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performance psychology

Lorenzo Domenichini, Valentina Branzi, Martina Smorti
Road traffic injuries represent a serious public health problem and are one of leading cause of death, injury and disability around the world. Road accidents are often caused by an accumulation of factors; however, drivers appear to be by far the most decisive one. The driver's behaviour is complex and depends on reflex (or involuntary) and voluntary driving actions. The first class of actions (reflex actions) are typical human reactions that remain inaccessible to awareness and refer to the direct interaction between the road user and the characteristics of the road and its surrounding environment...
December 11, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Raymond Javan Chan, Louisa G Gordon, Chia Jie Tan, Alexandre Chan, Natalie K Bradford, Patsy Yates, Oluwaseyifunmi Andi Agbejule, Christine Miaskowski
CONTEXT: Financial toxicity (FT) is used to describe the financial distress/hardship associated with cancer and its treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between FT and symptom burden. METHOD: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from January 2000 to January 2018) and accepted quantitative, mixed-methods and qualitative studies...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Margherita Malanchini, Laura E Engelhardt, Andrew D Grotzinger, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Self-regulation describes the ability to control both behaviors and internal states against a backdrop of conflicting or distracting situations, drives, or impulses. In the cognitive psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are commonly measured with performance-based tests of executive functioning, whereas in the personality psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are typically assessed with report-based measures of impulse control, sustained motivation, and perseverance...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Athanasia Skriapa Manta, Monica Olsson, Ulla Ek, Ronny Wickström, Kristina Teär Fahnehjelm
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to report prevalence, ocular outcome, neurological characteristics, cognitive and behavioural problems in children with optic disc coloboma (ODC). METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 31 children between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with ODC. The children were part of a larger cohort of 184 children with congenital optic disc malformations. Clinical ophthalmological examinations, neurological assessments, behavioural and developmental screening were performed...
December 13, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Melissa Oliver, Tzielan C Lee, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, Elizabeth Murray, Rebecca Schwartz, Yongdong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is an autoinflammatory bone disorder that if left untreated can result in bone destruction and severe continuing pain due to persistent inflammation. The impact this chronic disease has on the daily lives of affected children and their families is not well known. The purpose of this study is to understand the disease burden and socioeconomic and psychological impact of CNO from the patients' and families' perspectives and identify areas of improvement for patient care and reduced disease burden based on patients' and families' responses...
December 14, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Chao Zhang, Wenhao Zhang, Jie Zhang, Yingli Jing, Mingliang Yang, Liangjie Du, Feng Gao, Huiming Gong, Liang Chen, Jun Li, Hongwei Liu, Chuan Qin, Yanmei Jia, Jiali Qiao, Bo Wei, Yan Yu, Hongjun Zhou, Zhizhong Liu, Degang Yang, Jianjun Li
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is a major physical and psychological problem in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), and gut dysbiosis is commonly occurs in SCI. Here, we document neurogenic bowel management of male patients with chronic traumatic complete SCI in our centre and perform comparative analysis of the gut microbiota between our patients and healthy males. METHODS: A total of 43 male patients with chronic traumatic complete SCI (20 with quadriplegia and 23 with paraplegia) and 23 healthy male adults were enrolled...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Samantha K Brooks, G James Rubin, Neil Greenberg
Background: Many people who experience a disaster will do so as part of an occupational group, either by chance or due to the nature of their role. Sources of data: This review is based on literature published in scientific journals. Areas of agreement: There are many social and occupational factors, which affect post-disaster mental health. In particular, effective social support-both during and post-disaster-appears to enhance psychological resilience...
December 13, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Tony Reyhanloo, Stefan Baumgärtner, Matthias Haeni, Simone Quatrini, Philippe Saner, Eike von Lindern
Private-sector investors could be key players in combatting global land degradation and realising the emerging concept of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN). To better understand how to incentivize private-sector investors for LDN, we conducted an online-survey of 68 private-sector investors. Structural equation modelling based on the theory of planned behavior was performed to investigate how cognitive, social, emotional, motivational and financial determinants influence their intention and motivation to invest in LDN...
2018: PloS One
Haoran Zheng, Yaqin Qin, Fengxiang Guo, Jian Xiong, Biao Xu, Yao Chen
OBJECTIVE: Speed and reaction time have an important influence on traffic safety. The highway landscape can affect psychological and physiological characteristics, which are associated with the speed and reaction time of drivers. This study aimed to understand the association between the highway landscape and driving speed and reaction time. METHODS: Two simulation experiments were conducted, referred to as experiment 1 and experiment 2. Forty-four drivers were recruited to participate in the experiments...
December 13, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Zhengguo Gu, Katrijn Van Deun
This article introduces a package developed for R (R Core Team, 2017) for performing an integrated analysis of multiple data blocks (i.e., linked data) coming from different sources. The methods in this package combine simultaneous component analysis (SCA) with structured selection of variables. The key feature of this package is that it allows to (1) identify joint variation that is shared across all the data sources and specific variation that is associated with one or a few of the data sources and (2) flexibly estimate component matrices with predefined structures...
December 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Anthony G Vaccaro, Stephen M Fleming
Metacognition supports reflection upon and control of other cognitive processes. Despite metacognition occupying a central role in human psychology, its neural substrates remain underdetermined, partly due to study-specific differences in task domain and type of metacognitive judgement under study. It is also unclear how metacognition relates to other apparently similar abilities that depend on recursive thought such as theory of mind or mentalising. Now that neuroimaging studies of metacognition are more prevalent, we have an opportunity to characterise consistencies in neural substrates identified across different analysis types and domains...
