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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936495/t-bet-overexpression-regulates-ahr-mediated-th-17-differentiation-through-an-ifn%C3%AE-independent-pathway
#1
Masahiro Yokosawa, Yuya Kondo, Masahiro Tahara, Mana Iizuka-Koga, Seiji Segawa, Shunta Kaneko, Hiroto Tsuboi, Keigyou Yoh, Satoru Takahash, Isao Matsumoto, Takayuki Sumida
Various transcription factors are also known to enhance or suppress Th-17 differentiation. We previously showed that the development of collagen-induced arthritis was suppressed in T-bet transgenic (T-bet Tg) mice and T-bet seemed to suppress Th-17 differentiation through an IFNγ-independent pathway, although the precise mechanism remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to further investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Th-17 differentiation by T-bet overexpression, and we found the new relation between T-bet and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)...
December 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935554/risk-of-mortality-associated-with-antipsychotic-monotherapy-and-polypharmacy-among-community-dwelling-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Marjaana Koponen, Heidi Taipale, Piia Lavikainen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Riitta Ahonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
We aimed to analyze the risk of non-cancer mortality according to duration of antipsychotic use and to compare the risk associated with polypharmacy and monotherapy among community-dwellers with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The risk of mortality between most frequently used antipsychotic drugs was compared. Data from a nationwide register-based MEDALZ study that included all 70,718 community-dwellers newly diagnosed with AD during 2005-2011 in Finland was utilized. Death, excluding cancer as direct cause of death, was extracted from Causes of Death Register...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932339/predictors-of-treatment-failure-on-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-among-adults-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-multicentre-retrospective-follow-up-study
#3
Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye, Mamo Wubshet, Tadesse Awoke, Kefyalew Addis Alene
BACKGROUND: The number of patients using second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased over time. In Ethiopia, 1.5% of HIV infected patients on ART are using a second-line regimen and little is known about its effect in this setting. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate and predictors of treatment failure on second-line ART among adults living with HIV in northwest Ethiopia. SETTING: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted at three tertiary hospitals in northwest Ethiopia from March to May 2015...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932107/antibody-mediated-acute-vascular-rejection-of-kidney-allografts-fifteen-year-follow-up
#4
B Rodríguez Cubillo, I Pérez Flores, N Calvo, A Pascual, J A Cortés, M A Moreno, J Blanco, A Sánchez Fructuoso
BACKGROUND: Although acute vascular rejection (AVR) is associated with a high risk of graft loss, it remains unclear whether AVR with accompanied cellular or humoral rejection (AHR) has dissimilar outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between subtypes of AVR and graft loss. METHODS: We assessed patients who provided biopsy samples for acute allograft rejection from 1998 to 2014. To investigate distinct rejection patterns, we retrospectively assessed rejection episodes with review of graft histology as well as donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies when available...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930829/diabetes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-mortality-in-hepatitis-c-infected-patients-a-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Ting-Shuo Huang, Chih-Lang Lin, Yu-Chiau Shyu, Chau-Ting Yeh, Kung-Hao Liang, Chi-Chin Sun, Mu-Jie Lu, Rong-Nan Chien
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and all-cause mortality after HCC development in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients remains inconclusive. This cohort study aimed to investigate these issues using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. METHODS: We retrieved and enrolled newly diagnosed DM patients with HCV from the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients database...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930600/increased-frequency-of-cd39-cd56-bright-natural-killer-cells-in-hiv-1-infection-correlates-with-immune-activation-and-disease-progression
#6
Patrick Dierks, Raluca Wroblewski, Johanna M Eberhard, Gloria Martrus, Olaf Degen, Sandra Hertling, Stefan Schmiedel, Sebastian Lunemann, Anja Hüfner, Ansgar W Lohse, Marcus Altfeld, Jan van Lunzen, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
The expression pattern of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 on NK cells was examined in PBMC of 61 HIV-1 infected patients. Increased frequencies of CD39CD56 NK cells were detectable in untreated HIV patients, which was associated with high viral load, low CD4+ T cell count and CD8+ T cell activation. Additionally, levels of CD39 on NK cells were inducible by in vitro stimulation of NK cells, correlating with Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and IL-10 expression. Here, we provide first evidence of increased CD39CD56 NK cell frequencies during HIV infection, which might have consequences for NK cell function and HIV pathogenesis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930560/risk-of-secondary-cancers-in-women-with-breast-cancer-and-the-influence-of-radiotherapy-a-national-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#7
