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performance psychology

Pierre Maurage, Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Marine Blanco, Jean-Baptiste Trabut
BACKGROUND: Decision-making impairments have been repeatedly evaluated in severe alcohol use disorders (SAUD) using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT, capitalizing on strong theoretical background and ecological significance, allowed identifying large-scale deficits in this population and is now a standard decision-making assessment in therapeutic settings. However, the clinical usefulness of the IGT, particularly regarding its ability to predict relapse and its link with key cognitive-physiological deficits, remains to be clarified...
August 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Tam Truong Donnelly, Jassim Mohd Al Suwaidi, Awad Al-Qahtani, Nidal Asaad, Rajvir Singh
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Among cardiovascular patients, depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding how depression is conceptualized from cardiovascular patients' perspective can help with prevention, early detection, and treatment for depression. This might reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among Arab cardiovascular patients...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Alessandro Di Rienzo, Roberto Colasanti, Valentina Liverotti, Roberta Benigni, Riccardo Paracino, Gianluca Bizzocchi, Massimo Scerrati, Maurizio Iacoangeli
The early identification and optimized treatment of wound dehiscence are a complex issue, with implications on the patient's clinical and psychological postoperative recovery and on healthcare system costs. The most widely accepted treatment is surgical debridement (also called "wash out"), performed in theater under general anesthesia (GA), followed by either wide-spectrum or targeted antibiotic therapy. Although usually effective, in some cases, such a strategy may be insufficient (generally ill, aged, or immunocompromised patients; poor tissue conditions)...
August 17, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Damien C O'Neill, Niall F Davis, Timothy É Murray, Michael J Lee, Dilly Little, Martina M Morrin
OBJECTIVES: Prospective renal donors are a select population of healthy individuals who have been thoroughly screened for significant comorbidities before they undergo multidetector computed tomography. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of incidental findings on preoperative multidetector computed tomography in a healthy cohort of potential living donors for kidney transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed of prospective living kidney transplant donors at a national kidney transplant center...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Naomie Castor, Farid El Massioui
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury and stroke often lead to cognitive, neurological and psychological disorders, which can result in many difficulties. Despite the existence of various disorders, improving cognitive capacities may be possible for these two pathologies. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury and stroke and compare recovery between both groups. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Forty-nine adults who had suffered from mild to severe traumatic brain injury and 42 from stroke were assessed third with a minimum of 2 months between assessments...
August 17, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Bussara Sangsawang, Chintana Wacharasin, Nucharee Sangsawang
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major public health problem affecting 10-57% of adolescent mothers which can affect not only adolescent mothers but also their infants. Thus, there is a need for interventions to prevent PPD in adolescent mothers. However, recent systematic reviews have been focused on effective interventions to prevent PPD in adult mothers. These interventions may not necessarily be applicable for adolescent mothers. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine the effectiveness of the existing interventions to prevent PPD in adolescent mothers...
August 16, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Muriela Silva, Eduarda Pereira, Afonso Rocha, Dulce Sousa, Bruno Peixoto
Introduction: Prospective studies have shown the relation between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and neurocognitive dysfunction with prevalence ranging between 10.51% and 66.8%. The present study aims to determine the prevalence level of neurocognitive dysfunction; the relations between sociodemographic, clinical and emotional variables and neurocognitive functioning in a sample of ACS patients. Methods: The sample comprised of 53 patients engaged in cardiac rehabilitation within 3 months after an ACS. Patients with any medical history of neuropsychiatric problems prior to the ACS and illiterate subjects were not included in the study...
2018: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Elliot Klein, Elizabeth Helzner, Michelle Shayowitz, Stephan Kohlhoff, Tamar A Smith-Norowitz
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a procedure performed on women in developing countries and is underreported; it involves cutting or altering the female genitalia. The health consequences of FGM include bacterial and viral infections, obstetrical complications, and psychological problems. In this study, we report FGM societal importance, ramifications, classifications, cultural significance, prevalence, complications, implications, and treatment. Although efforts have been made to eradicate FGM, the dynamics that perpetuate the practice have societal roots...
2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Tamay Sertçelik, Fatoş Alkan, Şermin Yalın Sapmaz, Şenol Coşkun, Erhan Eser
Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effects of the severity and symptoms of congenital heart disease and the emotional and behavioral problems of affected children on their quality of life. Material and Methods: The study was performed by interviewing 80 children aged between 6 and 16 years (40 with cyanotic heart disease and 40 with acyanotic disease) and their mothers. A sociodemographic data form, quality of life questionnaire, strength and difficulties questionnaire, and family life and parenting attitudes scale were used in the research...
June 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
J O'Flynn, T G Dinan, J R Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Stress is an event that threatens homoeostasis and thus causes physiological and behavioural responses to reinstate equilibrium. Excessive and/or chronic stress can be psychologically and physiologically detrimental. Examinations can represent a significant source of stress for students. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the core endocrine stress system. Investigations into the HPA response to examinations have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to further explore the relationship between examination stress, HPA axis activity, mood, sleep and exercise in students undergoing a naturalistic examination period stressor...
