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Nadja Förster, Inga Mewis, Hansruedi Glatt, Michael Haack, Regina Brigelius-Flohé, Monika Schreiner, Christian Ulrichs
Leaves of Moringa oleifera are used by tribes as biological cancer medicine. Scientific investigations with M. oleifera conducted so far have almost exclusively used total plant extracts. Studies on the activity of single compounds are missing. Therefore, the biological effects of the two main aromatic multi-glycosylated glucosinolates of M. oleifera were investigated in the present study. The cytotoxic effects of M. oleifera glucosinolates were identified for HepG2 cells (NRU assay), for V79-MZ cells (HPRT assay, SCE assay), and for two Salmonella typhimurium strains (Ames test)...
October 24, 2016: Food & Function
Alison M El Ayadi, Corinne H Rocca, Julia E Kohn, Denisse Velazquez, Maya Blum, Sara J Newmann, Cynthia C Harper
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are highly effective at preventing pregnancy but do not protect against sexually transmitted infection (STI). Recent efforts to improve access to intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants have raised concerns about STI prevention and reduced condom use, particularly among teenagers and young women. We evaluated whether a provider-targeted intervention to increase LARC access negatively impacted dual method use and STI incidence among an at-risk patient population...
October 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Xinlai Cheng, Karl-Heinz Merz
Indirubin is the major active component of an herbal recipe 'Dangui Luhui Wan' () in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is widely used in China for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and other chronic diseases and is known for good efficiency and very low side effects. Primary studies on the mechanism of action revealed that indirubin and derivatives are potent ATP-competitive inhibitors of CDKs and GSK3ß achieving IC50 values down to the low nanomolar range. However, the clinical application of indirubins is limited by the extremely poor water solubility (<1 mg/L in general) and consequently the insufficient bioavailability originating from strong binding forces in the crystal lattice...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Zahra Pourpak, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Mostafa Moin, Ian M Adcock, Masoud Movassaghi, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni, Esmaeil Mortaz
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness and recurring attacks of impaired breathing. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been proposed as a novel anti-asthma drug due to its effects on airway smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation and vasodilation along with its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of VIP when conjugated with α-alumina nanoparticle (α-AN) to prevent enzymatic degradation of VIP in the respiratory tract...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Aaron S Rosenberg, Robin Ruthazer, Jessica K Paulus, David M Kent, Andrew M Evens, Andreas K Klein
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma-like posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD-MM) is a rare complication of solid organ transplantation. Case series have shown variable outcomes, and survival data in the modern era are lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 212 PTLD-MM patients was identified in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between 1999 and 2011. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the effects of treatment and patient characteristics on OS were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models...
September 17, 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Manjit Kaur, Raj K S Badhan
Clinical translation of BCRP inhibitors have failed due to neurotoxicity and novel approaches are required to identify suitable modulators of BCRP to enhance CNS drug delivery. In this study we examine 18 compounds, primarily phytochemicals, as potential novel modulators of AhR-mediated regulation of BCRP expression and function in immortalised and primary porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells as a mechanism to enhance CNS drug delivery. The majority of modulators possessed a cellular viability IC50 > 100µM in both cell systems...
October 19, 2016: Brain Research
Ian D Davis, Wanling Xie, Carmel Pezaro, Frede Donskov, J Connor Wells, Neeraj Agarwal, Sandy Srinivas, Takeshi Yuasa, Benoit Beuselinck, Lori A Wood, D Scott Ernst, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Jennifer J Knox, Allan Pantuck, Sadia Saleem, Ajjai Alva, Brian I Rini, Jae-Lyun Lee, Toni K Choueiri, Daniel Y C Heng
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that changes in International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic category at start of second-line therapy (2L) for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) might predict response. OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes of 2L according to type of therapy and change in IMDC prognostic category. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a retrospective review of the IMDC database for mRCC patients who received first-line (1L) VEGF inhibitors (VEGFi) and then 2L with VEGFi or mTOR inhibitors (mTORi)...
