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performance psychology

Sharon R Lewis, Michael W Pritchard, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, David Jw Evans, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: During intensive care unit (ICU) admission, patients and their carers experience physical and psychological stressors that may result in psychological conditions including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Improving communication between healthcare professionals, patients, and their carers may alleviate these disorders. Communication may include information or educational interventions, in different formats, aiming to improve knowledge of the prognosis, treatment, or anticipated challenges after ICU discharge...
October 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Graham Staunton, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based neurofeedback represents the latest applied behavioural neuroscience methodology developed to train participants in the self-regulation of brain regions or networks. However, as with previous biofeedback approaches which rely on electroencephalography (EEG) or related approaches such as brain-machine interface technology (BCI), individual success rates vary significantly, and some participants never learn to control their brain responses at all. Given that these approaches are often being developed for eventual use in a clinical setting (albeit there is also significant interest in using NF for neuro-enhancement in typical populations), this represents a significant hurdle which requires more research...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
A Vinciguerra, C Réveillère, C Potard, B Lyant, L Cornu, R Courtois
INTRODUCTION: Preventing students from dropping out of higher education, and particularly university, requires understanding the different factors that can lead to individuals failing to complete their studies. The role of personality in academic success or failure remains poorly understood. Block's personality profile model (Resilients, Overcontrollers, Undercontrollers) has been used to link personality traits to academic performance. The objective of this study is to apply this model to the risk factors of dropping out of higher education courses, including psychological vulnerability, level of autonomy, and the feeling of not being able to keep up...
October 9, 2018: L'Encéphale
Marcin Rzeszutek, Ewa Gruszczyńska
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to analyse, synthesise and review existing results on posttraumatic growth (PTG) among PLWH. In particular, we investigated the relationship of PTG with sociodemographic, HIV-related clinical variables, positive and negative psychological correlates as well as HIV-related social issues among PLWH. METHOD: A literature search was performed on Web of Science, PsyARTICLES, MedLine, Proquest and Scopus databases using appropriate descriptors for positive changes among PLWH...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Yolanda Andreu Vaillo, Sergio Murgui Pérez, Paula Martínez López, Rocío Romero Retes
OBJECTIVE: The Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MiniMAC) is widely used to evaluate cancer patients' psychological responses to diagnosis and treatment. Validation studies of the scale have shown inconsistency in the obtained factor structures. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure, using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and other psychometric properties of the MiniMAC in Spanish breast cancer patients. METHODS: A sample of 368 women with breast cancer completed the MiniMAC and the 18 items version of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18)...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Livia de Freitas Keppeke, Juliana Molina, Vanessa Bugni Miotto E Silva, Maria Teresa de Sande E Lemos Ramos Ascensão Terreri, Gerson Dierley Keppeke, Teresa Helena Schoen, Claudio Arnaldo Len
BACKGROUND: Adherence to treatment for chronic diseases is lower in children than in adults, less extensively studied in children and is associated with multiple related factors. The aim of this study is to perform a descriptive analysis of psycho-cognitive aspects of primary caregivers of pediatric patients with chronic rheumatic diseases, as well as socioeconomic and clinical factors, family functioning and treatment satisfaction. METHODS: Primary caregivers of 90 patients were included...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Huan Wang, Yingjie Geng, Weijian Zheng, Weiping Fang, Erwei Gu, Xuesheng Liu, Wenzhi Li
BACKGROUND: During regional anesthesia, including combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA), patients may develop a perceptual alteration of limb position known as phantom limb syndrome (PLS). We aimed to identify factors that influence the PLS onset, to explore whether PLS predisposes to other postoperative symptoms, and to document the relationship between PLS and sensorimotor impairment during recovery. METHODS: Psychological questionnaires for anxiety and depression were completed beforehand, then multimodal tests of sensory and motor function, especially tests of proprioception, were performed regularly afterward...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katrin Hulme, Reza Safari, Sarah Thomas, Tom Mercer, Claire White, Marietta Van der Linden, Rona Moss-Morris
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is prominent across many long term physical health conditions. This scoping review aimed to map the fatigue intervention literature, to ascertain if certain interventions may be effective across conditions, and if novel interventions tested in specific long term conditions may be promising for other conditions. METHODS: Scoping review methodological frameworks were used. Electronic bibliographic databases were searched (inception to November 2016) for systematic reviews of fatigue interventions in long term conditions...
2018: PloS One
Mei-Zhen Yuan, Qin Fang, Guang-Wei Liu, Min Zhou, Jian-Mei Wu, Chun-Yun Pu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of depression is very common among patients with post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and leads to adverse outcomes. AIMS: The aim of this meta-analysis was to detect risk factors for depression among patients with ACS and to provide clinical evidence for its prevention. METHODS: The authors followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline to search the PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and EBSCO databases from January 1996 to March 2018...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Hae Won Kim, Jee In Kang, Suk Kyoon An, Se Joo Kim
AIMS: A growing body of literature has indicated that oxytocin is associated with several domains of social cognition and behavior. Nevertheless, the effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms on social phenotypes remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the genetic influence of OXTR variants on social cognition (social perception and theory of mind) and resilience in healthy individuals. METHODS: We examined the influence of 10 common OXTR variants on social cognitive abilities, including facial emotion recognition and theory of mind, and trait resilience in 264 unrelated, healthy participants...
