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(ADIPOCYTE OR ADIPOSE) AND INFLAMATION

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300287/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-basic-pathogenetic-mechanisms-in-the-progression-from-nafld-to-nash
#1
Irene Pierantonelli, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a growing cause of chronic liver injury, especially in Western Countries, where it is becoming the most frequent indication for liver transplantation (OLTx). NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of diseases that from simple steatosis (pure NAFLD) can progress to Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the mechanisms behind its progression to NASH have been extensively studied. However, while the processes that determine fat accumulation are mostly clear, the mechanisms associated with the progression of the disease are not fully characterized...
October 8, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272118/t-cell-composition-in-ileal-and-colonic-creeping-fat-separating-ileal-from-colonic-crohn%C3%A2-s-disease
#2
Lea I Kredel, Lisa J Jödicke, Alexander Scheffold, Jörn Gröne, Rainer Glauben, Ulrike Erben, Anja A Kühl, Britta Siegmund
Background & Aims: Creeping fat (CF) is a hyperplasia of adipose tissue adjacent to inflamed intestine in Crohn´s disease (CD). Data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) distinguished Crohn´s colitis from ileal CD and ulcerative colitis (UC). This study analysed the T-cell compartments of ileal and colonic mesenteric fat and corresponding mucosa to provide cellular proof for the suggested GWAS classification. Methods: Samples were obtained from 34 CD or UC patients...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253224/gper-and-er%C3%AE-mediate-estradiol-enhancement-of-mitochondrial-function-in-inflamed-adipocytes-through-a-pka-dependent-mechanism
#3
Marco Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Sergio Rodríguez-Cuenca, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Magdalena Gianotti, Isabel Lladó, Ana M Proenza
Obesity is associated with inflammation, dysregulated adipokine secretion, and disrupted adipose tissue mitochondrial function. Estradiol (E2) has been previously reported to increase mitochondrial function and biogenesis in several cell lines, but neither the type of oestrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ and GPER) involved nor the mechanism whereby such effects are exerted have been fully described. Considering the anti-inflammatory activity of E2 as well as its effects in enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of ERα, ERβ, and GPER signaling to the E2-mediated enhancement of adipocyte mitochondrial function in a pro-inflammatory situation...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251678/autophagy-mediates-calcium-sensing-receptor-induced-tnf%C3%AE-production-in-human-preadipocytes
#4
Pamela Mattar, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Nicolás Tobar, Cecilia Fuentes, Rodrigo Troncoso, Gerda Breitwieser, Sergio Lavandero, Mariana Cifuentes
Obesity is a major current public health problem worldwide due to the severe co-morbid conditions that this disease entails. The development of obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders is in direct association with adipose tissue inflammation that leads to its functional impairment. Activation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) in adipose tissue contributes to inflammation and adipose dysfunction. Autophagy, a process of cell component degradation, is closely related to inflammation in many diseases, however, whether autophagy is associated with CaSR-induced inflammation remains unknown...
November 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187478/effect-of-microfragmented-adipose-tissue-on-osteoarthritic-synovial-macrophage-factors
#5
Francesca Paolella, Cristina Manferdini, Elena Gabusi, Laura Gambari, Giuseppe Filardo, Elizaveta Kon, Erminia Mariani, Gina Lisignoli
Cell-based therapies using adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADMSCs) have shown promising results for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). In fact, ADMSCs are now indicated as one of the most powerful cell sources through their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, an innovative one-step closed device was developed to obtain microfragmented adipose tissue (MF) to avoid the need for good manufacturing practices for ADMSCs expansion while maintaining their regenerative potential...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166708/novel-mechanisms-and-anti-inflammatory-strategies-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#6
Steven Grinspoon
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates are 50% to 100% higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Traditional risks account for only 25% of this excess risk. Excess CVD risk in HIV may relate in part to increases in ectopic adipose depots. CVD in HIV-infection is characterized by atypical highly vulnerable plaque lesions, which are inflamed, in tight relationship to immune, and monocyte activation pathways. Using 18 fluorine-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron-emission tomography imaging techniques, we have shown increased arterial inflammation which persists even after effective antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097828/remote-effects-of-transplanted-perivascular-adipose-tissue-on-endothelial-function-and-atherosclerosis
#7
Tetsuo Horimatsu, Aaron S Patel, Rosaria Prasad, Lauren E Reid, Tyler W Benson, Abdalrahman Zarzour, Mourad Ogbi, Thiago Bruder do Nascimento, Eric Belin de Chantemele, Brian K Stansfield, Xin-Yun Lu, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the arterial adventitia and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT expands in obesity, and inflamed PVAT can locally promote endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, using adipose tissue transplantation, we tested the hypothesis that expansion of PVAT can also remotely exacerbate vascular disease. METHODS: Fifty milligrams of abdominal aortic PVAT was isolated from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type mice and transplanted onto the abdominal aorta of lean LDL receptor knockout mice...