March 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Donald S Christensen, Ronald E Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the extent to which individual differences in psychological coping resources are related to athletic performance; whether they can attenuate the amount of performance variance accounted for by physical/technical skills; and whether coping resources remain significant predictors of performance when physical/technical skill level is statistically controlled. METHODS: Twenty college golf coaches rated the physical/technical skills of 189 men and women varsity golfers on their teams...
August 16, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Daniel Bratzke, Donna Bryce
Previous studies have provided evidence that introspection about dual-task performance in the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is severely limited. The present study investigated introspection at the other pole of the multitasking continuum, namely task switching. In 2 experiments, participants provided estimates of their response times (i.e., introspective RTs) after each trial in modified versions of the alternating-runs and the task-cuing paradigm, which included only 2 tasks in a trial. In contrast to the previously observed unawareness of dual-task costs in the PRP paradigm, participants reported their switch costs in introspective RTs...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Charleen R Case, Katherine K Bae, Jon K Maner
Leaders often are faced with making difficult decisions for their group, such as when a course of action preferred by group members conflicts with one that is likely to optimize group success. Across 5 experiments ( N = 1110), we provide evidence that a psychological orientation toward prestige (but not dominance) causes leaders to adhere publicly to group members' desires at the expense of group task outcomes-to prioritize popularity over performance. Experiments 1-3 demonstrated that, in private, prestige-oriented leaders chose what they saw as best for group performance but that, in public, they chose whichever option was preferred by members of their group...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Obrey Alexis, Aaron James Worsley
Studies suggest that gay and bisexual men are affected by the psychological aspects of prostate cancer treatment differently than that of heterosexual men; however the data have not yet been synthesized. The focus of this meta-synthesis is to explore gay and bisexual men's experiences of prostate cancer posttreatment. Empirical research published in peer reviewed journals between January 1990 and January 2018 were identified in six databases: CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts were checked by two reviewers...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Gayatri Palat, Caroline Stenlander, Jean Jacob, Sudha Sinha, Vineela Rapelli, Thomas Wiebe, Eva Brun, Mikael Segerlantz
Aim: This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance of 3-4, in contact with or without contact, with a specialized palliative care unit (PCU) at a low-resource governmental cancer hospital, as well as studying the impact of this contact on the QoL in their caregivers. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized patients with an ECOG performance of 3 or 4 and their primary caregiver were asked to participate in this observational study...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
David Fernández-Ayuso, Rosa Fernández-Ayuso, Cristino Del-Campo-Cazallas, José Luis Pérez-Olmo, Borja Matías-Pompa, Josué Fernández-Carnero, Cesar Calvo-Lobo
BACKGROUND: High-fidelity simulation represents a primary tool in nursing education, especially when hands-on practical training is involved. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the influence of high-fidelity clinical simulation, applied during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training, on blood pressure, heart rate, stress, and anxiety levels in 2 groups of nursing students. One group had experience in health contexts, whereas the other group had none. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental study...
August 15, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Su-Lan Lin, Dan Wang, Ya-Jing Xian, Jing Yang, Ping-Ping Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of social anxiety and depression among the fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Urumqi, China, and to provide data support for mental health education for primary school students in the future. METHODS: Stratified cluster random sampling was performed to select 919 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students from four primary schools for the Han and minority ethnic groups in Urumqi as research subjects. Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Children's Depression Inventory were used to evaluate the current status of social anxiety and depression...
August 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Marie Mandai, Misato Kaso, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Takeo Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Loneliness in mothers raising children can adversely impact the health of their children and lead to child abuse, depression, and deterioration of mothers' health. Few studies to date have specifically assessed the association between loneliness and social factors, including the use of social network sites (SNSs), and personal factors. This study aimed to identify predictors of loneliness in mothers raising children, with special reference to SNS use. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved an anonymous self-reported questionnaire survey of mothers participating in the health check-ups for their children in Nagahama City, Japan, from July 28 to September 29, 2014...
August 16, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Hisato Toriyama, Junichi Ushiba, Junichi Ushiyama
In the field of psychology, it has been well established that there are two types of motor imagery such as kinesthetic motor imagery (KMI) and visual motor imagery (VMI), and the subjective evaluation for vividness of motor imagery each differs across individuals. This study aimed to examine how the motor imagery ability assessed by the psychological scores is associated with the physiological measure using electroencephalogram (EEG) sensorimotor rhythm during KMI task. First, 20 healthy young individuals evaluated subjectively how vividly they can perform each of KMI and VMI by using the Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Zhenlang Guo, Shu Gan, Yuan Li, Chiming Gu, Songtao Xiang, Jianfu Zhou, Leiliang Gong, Franky Leung Chan, Shusheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a contributory psychological stress that causes excess risk of suicide among affected men remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of previous studies to investigate suicide incidence and associated risk factors among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before April 2018. The inverse variance method with random-effects modeling was used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
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