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Adipocyte inflamation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323174/determinants-of-ectopic-liver-fat-in-metabolic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Anja Bosy-Westphal, Wiebke Braun, Viktoria Albrecht, Manfred J Müller
Common obesity-associated hepatic steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and insulin resistance are mainly caused by dysfunctional adipose tissue. This adipose tissue dysfunction leads to increased delivery of NEFA and glycerol to the liver that (i) drives hepatic gluconeogenesis and (ii) facilitates the accumulation of lipids and insulin signaling inhibiting lipid intermediates. Dysfunctional adipose tissue can be caused by impaired lipid storage (overflow hypothesis, characterized by large visceral adipocytes) or increased lipolysis (due to impaired postprandial suppression of lipolysis in inflamed, insulin-resistant adipocytes)...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272118/t-cell-composition-in-ileal-and-colonic-creeping-fat-separating-ileal-from-colonic-crohn%C3%A2-s-disease
#2
Lea I Kredel, Lisa J Jödicke, Alexander Scheffold, Jörn Gröne, Rainer Glauben, Ulrike Erben, Anja A Kühl, Britta Siegmund
Background & Aims: Creeping fat (CF) is a hyperplasia of adipose tissue adjacent to inflamed intestine in Crohn´s disease (CD). Data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) distinguished Crohn´s colitis from ileal CD and ulcerative colitis (UC). This study analysed the T-cell compartments of ileal and colonic mesenteric fat and corresponding mucosa to provide cellular proof for the suggested GWAS classification. Methods: Samples were obtained from 34 CD or UC patients...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253224/gper-and-er%C3%AE-mediate-estradiol-enhancement-of-mitochondrial-function-in-inflamed-adipocytes-through-a-pka-dependent-mechanism
#3
Marco Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Sergio Rodríguez-Cuenca, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Magdalena Gianotti, Isabel Lladó, Ana M Proenza
Obesity is associated with inflammation, dysregulated adipokine secretion, and disrupted adipose tissue mitochondrial function. Estradiol (E2) has been previously reported to increase mitochondrial function and biogenesis in several cell lines, but neither the type of oestrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ and GPER) involved nor the mechanism whereby such effects are exerted have been fully described. Considering the anti-inflammatory activity of E2 as well as its effects in enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of ERα, ERβ, and GPER signaling to the E2-mediated enhancement of adipocyte mitochondrial function in a pro-inflammatory situation...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078199/adipose-tissue-dysfunction-in-cancer-cachexia
#4
Sahar I Daas, Balsam R Rizeq, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Cancer cachexia is a complex disorder that is driven by inflammation and metabolic imbalances, resulting in extreme weight loss. Adipose tissue, a main player in cancer cachexia, is an essential metabolic and secretory organ consisting of both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue. Its secretory products, including adipokines and cytokines, affect a wide variety of central and peripheral organs, such as the skeletal muscle, brain, pancreas, and liver. Therefore, a combination of metabolic alterations, and systemic inflammation dysregulation of both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory modulators contribute toward adipose tissue wasting in cancer cachexia...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995306/adipokine-dysregulation-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-human-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Xabier Unamuno, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins and growth and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines that influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
September 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950343/adipocytes-and-intestinal-epithelium-dysfunctions-linking-obesity-to-inflammation-induced-by-high-glycemic-index-pellet-diet-in-wistar-rats
#6
Anna Beatriz Santana Luz, Júlia Braga Dos Santos Figueredo, Bianca Damásio Pereira Dantas Salviano, Ana Júlia Felipe Camelo Aguiar, Luiza Gabriella Soares Dantas Pinheiro, Matheus Felipe Dantas Krause, Christina da Silva Camillo, Fernando Vagner Lobo Ladd, Raul Hernandes Bortolin, Vivian Nogueira Silbiger, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Ana Heloneida de Araújo Morais
We investigated the inflammatory effect of a pellet-diet with high glycemic index and load (HGLI) on the histological organization of adipocytes, intestinal epithelium, and fat in liver and pancreas in adult male Wistar rats. Two groups ( n =10) received for 17 weeks: (1) HGLI diet or (2) Standard diet (Labina®). Histological analyses of adipose tissue, jejunum, liver, and pancreas were performed. Stereology analysis, visceral adiposity index, gene expression, and immunohistochemistry of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in visceral adipose tissue and plasma TNF-α were also assessed...
