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684599/il-23-restoration-of-th17-effector-function-is-independent-of-il-6-and-tgf-%C3%AE-in-a-mouse-model-of-alcohol-and-burn-injury
#19
Xiaoling Li, Abigail R Cannon, Adam M Hammer, Niya L Morris, Mashkoor A Choudhry
T cells play a critical role in host defense against intestinal bacteria. We have shown that ethanol combined with burn injury suppresses Peyer's patch (PP) Th17 cytokines 1 d after injury. We assessed the mechanism of suppressed Th17 effector functions. Mice were gavaged with ethanol 4 h before burn injury and euthanized 1, 3, and 7 d after injury. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), PPs, and spleen Th1 and Th17 cytokines were assessed. A significant decrease in IL-17, IL-22, IL-2, and IFN-γ were observed in all 3 lymphoid organs 1 and 3 d after injury...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683430/loading-and-removal-of-pahs-fragrance-compounds-triclosan-and-toxicity-by-composting-process-from-sewage-sludge
#20
Noriatsu Ozaki, Akihiro Nakazato, Kazuki Nakashima, Tomonori Kindaichi, Akiyoshi Ohashi
Although the production of compost from sewage sludge is well established in developed countries, the use of sludge-based compost may represent a source of pollutants. The present study assessed the levels of potentially harmful compounds in compost as well as their rates of decrease during composting. The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), three fragrance compounds (OTNE, HHCB and AHTN) and triclosan were determined in the initial sewage sludge and in compost over the span of 1year...
July 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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