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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321909/applications-of-bayesian-statistical-methodology-to-clinical-trial-design-a-case-study-of-a-phase-2-trial-with-an-interim-futility-assessment-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#1
Claire L Smith, Yan Jin, Eyas Raddad, Terry A McNearney, Xiao Ni, David Monteith, Roger Brown, Mark A Deeg, Thomas Schnitzer
Development of new pharmacological treatments for osteoarthritis that address unmet medical needs in a competitive market place is challenging. Bayesian approaches to trial design offer advantages in defining treatment benefits by addressing clinically relevant magnitude of effects relative to comparators and in optimizing efficiency in analysis. Such advantages are illustrated by a motivating case study, a proof of concept, and dose finding study in patients with osteoarthritis. Patients with osteoarthritis were randomized to receive placebo, celecoxib, or 1 of 4 doses of galcanezumab...
October 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321817/anti-cancer-drug-response-prediction-using-neighbor-based-collaborative-filtering-with-global-effect-removal
#2
Hui Liu, Yan Zhao, Lin Zhang, Xing Chen
Patients of the same cancer may differ in their responses to a specific medical therapy. Identification of predictive molecular features for drug sensitivity holds the key in the era of precision medicine. Human cell lines have harbored most of the same genetic changes found in patients' tumors and thus are widely used in the research of drug response. In this work, we formulated drug-response prediction as a recommender system problem and then adopted a neighbor-based collaborative filtering with global effect removal (NCFGER) method to estimate anti-cancer drug responses of cell lines by integrating cell-line similarity networks and drug similarity networks based on the fact that similar cell lines and similar drugs exhibit similar responses...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321580/usefulness-of-dermoscopy-dermatoscopy-to-improve-the-clinical-and-histopathologic-diagnosis-of-skin-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Oriol Yélamos, Ralph P Braun, Konstantinos Liopyris, Zachary J Wolner, Katrin Kerl, Pedram Gerami, Ashfaq A Marghoob
Multiple studies have shown that dermoscopy increases the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of skin cancers compared to naked-eye examination. Dermoscopy can also lead to the detection of thinner and smaller cancers. Furthermore, dermoscopy leads to more precise selection of lesions requiring excision. In essence, dermoscopy helps clinicians differentiate benign from malignant lesions through the presence or absence of specific dermoscopic structures. Therefore, since most dermoscopic structures have direct histopathologic correlates, dermoscopy can allow the prediction of certain histologic findings present in skin cancers, thus helping select management and treatment options for select types of skin cancers...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320036/applications-of-inertial-navigation-systems-in-medical-engineering
#4
S V Ghasemzade, F Jamshidi
Inertial navigation systems are of the most important and practical systems in determining the velocity, position and attitude of the vehicles and different equipment. In these systems, three accelerometers and three gyroscopes are used to measure linear accelerations and angular velocities of vehicles, respectively. By using the output of these sensors and special inertial algorithms in different frames, parameters of vehicle such as position, velocity and attitude can be calculated. These systems are used in medical equipment including, but not limited to MRI devices, intelligent patient beds, surgical robots and angiography equipment...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320027/the-influence-of-brass-compensator-thickness-and-field-size-on-neutron-contamination-spectrum-in-18mv-elekta-sl-75-25-medical-linear-accelerator-with-and-without-flattening-filter-a-monte-carlo-study
#5
A S Talebi, M Maleki, P Hejazi, M Jadidi, R Ghorbani
Background: One of the most significant Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy treatment benefits is a high target to normal tissue dose ratio. To improve this advantage, an additional accessory such as a compensator is used to deliver doses. Compensator-based IMRT treatment is usually operated with an energy higher than 10 MV. Photoneutrons, which have high linear energy transfer and radiobiological effectiveness, are produced by colliding high-energy photon beams with linear accelerator structures, then they deliver the unwanted doses to patients and staff...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317820/-ion-chromatography-method-of-four-carboxylic-acids-in-workplace-air
#6
Q F Xiao, Y Y Lu, C M Meng, W H Qin
Objective: To assess psychological acceptance and occupational stress of medical staff, analyze the relationship among personality, psychological acceptance and occupational stress and discuss the direct or indirect effects of personality to occupational stress. Methods: The gaseous four kinds of carboxylic acids in the workplace air were simultaneously collected by silica gel tube, and then desorbed by deionized water and eluted by ion chromatograph. The the content was detected by conductivity detector. Results: The linear relationship was good in the concentration range of about 0~140 mg/L...