June 29, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902065/mesenteric-adipose-tissue-contributes-to-intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-protects-against-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#7
Zhe Wu, Jiang Tan, Yujing Chi, Feng Zhang, Jun Xu, Yang Song, Xu Cong, Na Wu, Yulan Liu
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT), part of the VAT, in NAFLD is unclear. In the present study, we monitored the liver and four depots of the VAT in high-fat diet (HFD)-feeding mice at multiple time points (4, 8, and 12 wk). The MAT had become inflamed by the eighth week of HFD feeding, earlier than other depots of VAT. Furthermore, MAT removal after 8 wk of HFD resulted in more severe steatosis and more foci of inflammation infiltration, as well as higher NAFLD activity scores...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846262/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#8
Carl Weidinger, Ahmed N Hegazy, Britta Siegmund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The occurrence of creeping fat wrapping segments of inflamed gut represents a characteristic yet incompletely understood hallmark of Crohn's disease. Over the last decade, numerous studies have provided a limited understanding of this feature. Still, deciphering the detailed mechanisms and the pathophysiologic relevance of the interplay between creeping fat, barrier function and intestinal inflammation will be the aim of future studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The last 18 months have substantially contributed to this field, starting with an elegant three-dimensional study revealing B cell aggregates around lymphatic vessels embedded in the mesenteric fat, thus bringing back the idea that Crohn's disease might represent a 'lymphatic disease'...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604386/applications-of-inflammation-derived-gingival-stem-cells-for-testing-the-biocompatibility-of-dental-restorative-biomaterials
#9
A Soancă, M Lupse, M Moldovan, E Pall, M Cenariu, A Roman, O Tudoran, P Surlin, O Șorițău
BACKGROUND: Normal or inflamed gingival tissues are regarded as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) abundant and easily accessible through minimally invasive dental procedures. Due to the proximity of dental resin composites to gingival tissues and to the possible local cytotoxic effect of the eluted components, gingiva-derived MSCs could be used to investigate the biocompatibility of dental biomaterials. PURPOSE: The present research aimed to isolate (MSCs) from inflamed and normal gingiva, to fully characterize them and to observe their behavior in relation with some commercial resin composite materials and one experimental material...
July 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581238/role-of-dysfunctional-adipocytes-in-cholesterol-induced-nonobese-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Chih-Chun Chang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jan-Kan Chen, Li-Man Hung
Many studies have reported the causes of obese metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the causes of nonobese MS (NMS) remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that inflamed dysfunctional adipose tissue plays a crucial role in cholesterol-induced NMS. Control (C), high cholesterol (HC) and HC with 10% fructose in drinking water (HCF) diets were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the body weights of the C- and HC-fed rats were comparable, but the weights of the HCF-fed rats were relatively low...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533741/myeloid-specific-acat1-ablation-attenuates-inflammatory-responses-in-macrophages-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-suppresses-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Li-Hao Huang, Elaina M Melton, Haibo Li, Paul Sohn, DaeYoung Jung, Ching-Yi Tsai, Tian Ma, Hiroyuki Sano, HyeKyung Ha, Randall H Friedline, Jason K Kim, Edward Usherwood, Catherine C Y Chang, Ta-Yuan Chang
Macrophages are phagocytes that play important roles in health and diseases. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and is expressed in many cell types. Unlike global Acat1 knockout (KO), myeloid-specific Acat1 KO ( Acat1- ) does not cause overt abnormalities in mice. Here, we performed analyses in age- and sex-matched Acat1- M/ - M and wild-type mice on chow or Western diet and discovered that Acat1- M/ - M mice exhibit resistance to Western diet-induced obesity...