October 19, 2016: European Urology
Nils D Arvold, Matthew Cefalu, Yun Wang, Corwin Zigler, Deborah Schrag, Francesca Dominici
It is unknown whether the addition of temozolomide (TMZ) to radiotherapy (RT) is associated with improved overall survival (OS) among older glioblastoma patients. We performed a retrospective cohort SEER-Medicare analysis of 1652 patients aged ≥65 years with glioblastoma who received ≥10 fractions of RT from 2005 to 2009, or from 1995 to 1999 before TMZ was available. Three cohorts were assembled based on diagnosis year and treatment initiated within 60 days of diagnosis: (1) 2005-2009 and TMZ/RT, (2) 2005-2009 and RT only, or (3) 1995-1999 and RT only...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Jing Xue, Qinglan Zhao, Vishal Sharma, Linh P Nguyen, Yvonne N Lee, Kim L Pham, Mouad Edderkaoui, Stephen J Pandol, Walter Park, Aida Habtezion
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cigarette smoke has been identified as an independent risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Little is known about the mechanisms by which smoking promotes development of CP. We assessed the effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands found in cigarette smoke on immune cell activation in humans and pancreatic fibrosis in animal models of CP. METHODS: We obtained serum samples from patients with CP treated at Stanford University hospital and healthy individuals (controls) and isolated CD4+ T cells; levels of interleukin-22 (IL22) were measured by ELISA and smoking histories were collected...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Y-M Chiu, C-H Tang, S-T Hung, Y-W Yang, C-H Fang, H-Y Lin
OBJECTIVES: Few studies on tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor-associated tuberculosis (TB) and hepatic events have been performed in regions where these risks are elevated. This study aimed to provide a direct comparison between adalimumab and etanercept in a high-risk population and to address the implications for physicians working with patients in such an environment. METHOD: Data collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan between 2007 and 2011 were analysed retrospectively for incidences of eight adverse events associated with TNF-α inhibitors...
October 21, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
David Rizo-Roca, Juan Gabriel Ríos-Kristjánsson, Cristian Núñez-Espinosa, Estela Santos-Alves, Ines O Goncalves, Jose Magalhaes, Antonio A Ascensao, Teresa Pagès, Ginés Viscor, Joan Ramon Torrella
Unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle morphological and functional alterations, including microvasculature damage, the repair of which is modulated by hypoxia. Here we present the effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and exercise on recovery from eccentric-induced muscle damage (EEIMD). Soleus muscles from trained rats were excised pre- (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after a double session of EEIMD protocol. A recovery treatment consisting of one of the following protocols was applied one day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), a 4-hour daily exposure to passive hypobaric hypoxia at 4000m (PHR) or hypobaric hypoxia exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Brian J McMahon, Dana Bruden, Lisa Townshend-Bulson, Brenna Simons, Phillip Spradling, Stephen Livingston, James Gove, Annette Hewitt, Julia Plotnik, Chriss Homan, Hannah Espera, Susan Negus, Mary Snowball, Youssef Barbour, Michael Bruce, Prabhu Gounder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have examined factors associated with disease progression in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We examined the association of 11 risk factors with adverse outcomes in a population-based prospective cohort observational study of Alaska Native/American Indian persons with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: We collected data from a population-based cohort study of liver-related adverse outcomes of infection in American Indian/Alaska Native persons with chronic HCV living in Alaska, recruited from 1995 through 2012...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nicola Stefano Fracchiolla, Claudio Annaloro, Francesca Guidotti, Bruno Fattizzo, Agostino Cortelezzi
Dioxin exposure and its effect on hematopoiesis and cancer have been largely investigated in both human and non-human settings. Here we systematically reviewed literature to address the question of what we know about TCDD biology and exposure. Most effects are due to TCDD interaction with a receptor of xenobiotics called AHR, which is ubiquitously represented and also works on hematopoietic myeloid and lymphoid stem cells, inducing proliferation and stem cell release from bone marrow to peripheral circulation...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology
X Y Chen, Z F Wu, X C Wang, X L Dong, J F Zhu, T Chen, Q W Xiao, Z W Jiang, Chaowei Fu
Objective: To investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) and its change on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in an adult cohort. Methods: A total of 3 043 subjects randomly selected among those without T2DM at baseline survey from the Rural Deqing Health Cohort Study were included into this study and follow up was conducted for 1 867 of them from July to November 2015. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to their baseline BMI, normal group (BMI<24.0), overweight group (BMI: 24...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Shih-Yi Lin, Cheng-Li Lin, Chao-Hsiang Chang, His-Chin Wu, Wen-Chi Chen, I-Kuan Wang, Yao Lung Liu, Fung-Chang Sung, Yen-Jung Chang, Chia-Hung Kao
Large cohort studies on whether any association existed between urological interventions for urolithiasis and the development of CKD are lacking. From claims data of the National Health Insurance (NHI) program of Taiwan, we identified 54,433 patients newly diagnosed with urolithiasis during 1998-2010. For each case, four individuals without urolithiasis were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up until the end of 2010. Incident CKD events were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code in the NHI registration database...