August 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316393/the-risk-factors-of-mtori-associated-posttransplant-proteinuria
#7
L M Lim, L-F Kung, M-C Kuo, H-T Kuo
Treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) has been associated with an increased incidence of proteinuria after kidney transplantation as compared to other immunosuppressive agents. Proteinuria after mTORi use may occur in different clinical conditions and the precise mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the related risk factors for proteinuria after mTORi treatment in kidney transplant recipients. This retrospective observational study population consisted of kidney transplant recipients followed up in a medical center in Southern Taiwan from January 1999 to April 2016...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315787/fetal-growth-and-risk-assessment-is-there-an-impasse
#8
Jason Gardosi
Fetal growth restriction is an indicator of placental insufficiency and is strongly associated with adverse perinatal outcome. There is a point that the recent dominance in the medical literature about which reference charts to use and dichotomization of fetal size at the 10th percentile overlooks the fact there is not a single cut-off in any growth chart that acts as an absolute divider between high and low risk for adverse outcome. Thus, the collective goal of all researchers to identify, monitor and effectively manage growth-restricted fetuses is better served by replacing dichotomisation of normal versus abnormal fetal growth at the 10th percentile by interpretation of fetal size in context with other known parameters of fetal risk - all as continuous parameters...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315784/fetal-growth-and-risk-assessment-is-there-an-impasse
#9
Wessel Ganzevoort, Baskaran Thilaganathan, Ahmet Baschat, Sanne Gordijn
Fetal growth restriction is an indicator of placental insufficiency and is strongly associated with adverse perinatal outcome. There is a point that the recent dominance in the medical literature about which reference charts to use and dichotomization of fetal size at the 10th percentile overlooks the fact there is not a single cut-off in any growth chart that acts as an absolute divider between high and low risk for adverse outcome. Thus, the collective goal of all researchers to identify, monitor and effectively manage growth-restricted fetuses is better served by replacing dichotomisation of normal versus abnormal fetal growth at the 10th percentile by interpretation of fetal size in context with other known parameters of fetal risk - all as continuous parameters...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315368/generative-adversarial-network-for-medical-images-mi-gan
#10
Talha Iqbal, Hazrat Ali
Deep learning algorithms produces state-of-the-art results for different machine learning and computer vision tasks. To perform well on a given task, these algorithms require large dataset for training. However, deep learning algorithms lack generalization and suffer from over-fitting whenever trained on small dataset, especially when one is dealing with medical images. For supervised image analysis in medical imaging, having image data along with their corresponding annotated ground-truths is costly as well as time consuming since annotations of the data is done by medical experts manually...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311742/heart-rate-variability-as-a-biomarker-of-anxious-depression-response-to-antidepressant-medication
#11
Katharina Kircanski, Leanne M Williams, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify biomarkers of treatment outcomes for major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be disseminated. We investigated the predictive utility of pretreatment heart rate variability (HRV) for outcomes of antidepressant medication in MDD, with pretreatment anxious depression as a hypothesized moderator of HRV effects. METHODS: A large, randomized, multicenter practical trial (International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression) in patients with current nonpsychotic MDD (N = 1,008; 722 completers) had three arms: escitalopram, sertraline, and venlafaxine-extended release...
October 12, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310874/behaviors-and-risks-for-cardiovascular-disease-among-muslim-women-in-the-united-states
#12
Henna Budhwani, Seth Borgstede, Aarin L Palomares, Roman B Johnson, Kristine R Hearld
Purpose: This study examines statistical associates of cardiovascular disease risk factors, as defined by the American Heart Association's Life's Simple Seven, among Muslim women who reside in the United States. Methods: Data collected nationally through the 2015 Muslim Women's Health project were analyzed ( N =373). Logistic regression models estimated associations between sample characteristics and diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, cholesterol, and weight. Results: Over half of respondents reported exercising regularly (64%) and maintaining a healthy diet (85%); 20% consumed alcohol...
2018: Health Equity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310469/role-of-anti-inflammatory-interventions-in-coronary-artery-disease-understanding-the-canakinumab-anti-inflammatory-thrombosis-outcomes-study-cantos
#13
REVIEW
Alberto Lorenzatti, Maria Luz Servato
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite notable advances in understanding the nature of atherosclerotic processes and the use of effective medications such as statins, there remains a significant residual risk. Even after optimal medical treatments and precise revascularisations, the recurrence of MI remains at approximately one-third for 5 years after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Over the past two decades, compelling data from animal and human studies has clearly identified atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, but clinical applications related to this accumulated knowledge are still scarce...