September 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526533/type-2-diabetes-related-proteins-derived-from-an-in-vitro-model-of-inflamed-fat-tissue
#12
Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Alexandros Sotiriou, Sjef Boeren, Stefan Vaessen, Jacques Vervoort, Raymond Pieters
Currently, there is a worldwide increase of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). During the progression of healthy obese to T2D status, there is an influx of immune cells, in particular macrophages, into visceral adipose tissue, accompanied by an increase of inflammatory cytokines, such as, IL6, TNFα and Hp. To get a better insight in the underlying mechanisms, we performed a quantitative LCMS analysis on a modified in vitro assay, combining 3T3L1 adipocytes and activated RAW264.7 macrophages, thus mimicking inflamed adipose tissue...
April 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514084/innate-immune-signaling-in-drosophila-blocks-insulin-signaling-by-uncoupling-pi-3-4-5-p-3-production-and-akt-activation
#13
Stephen W Roth, Moshe D Bitterman, Morris J Birnbaum, Michelle L Bland
In obese adipose tissue, Toll-like receptor signaling in macrophages leads to insulin resistance in adipocytes. Similarly, Toll signaling in the Drosophila larval fat body blocks insulin-dependent growth and nutrient storage. We find that Toll acts cell autonomously to block growth but not PI(3,4,5)P3 production in fat body cells expressing constitutively active PI3K. Fat body Toll signaling blocks whole-animal growth in rictor mutants lacking TORC2 activity, but not in larvae lacking Pdk1. Phosphorylation of Akt on the Pdk1 site, Thr342, is significantly reduced by Toll signaling, and expression of mutant AktT342D rescues cell and animal growth, nutrient storage, and viability in animals with active Toll signaling...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426013/celecoxib-mediated-reduction-of-prostanoid-release-in-hoffa-s-fat-pad-from-donors-with-cartilage-pathology-results-in-an-attenuated-inflammatory-phenotype
#14
U T Timur, M M J Caron, Y M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, T J M Welting, L W van Rhijn, G J V M van Osch, P J Emans
OBJECTIVE: The Hoffa's fat pad (HFP) is an intra-articular adipose tissue which is situated under and behind the patella. It contains immune cells next to adipocytes and secretes inflammatory factors during osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we compared the release profile of prostanoids, which are involved in inflammation, of HFP from OA patients vs patients with a focal cartilage defect (CD) without evidence for OA on MRI and investigated the prostanoid modulatory anti-inflammatory action of celecoxib on HFP...
May 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298809/sucrose-nonfermenting-related-kinase-regulates-both-adipose-inflammation-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mice-and-humans
#15
Jie Li, Bin Feng, Yaohui Nie, Ping Jiao, Xiaochen Lin, Mengna Huang, Ran An, Qin He, Huilin Emily Zhou, Arthur Salomon, Kirsten S Sigrist, Zhidan Wu, Simin Liu, Haiyan Xu
Sucrose nonfermenting-related kinase (SNRK) is a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, and its physiological role in adipose energy homeostasis and inflammation remains unknown. We previously reported that SNRK is ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), but SNRK expression diminishes in adipose tissue in obesity. In this study we report novel experimental findings from both animal models and human genetics. SNRK is essential for survival; SNRK globally deficient pups die within 24 h after birth...