August 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078199/adipose-tissue-dysfunction-in-cancer-cachexia
#8
Sahar I Daas, Balsam R Rizeq, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Cancer cachexia is a complex disorder that is driven by inflammation and metabolic imbalances, resulting in extreme weight loss. Adipose tissue, a main player in cancer cachexia, is an essential metabolic and secretory organ consisting of both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue. Its secretory products, including adipokines and cytokines, affect a wide variety of central and peripheral organs, such as the skeletal muscle, brain, pancreas, and liver. Therefore, a combination of metabolic alterations, and systemic inflammation dysregulation of both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory modulators contribute toward adipose tissue wasting in cancer cachexia...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054522/endoscopic-transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-sheets-in-experimental-colitis-in-rats
#9
Sehyung Pak, Sung Wook Hwang, In Kyong Shim, Sang Mun Bae, Yeon- Mi Ryu, Han-Byul Kim, Eun-Ju Do, Hye-Nam Son, Eun-Ji Choi, Sun-Ha Park, Sang-Yeob Kim, Sang Hyoung Park, Byong Duk Ye, Suk-Kyun Yang, Nobuo Kanai, Masanori Maeda, Teruo Okano, Dong-Hoon Yang, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung
Owing to the recent progress in regenerative medicine technology, clinical trials that harnessed the regeneration and immune modulation potentiality of stem cells for treating IBD have shown promising results. We investigated the feasibility and utility of intraluminal endoscopic transplantation of rat MSC sheets in murine models of experimental colitis for targeted delivery of stem cells to lesions. We isolated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) from EGFP-transgenic rats and fabricated the cells in sheet forms using temperature-responsive culture dishes...
July 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043133/mesenteric-lymphatic-vessel-density-is-associated-with-disease-behavior-and-postoperative-recurrence-in-crohn-s-disease
#10
Yi Li, Yuanyuan Ge, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Lei Cao, Zhen Guo, Lili Gu, Jieshou Li
PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to examine the density of lymphatic vessels in the mesentery and to assess the predictive value of the mesenteric lymphatic vessel density for postoperative clinical recurrence. METHODS: Ileocolonic resection specimens were obtained from 53 patients with Crohn's disease and 10 non-inflammatory bowel disease control subjects. Mesentery adipose tissues adjacent to the bowel wall were used for the histological quantification of lymphatic vessels using immunohistochemistry with the D2-40 antibody...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995306/adipokine-dysregulation-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-human-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Xabier Unamuno, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins and growth and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines that influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
September 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950343/adipocytes-and-intestinal-epithelium-dysfunctions-linking-obesity-to-inflammation-induced-by-high-glycemic-index-pellet-diet-in-wistar-rats
#12
Anna Beatriz Santana Luz, Júlia Braga Dos Santos Figueredo, Bianca Damásio Pereira Dantas Salviano, Ana Júlia Felipe Camelo Aguiar, Luiza Gabriella Soares Dantas Pinheiro, Matheus Felipe Dantas Krause, Christina da Silva Camillo, Fernando Vagner Lobo Ladd, Raul Hernandes Bortolin, Vivian Nogueira Silbiger, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Ana Heloneida de Araújo Morais
We investigated the inflammatory effect of a pellet-diet with high glycemic index and load (HGLI) on the histological organization of adipocytes, intestinal epithelium, and fat in liver and pancreas in adult male Wistar rats. Two groups ( n =10) received for 17 weeks: (1) HGLI diet or (2) Standard diet (Labina®). Histological analyses of adipose tissue, jejunum, liver, and pancreas were performed. Stereology analysis, visceral adiposity index, gene expression, and immunohistochemistry of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in visceral adipose tissue and plasma TNF-α were also assessed...
June 29, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941879/tnf-inhibits-catecholamine-production-from-induced-sympathetic-neuron-like-cells-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis-in-vitro
#13
Markus Herrmann, Sven Anders, Rainer H Straub, Zsuzsa Jenei-Lanzl
Synovial adipose stem cells (sASC) can be differentiated into catecholamine-expressing sympathetic neuron-like cells to treat experimental arthritis. However, the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known to be toxic to catecholaminergic cells (see Parkinson disease), and this may prevent anti-inflammatory effects in inflamed tissue. We hypothesized that TNF exhibits inhibitory effects on human differentiated sympathetic tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neuron-like cells. For the first time, iTH+ neuron-like sympathetic cells were generated from sACSs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial tissue...
June 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937494/comparative-analysis-between-the-in-vivo-biodistribution-and-therapeutic-efficacy-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-administered-intraperitoneally-in-experimental-colitis
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mercedes Lopez-Santalla, Pablo Mancheño-Corvo, Amelia Escolano, Ramon Menta, Olga Delarosa, Juan M Redondo, Juan A Bueren, Wilfried Dalemans, Eleuterio Lombardo, Marina I Garin
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising treatment for inflammatory diseases. The immunomodulatory effect of MSCs takes place both by direct cell-to-cell contact and by means of soluble factors that leads to an increased accumulation of regulatory immune cells at the sites of inflammation. Similar efficacy of MSCs has been described regardless of the route of administration used, the inflammation conditions and the major histocompatibility complex context. These observations raise the question of whether the migration of the MSCs to the inflamed tissues is a pre-requisite to achieve their beneficial effect...