August 2018: European Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310035/-robot-assisted-thoracic-surgery-procedure
#14
Sachiko Tochii, Takashi Suda
The advantages of robot-assisted surgery include true 3-dimensional imaging with binocular glasses and the use of multiarticular forceps that allow the performance of high-precision operations. This report described the surgical techniques of robot assisted major pulmonary resection and subxiphoid robot-assisted thymectomy. Future developments in the field of robotic engineering will lead to the creation of systems that allow for more advanced surgical techniques. We hope that robotic assisted surgery will be safely introduced into many medical facilities...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309715/performance-evaluation-and-first-clinical-experience-with-the-varian-rgsc-module-for-breath-detection-of-15-lung-cancer-patients
#15
P Schick, H Gottschlag, O Fielitz, W Budach, I Simiantonakis
The University Hospital of Düsseldorf, Germany (UKD) recently installed the Respiratory Gating for Scanners module (RGSC) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA). The aim of this article is to report on the commissioning and clinical implementation of the RGSC system. The steps encompassed the validation of the manufacturer's specifications including functionality tests using a commercial and in-house developed breathing phantom, to establish calibration procedures, and clinical workflow analysis involving breath acquisition and patient data evaluation...
October 8, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309457/pathophysiological-mechanisms-in-cardiorenal-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Janani Rangaswami, Roy O Mathew
Cardiorenal syndrome represents the confluence of intricate hemodynamic, neurohormonal, and inflammatory pathways that initiate and propagate the maladaptive cross talk between the heart and kidneys. Several of these pathophysiological principles were described in older historical experiments. The last decade has witnessed major efforts in streamlining its definition, clinical phenotypes, and classification to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver optimal goal-directed medical therapies. The ability to characterize the various facets of cardiorenal syndrome based on its pathophysiology is poised in an exciting vantage point, in the backdrop of several advanced diagnostic strategies, notably cardiorenal biomarkers that may help with accurate delineation of clinical phenotype, prognosis, and delivery of optimal medical therapies in future studies...
September 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306917/development-of-an-automatic-coding-system-for-digestive-endoscopies
#17
Iris Ternois, Jean-Baptiste Escudie, Robert Benamouzig, Catherine Duclos
Digestive endoscopies, along with all medical procedures in France are coded with the CCAM. This task is done by the physicians, is time-consuming and requires a good knowledge of the terminology besides a medical knowledge. This method offers an automatic coding of endoscopic procedures from free-text reports. Thanks to a supervised learning method, the reports are coded with an average precision and recall of 0.92 on a 1639 texts corpus.
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306904/designing-a-coding-data-warehouse-to-support-and-enhance-medical-act-coding
#18
Joseph Noussa-Yao, Didier Heudes, Patrice Degoulet
Standards Data Warehouse has been implemented in many hospitals. It has enormous potential to improve performance measurement and health care quality. Accessing, organizing, and using these data to optimize clinical coding are evolving challenges for hospital systems. This paper describes development of a coding data warehouse based Entities-Attribute-Value (EAV) that we created by importing data from the clinical data warehouse (CDW) of public hospital. In particular, it focuses on design, implementation, and evaluation of the warehouse...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306484/intelligent-hmi-in-orthopedic-navigation
#19
Guangzhi Wang, Liang Li, Shuwei Xing, Hui Ding
The human-machine interface (HMI) is an essential part of image-guided orthopedic navigation systems. HMI provides a primary platform to merge surgically relevant pre- and intraoperative images from different modalities and 3D models including anatomical structures and implants to support surgical planning and navigation. With the various input-output techniques of HMI, surgeons can intuitively manipulate anatomical models generated from medical images and/or implant models for surgical planning. Furthermore, HMI recreates sight, sound, and touch feedback for the guidance of surgery operations which helps surgeons to sense more relevant information, e...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306471/surgical-navigation-in-orthopedics-workflow-and-system-review
#20
Chidozie H Ewurum, Yingying Guo, Seang Pagnha, Zhao Feng, Xiongbiao Luo
Orthopedic surgery is a widely performed clinical procedure that deals with problems in relation to the bones, joints, and ligaments of the human body, such as musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders. Surgical navigation is generally recognized as the next generation technology of orthopedic surgery. The development of orthopedic navigation systems aims to analyze pre-, intra- and/or postoperative data in multiple modalities and provide an augmented reality 3-D visualization environment to improve clinical outcomes of surgical orthopedic procedures...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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