March 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030114/impairment-of-energy-sensors-sirt1-and-ampk-in-lipid-induced-inflamed-adipocyte-is-regulated-by-fetuin-a
#16
Mrittika Chattopadhyay, Sandip Mukherjee, Subhendu K Chatterjee, Dipanjan Chattopadhyay, Snehasis Das, Subeer S Majumdar, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Sutapa Mukherjee, Samir Bhattarcharya
Although several reports demonstrated that accumulation of excess lipid in adipose tissue produces defects in adipocyte which leads to the disruption of energy homeostasis causing severe metabolic problems, underlying mechanism of this event remains yet unclear. Here we demonstrate that FetuinA (FetA) plays a critical role in the impairment of two metabolic sensors, SIRT1 and AMPK, in inflamed adipocytes of high fat diet (HFD) mice. A linear increase in adipocyte hypertrophy from 10 to 16 week was in tandem with the increase in FetA and that coincided with SIRT1 cleavage and decrease in pAMPK which adversely affects PGC1α activation...
January 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890654/chondroitin-sulfate-inhibits-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-release-from-3t3-l1-adipocytes-a-new-treatment-opportunity-for-obesity-related-inflammation
#17
Thomas V Stabler, Eulàlia Montell, Josep Vergés, Janet L Huebner, Virginia Byers Kraus
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) overproduction from inflamed adipose tissue is a major contributor to obesity-related metabolic syndromes. 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts were cultured and differentiated into adipocytes using an established protocol. Adipocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and thus MCP-1 release. At the same time, varying concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS) were added in a physiologically relevant range (10-200 µg/mL) to determine its impact on MCP-1 release...
2017: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827671/muscle-and-adipose-tissue-morphology-insulin-sensitivity-and-beta-cell-function-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-obese-patients-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#18
Stefania Camastra, Alessandra Vitali, Marco Anselmino, Amalia Gastaldelli, Rosario Bellini, Rossana Berta, Ilenia Severi, Simona Baldi, Brenno Astiarraga, Giorgio Barbatelli, Saverio Cinti, Ele Ferrannini
Obesity is characterized by insulin-resistance (IR), enhanced lipolysis, and ectopic, inflamed fat. We related the histology of subcutaneous (SAT), visceral fat (VAT), and skeletal muscle to the metabolic abnormalities, and tested their mutual changes after bariatric surgery in type 2 diabetic (T2D) and weight-matched non-diabetic (ND) patients. We measured IR (insulin clamp), lipolysis (2 H5 -glycerol infusion), ß-cell glucose-sensitivity (ß-GS, mathematical modeling), and VAT, SAT, and rectus abdominis histology (light and electron microscopy)...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701474/detecting-human-coronary-inflammation-by-imaging-perivascular-fat
#19
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Fabio Sanna, Nikant Sabharwal, Sheena Thomas, Evangelos K Oikonomou, Laura Herdman, Marios Margaritis, Cheerag Shirodaria, Anna-Maria Kampoli, Ioannis Akoumianakis, Mario Petrou, Rana Sayeed, George Krasopoulos, Constantinos Psarros, Patricia Ciccone, Carl M Brophy, Janet Digby, Andrew Kelion, Raman Uberoi, Suzan Anthony, Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis, Stephan Achenbach, Stefan Neubauer, Keith M Channon, Charalambos Antoniades
Early detection of vascular inflammation would allow deployment of targeted strategies for the prevention or treatment of multiple disease states. Because vascular inflammation is not detectable with commonly used imaging modalities, we hypothesized that phenotypic changes in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) induced by vascular inflammation could be quantified using a new computerized tomography (CT) angiography methodology. We show that inflamed human vessels release cytokines that prevent lipid accumulation in PVAT-derived preadipocytes in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
July 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585207/endothelial-dysfunction-in-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Atilla Engin
Chronic inflammatory state in obesity causes dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors, which disrupt vascular homeostasis and contribute to endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and subsequent hypertension. While normal healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) ensures the dilation of blood vessels, obesity-associated PVAT leads to a change in profile of the released adipo-cytokines, resulting in a decreased vasorelaxing effect. Adipose tissue inflammation, nitric oxide (NO)-bioavailability, insulin resistance and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are main participating factors in endothelial dysfunction of obesity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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