Cheng-Yao Lin, Sih-Hao Chen, Chien-Cheng Huang, Shih-Feng Weng, Song-Tay Lee, How-Ran Guo, Shu-Chun Kuo, Shih-Bin Su
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide; thus, the prolongation of survival, and the incidence and risk factors, including radiotherapy, for developing secondary malignancies are important. We compared the incidence of secondary and new primary cancers in women with breast cancer (CA) and well-matched for age, geographic region, and monthly income cancer-free controls (CA). The risk for secondary cancers with and without radiotherapy was also compared in CA women. We enrolled 2422 CA patients and CA 12,110 controls...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930533/association-of-vagus-nerve-severance-and-decreased-risk-of-subsequent-type-2-diabetes-in-peptic-ulcer-patients-an-asian-population-cohort-study
#8
Shih-Chi Wu, William Tzu-Liang Chen, Chu-Wen Fang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Fung-Chang Sung, Chung Y Hsu
Vagus nerve may play a role in serum glucose modulation. The complicated peptic ulcer patients (with perforation or/and bleeding) who received surgical procedures with or without vagotomy provided 2 patient populations for studying the impact of vagus nerve integrity. We assessed the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in peptic ulcer patients without and with complications by surgical treatment received in a retrospective population study using the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan.A cohort of 163,385 patients with peptic ulcer and without Helicobacter pylori infection in 2000 to 2003 was established...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925609/a-comparison-of-virological-suppression-and-rebound-between-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-persons-initiating-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-multisite-cohort-of-individuals-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#9
Anita C Benoit, Jaime Younger, Kerrigan Beaver, Randy Jackson, Mona Loutfy, Renée Masching, Tony Nobis, Earl Nowgesic, Doe O'Brien-Teengs, Wanda Whitebird, Art Zoccole, Mark Hull, Denise Jaworsky, Anita Rachlis, Sean Rourke, Ann N Burchell, Curtis Cooper, Robert Hogg, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Julio Montaner, Chris Tsoukas, Janet Raboud, Building Bridges
BACKGROUND: This study compared time to virologic suppression and rebound between Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals living with HIV in Canada initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Data were from the Canadian Observational Cohort collaboration; 8 studies of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after 1/1/2000. Fine and Gray models were used to estimate the effect of ethnicity on 1) time to virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads (VLs) <50 copies/mL at least three months apart) after adjusting for the competing risk of death and 2) time until virologic rebound (two consecutive VLs >200 copies/mL at least three months apart) following suppression...
December 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922744/lung-pathologies-in-a-chronic-inflammation-mouse-model-are-independent-of-eosinophil-degranulation
#10
Elizabeth A Jacobsen, Sergei I Ochkur, Alfred D Doyle, William E LeSuer, Wen Li, Cheryl A Protheroe, Dana Colbert, Katie R Zellner, HuaHao H Shen, Charles G Irvin, James J Lee, Nancy A Lee
RATIONALE: The release of eosinophil granule proteins in the lungs of asthma patients has been dogmatically linked with lung remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, the demonstrated inability of established mouse models to display the eosinophil degranulation occurring in human subjects has prevented a definitive in vivo test of this hypothesis. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate in vivo causative links between induced pulmonary histopathologies/lung dysfunction and eosinophil degranulation...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919191/phytotherapeutic-approach-a-new-hope-for-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-induced-cellular-disorders-autophagic-and-apoptotic-cell-death
#11
Durgesh Nandini Das, Prashanta Kumar Panda, Prajna Paramita Naik, Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Niharika Sinha, Sujit K Bhutia
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise the major class of cancer-causing chemicals and are ranked ninth among the chemical compounds threatening to humans. Moreover, interest in PAHs has been mainly due to their carcinogenic property, these compounds are genotoxic, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Polymorphism in cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) have the capacity to convert procarcinogens into carcinogens, which is an imperative factor contributing to individual susceptibility to cancer development...
December 5, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916286/relating-therapy-for-distressing-auditory-hallucinations-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Mark Hayward, Anna-Marie Jones, Leanne Bogen-Johnston, Neil Thomas, Clara Strauss
Auditory hallucinations (AH) are a common and distressing experience and patients report distress reduction to be a priority. Relating Therapy adopts a symptom-specific and mechanism focused approach to the reduction of AH distress. We conducted this single-blind, pragmatic, parallel groups, superiority pilot RCT within a single mental health centre in the UK. Patients (18+years) with persistent and distressing AH, irrespective of diagnosis were randomly allocated to receive either Relating Therapy and Treatment-as-usual (RT) or Treatment as-usual alone (TAU)...