October 19, 2016: Urolithiasis
Abebe Megerso, Sileshi Garoma
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) service scaling up has been practiced in the Ethiopia since 2006. Regardless of increasing number of primary health care centers providing the service, the existing hospitals are still overcrowded with ART service seeking patients may be because of the common belief that treatment outcome is better for hospital patients than those treated at the primary health centers. However, documented evidence comparing the treatment outcome for the two categories of health facilities is scarce in the study setting...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Marta Flis, Kinga Szymona, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Anna Urbańska, Paweł Krukow, Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń, Barbara Zdzisińska, Ewa M Urbańska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan formed in the brain and in the periphery, known to block ionotropic glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic receptors, and to act as a ligand of G protein-coupled GPR35 receptors and human aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) receptors. KYNA seems to modulate a number of mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia including dopaminergic transmission in mesolimbic and mesocortical areas or glutamatemediated neurotransmission. The kynurenine hypothesis of schizophrenia links the occurrence of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and cognitive impairments characteristic for the disease with the disturbances of kynurenine pathway function...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hirokazu Muraoka, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Shu Wakino
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) cooperates with a longevity gene, Sirt1, to exert the potentiation of stress resistance. We have reported that the high expression level of Nampt in PTs contributes to the sufficient supply of NMN to glomeruli. We also showed that downregulation of Nampt and NMN in PT in DN leads to glomerular damages (Nature Medicine 2013). However, the regulation mechanisms of Nampt expression remain unknown. DESIGN AND METHOD: We investigated how Nampt expression is consistently retained at high levels in PTs under normal conditions and how Nampt levels are decreased in DN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jay P Reddy, Curtis A Pettaway, Lawrence B Levy, Lance C Pagliaro, Pheroze Tamboli, Priya Rao, Isuru Jayaratna, Karen E Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with regional recurrence (RR) following lymphadenectomy for penile cancer in order to determine which patients might benefit from adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS/METHODS: Men who underwent lymphadenectomy for penile squamous cell carcinoma from 1977-2014 were identified from an institutional database. Kaplan-Meier curves estimated recurrence-free survival (RFS) calculated from the date of lymphadenectomy. Cox regression models evaluated the association between RFS and patient and tumor characteristics...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Ching-Hao Li, Chen-Wei Liu, Chi-Hao Tsai, Yi-Jen Peng, Yu-Hsuan Yang, Po-Lin Liao, Chen-Chen Lee, Yu-Wen Cheng, Jaw-Jou Kang
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has been studied extensively in carcinogenesis through the genomic pathway. In recent years, AHR has also been reported to exert positive or negative effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the crucial step in tumor malignant progression. However, the detailed mechanism remains controversial. Analysis of AHR-expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissues revealed an inverse correlation between AHR protein levels and tumor cell invasion and metastasis...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
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