October 11, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Takuya Fukushima, Jiro Nakano, Shun Ishii, Ayumi Natsuzako, Junya Sakamoto, Minoru Okita
This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise therapy (LIET) on the physical and mental symptoms and functions in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. Forty-four patients hospitalised for chemotherapy performed LIET. The exercise intensity of LIET was defined as achieving <40% of the predicted maximum heart rate calculated using the Karvonen formula. LIET consisted of aerobic and resistance training, which was carried out on weekdays. The intervention was omitted in the case of poor general health status and strong patient refusal...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
T Tarhan, A Meurer, O Tarhan
OBJECTIVE: Description of a novel technique to surgically correct (asymmetric) pectus carinatum and other chest deformities using a metal bar without fixation to the ribs. INDICATIONS: Severe thoracic deformity, extensive psychological strain, social isolation, pain and respiratory complaints. Pseudarthrosis or insufficient correction of a thoracic deformity after prior surgery. Distinctive deformities. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Acute infections...
October 11, 2018: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Anne Wissendorff Ekdahl, Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Katarina Steen Carlsson
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a multidimensional, interdisciplinary diagnostic process used to determine the medical, psychological and functional capabilities of frail older people. The primary aim of our current study is to confirm whether CGA-based outpatient care is superior than usual care in terms of health-related outcomes, resource use and costs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Geriatric Mobile Team trial is designed as a single-centre randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded (at baseline) trial...
October 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Masanori Nagamine, Jun Shigemura, Toshimichi Fujiwara, Fumiko Waki, Masaaki Tanichi, Taku Saito, Hiroyuki Toda, Aihide Yoshino, Kunio Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Disaster workers suffer from psychological distress not only through the direct experience of traumatic situations but also through the indirect process of aiding disaster victims. This distress, called secondary traumatic stress, is linked to dispositional empathy, which is the tendency for individuals to imagine and experience the feelings and experiences of others. However, the association between secondary traumatic stress and dispositional empathy remains understudied...
October 11, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Kevin Lloyd, Peter Dayan
In active avoidance tasks, subjects have to learn to execute particular actions in order to avoid an aversive stimulus, such as a shock. Such paradigms pose a number of psychological and neural enigmas, and so have attracted substantial computational interest. However, the ratio of conjecture to confirmation remains high. Here, we perform a theoretical inquiry into a recent experiment by Gentry, Lee, and Roesch ('Phasic dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens predicts approach and avoidance performance', Nat...
October 8, 2018: Brain Research
Morris Gordon, Elena Biagioli, Miriam Sorrenti, Carla Lingua, Lorenzo Moja, Shel Sc Banks, Simone Ceratto, Francesco Savino
BACKGROUND: Infantile colic is typically defined as full-force crying for at least three hours per day, on at least three days per week, for at least three weeks. This condition appears to be more frequent in the first six weeks of life (prevalence range of 17% to 25%), depending on the specific location reported and definitions used, and it usually resolves by three months of age. The aetiopathogenesis of infantile colic is unclear but most likely multifactorial. A number of psychological, behavioural and biological components (food hypersensitivity, allergy or both; gut microflora and dysmotility) are thought to contribute to its manifestation...
October 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Seth Frey, Karsten Donnay, Dirk Helbing, Robert W Sumner, Maarten W Bos
Even though human behavior is largely driven by real-time feedback from others, this social complexity is underrepresented in psychological theory, largely because it is so difficult to isolate. In this work, we performed a quasi-experimental analysis of hundreds of millions of chat room messages between young people. This allowed us to reconstruct how-and on what timeline-the valence of one message affects the valence of subsequent messages by others. For the highly emotionally valenced chat messages that we focused on, we found that these messages elicited a general increase of 0...
October 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
João Brito, George P Nassis, André T Seabra, Pedro Figueiredo
Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive mapping analysis to the scientific literature published in football aiming to identify the areas of bigger interest and potential for further exploration. Methods: The data were obtained by a search conducted on the Web of Science. Articles were listed based on citation frequency. We used an open-source bibliometrix R-package for the comprehensive bibliometric analyses. Results: The number of citations per article ranged from 251 to 869 (median 323; IQR 125)...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Charlotte L Edwardson, Tom Yates, Stuart J H Biddle, Melanie J Davies, David W Dunstan, Dale W Esliger, Laura J Gray, Benjamin Jackson, Sophie E O'Connell, Ghazala Waheed, Fehmidah Munir
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a multicomponent intervention (Stand More AT (SMArT) Work) designed to reduce sitting time on short (three months), medium (six months), and longer term (12 months) changes in occupational, daily, and prolonged sitting, standing, and physical activity, and physical, psychological, and work related health. DESIGN: Cluster two arm randomised controlled trial. SETTING: National Health Service trust, England...
October 10, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Fran Calvo, Xavier Carbonell
BACKGROUND: Web-based social networks are a powerful communicative element and their use is increasingly widespread. Persons living in extreme social exclusion such as individuals experiencing homelessness can benefit from the positive elements of communication and relationship associated with social networking sites. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to suggest the comparison of a Facebook training course and an office software course and their effect on psychological well-being in a group of individuals experiencing homelessness...
October 10, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
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