December 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916272/regulation-and-function-of-anaphylatoxins-and-their-receptors-in-allergic-asthma
#13
Yves Laumonnier, Anna V Wiese, Julia Figge, Christian Karsten
Allergic asthma is a disease of the airways driven by maladaptive T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 immune response against harmless, airborne substances. The hallmarks of this disease are airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation and mucus overproduction. Distinct dendric cell (DC) subsets together with airway epithelial and pulmonary vascular endothelial cells play critical roles in allergen sensing and in driving T cell differentiation towards Th2 and Th17 effector or regulatory T cells (Treg)...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916086/-recombinant-adenovirus-type-5-does-not-aggravate-asthma-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-ovalbumin-induced-asthma
#14
Zhengling Zhang, Yiling Zhang, Jing Han, Ping Lu, Lin Xu
Objective To explore the effect of recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) on a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. Methods Sixty female C57BL/6 mice (6-8 weeks old and 18-20 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: healthy control group, rAd5 control group, OVA asthma control group and OVA asthma group with rAd5 immunization. 15 mice in each group. The mice in the OVA asthma control group and the OVA asthma group with rAd5 immunization were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of 50 μg OVA emulsified in 2 mg of aluminum potassium sulfate on day 0, 7 and 14; subsequently, the mice in the two groups were exposed to OVA aerosol challenge for 3 consecutive days (on day 42, 43 and 44)...
December 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915999/predictors-of-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-tuberculosis-hiv-co-infected-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia
#15
Hailay Gesesew, Birtukan Tsehayneh, Desalegn Massa, Amanuel Gebremedhin, Hafte Kahsay, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection is a bidirectional and synergistic combination of two very important pathogens in public health. To date, there have been limited clinical data regarding mortality rates among tuberculosis/HIV co-infected patients and the impact of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes in Ethiopia. This study assessed the incidence and predictors of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection mortality in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study collated tuberculosis/HIV data from Jimma University Teaching Hospital for the period of September 2010 and August 2012...
December 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913140/comparative-analysis-of-tcdd-induced-ahr-mediated-gene-expression-in-human-mouse-and-rat-primary-b-cells
#16
Natalia Kovalova, Rance Nault, Robert Crawford, Timothy R Zacharewski, Norbert E Kaminski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental pollutant that activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) resulting in altered gene expression. In vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that B cells are directly impaired by TCDD, and are a sensitive target as evidenced by suppression of antibody responses. The window of sensitivity to TCDD-induced suppression of IgM secretion among mouse, rat and human B cells is similar. Specifically, TCDD must be present within the initial 12h post B cell stimulation, indicating that TCDD disrupts early signaling network(s) necessary for B lymphocyte activation and differentiation...
November 29, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907919/the-impact-of-health-care-appointment-non-adherence-on-graft-outcomes-in-kidney-transplantation
#17
David J Taber, James N Fleming, Cory E Fominaya, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kelly J Hunt, Titte R Srinivas, Prabhakar K Baliga, John W McGillicuddy, Leonard E Egede
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to medication is a well-studied and known cause of late allograft loss, but it is difficult to measure and prospectively monitor. The aim of this study was to assess if appointment non-adherence was correlated with medication non-adherence and a predictor of graft outcomes. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study that used the National United States Renal Data System and veterans affairs health records data with time-to-event analyses conducted to assess the impact on graft and patient survival...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907195/novel-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonist-suppresses-migration-and-invasion-of-breast-cancer-cells
#18
Hamza Hanieh, Omar Mohafez, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul-Islam, Abdullah Alzahrani, Mohammad Bani Ismail, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham
BACKGROUND: Despite the remarkable progress to fight against breast cancer, metastasis remains the dominant cause of treatment failure and recurrence. Therefore, control of invasiveness potential of breast cancer cells is crucial. Accumulating evidences suggest Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a helix-loop-helix transcription factor, as a promising target to control migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. Thus, an Ahr-based exploration was performed to identify a new Ahr agonist with inhibitory potentials on cancer cell motility...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906024/rate-of-initial-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-regimen-change-and-its-predictors-among-adult-hiv-patients-at-university-of-gondar-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#20
Degefaye Zelalem Anlay, Zinahbizu Abay Alemayehu, Berihun Assefa Dachew
BACKGROUND: Regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment program. In a resource limited setting where treatment options are limited, designing strategies to increase the durability of original regimen are essential. However, information's on rate of initial regimen change and its predictors is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the rate of initial highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) regimen change and its predictors among adult HIV patients at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
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