June 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902065/mesenteric-adipose-tissue-contributes-to-intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-protects-against-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#15
Zhe Wu, Jiang Tan, Yujing Chi, Feng Zhang, Jun Xu, Yang Song, Xu Cong, Na Wu, Yulan Liu
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT), part of the VAT, in NAFLD is unclear. In the present study, we monitored the liver and four depots of the VAT in high-fat diet (HFD)-feeding mice at multiple time points (4, 8, and 12 wk). The MAT had become inflamed by the eighth week of HFD feeding, earlier than other depots of VAT. Furthermore, MAT removal after 8 wk of HFD resulted in more severe steatosis and more foci of inflammation infiltration, as well as higher NAFLD activity scores...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846262/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#16
Carl Weidinger, Ahmed N Hegazy, Britta Siegmund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The occurrence of creeping fat wrapping segments of inflamed gut represents a characteristic yet incompletely understood hallmark of Crohn's disease. Over the last decade, numerous studies have provided a limited understanding of this feature. Still, deciphering the detailed mechanisms and the pathophysiologic relevance of the interplay between creeping fat, barrier function and intestinal inflammation will be the aim of future studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The last 18 months have substantially contributed to this field, starting with an elegant three-dimensional study revealing B cell aggregates around lymphatic vessels embedded in the mesenteric fat, thus bringing back the idea that Crohn's disease might represent a 'lymphatic disease'...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763604/attenuation-of-macrophage-accumulation-and-polarisation-in-obese-diabetic-mice-by-a-small-molecule-significantly-improved-insulin-sensitivity
#17
Sandip Mukherjee, Snehasis Das, Dipanjan Chattopadhyay, Shuvasree Sarkar, Subhendu Kumar Chatterjee, Dhrubajyoti Talukdar, Sutapa Mukherjee, Subeer S Majumdar, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Mihir K Chaudhuri, Samir Bhattacharya
Accumulation and polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 to proinflammatory M1 macrophage in the adipose tissue of obese diabetic mice is an important pathogenic signature. It worsens lipid induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that a small molecule, a peroxyvanadate compound i.e. DmpzH [VO(O2 )2 (dmpz)] or dmp, could robustly decrease macrophage infiltration, accumulation and their polarization in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese diabetic mice. In searching the underlying mechanism it was revealed that SIRT1 level was strikingly low in the inflamed adipose tissue of HFD mice as compared to mice fed with standard diet (SD)...
June 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748664/nanovesicles-from-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibit-t-lymphocyte-trafficking-and-ameliorate-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#18
Alessia Farinazzo, Stefano Angiari, Ermanna Turano, Edoardo Bistaffa, Silvia Dusi, Serena Ruggieri, Roberta Bonafede, Raffaella Mariotti, Gabriela Constantin, Bruno Bonetti
Cell based-therapies represent promising strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. We have previously shown that adipose stem cells (ASC) ameliorate chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent evidence indicates that most ASC paracrine effects are mediated by extracellular vesicles, i.e. micro- and nanovesicles (MVs and NVs). We show that preventive intravenous administration of NVs isolated from ASC (ASC-NVs) before disease onset significantly reduces the severity of EAE and decreases spinal cord inflammation and demyelination, whereas therapeutic treatment with ASC-NVs does not ameliorate established EAE...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625582/tsg-6-released-from-intraperitoneally-injected-canine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorate-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-inducing-m2-macrophage-switch-in-mice
#19
Woo-Jin Song, Qiang Li, Min-Ok Ryu, Jin-Ok Ahn, Dong Ha Bhang, Yun Chan Jung, Hwa-Young Youn
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable autoimmune disorder that markedly deteriorates one's quality of life. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) alleviate inflammation by modulating inflammatory cytokines in inflamed tissues, and have been suggested as a promising alternative for IBD treatment in human and veterinary cases. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α-induced gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) is a key factor influencing MSC immunomodulatory properties; however, the precise mechanism of TSG-6 release from canine MSCs in IBD remains unclear...
April 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604386/applications-of-inflammation-derived-gingival-stem-cells-for-testing-the-biocompatibility-of-dental-restorative-biomaterials
#20
A Soancă, M Lupse, M Moldovan, E Pall, M Cenariu, A Roman, O Tudoran, P Surlin, O Șorițău
BACKGROUND: Normal or inflamed gingival tissues are regarded as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) abundant and easily accessible through minimally invasive dental procedures. Due to the proximity of dental resin composites to gingival tissues and to the possible local cytotoxic effect of the eluted components, gingiva-derived MSCs could be used to investigate the biocompatibility of dental biomaterials. PURPOSE: The present research aimed to isolate (MSCs) from inflamed and normal gingiva, to fully characterize them and to observe their behavior in relation with some commercial resin composite materials and one experimental material...
July 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
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