2018: Brain and Neuroscience Advances
Akihiko Ozaki, Sayaka Horiuchi, Yasuma Kobayashi, Mariko Inoue, Jun Aida, Claire Leppold, Kazue Yamaoka
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of social capital on mental health among the Japanese population with or without natural disaster experience. A nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in the population aged 15 to 79 years old. We collected data on psychological status, social capital, disaster experience in ten years prior to the survey, and socio-demographic information. We assessed cognitive social capital (perceptions of support, reciprocity and trust), social support (support from individuals in the community), and social participation (participation in social activities) as components of social capital...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Qaiser Suleman, Ishtiaq Hussain, Saqib Shehzad, Makhdoom Ali Syed, Sadaf Ayub Raja
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived occupational stress and psychological well-being among secondary school heads in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 402 secondary school heads (male n = 260, female n = 142) was selected through multistage sampling technique. A descriptive, quantitative and correlative research design was used. For gathering information from the participants, two standardized tools i.e., "Occupational Stress Index (OSI)" and "Ryff's Psychological Wellbeing Scale (RPWB)" were used for measuring perceived occupational stress and psychological well-being respectively...
2018: PloS One
Grey Y Ceballos, Cristiane S Paula, Edith L Ribeiro, Darci N Santos
OBJECTIVE: To describe the service use profile of Child and Adolescent Psychosocial Care Centers (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infanto-Juvenil [CAPSi]) in Brazil regarding diagnostic categories, sociodemographic aspects, and care modalities between 2008 and 2012. METHODS: A descriptive, ecological study was performed using data from the Unified Health System regarding high-complexity procedure authorizations (Autorização de Procedimentos de Alta Complexidade [APAC]) for the period from 2008-2012...
December 6, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Lindsay C Peters, Rachel H Thompson
Behavior-analytic practitioners working with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be approached to incorporate perspective taking into a client's programming. Teaching perspective taking to individuals with ASDs has received attention in both the developmental psychology and, more recently, the behavior-analytic literature. The results of our review of the current evidence suggest that although perspective-taking repertoires believed to be related to social skills can be taught (false belief task performance, deictic frames), only directly teaching the social skills of interest (or applied perspective-taking skills) results in improvements in socially important behavior...
December 31, 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Lourdes Biedma-Velázquez, María Isabel García-Rodríguez, Rafael Serrano-Del-Rosal
Background: Pain is a perception conditioned both by the painful experience and by each society's collective imagination. The general objective of the project which this work forms part of it was to discover what citizens think about different aspects of this complex experience. More precisely, this paper's objective is to get to know which is the worst pain that can be suffered according to Spaniards and what determines that hierarchy, bearing in mind that this work has chosen a broad definition of pain, including pains of different origins, namely, physical, psychological, and emotional pain...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Pengfei Cao, Jun Xing, Yin Cao, Qi Cheng, Xiaojing Sun, Qi Kang, Libin Dai, Xianju Zhou, Zixiang Song
Objective: To explore the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with atomoxetine (ATX) in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Sixty-four patients with newly diagnosed ADHD were enrolled from January 2016 to October 2017 from Psychological Centre for Adolescents and Children at 102th Hospital of People's Liberation Army of China. These patients were randomly assigned to three groups according to treatment method: the rTMS group, the ATX group, and the rTMS+ ATX group...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Sławomir Tobis, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis, Dorota Talarska, Mariola Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra Suwalska
Introduction: No comprehensive needs assessment is performed routinely in Poland. Purpose: The goal of the study was to investigate the patterns of needs in older individuals living in long-term care institutions (LTCIs) using the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) questionnaire, based on a previously published study protocol. Participants and methods: The study included 306 LTCI residents (age: ≥75 years) with the a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of at least 10 points...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Wei-Jie Guan, Jing-Jing Yuan, Hui-Min Li, Yan Huang, Chun-Lan Chen, Yong-Hua Gao, Rong-Chang Chen, Nan-Shan Zhong
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic debilitating suppurative disease that significantly impacts quality of life. Clinical outcomes like exacerbations, are usually physician centered; however, the patients' experience, health-related behaviors, and expectations have frequently been neglected. In addition, patients' health perceptions may be influenced by their culture. OBJECTIVE: To determine the health perception and behavior in adults with bronchiectasis. METHODS: We performed semi-directive interviews, which were audiotaped, with 60 adults with bronchiectasis between April 2016 and December 2016...
December 11, 2018: Respiratory Care
Chih-Chin Hsieh, Pay-Shin Lin, Wen-Chuin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang, Yu-Chen Huang, Ai-Yin Lim, Ya-Chuan Hsu
BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC) is a Chinese mind-body exercise with proven physical and psychological benefits. A modified TC via virtual reality (VR) may be suitable for the elderly owing to the immediate guidance and feedback regarding movement accuracy. This study explored the cognitive and physical effects of a VR-based TC (VRTC) exercise program on older adults with cognitive impairment (CI). METHODS: Sixty older adults with CI were cluster-assigned to either the VRTC or the control group; the intervention was conducted twice weekly for 6 months...
December 11, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
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