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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322426/leucopis-glyphinivora-tanasijtshuk-diptera-chamaemyiidae-a-new-aphidophagous-biocontrol-agent-development-survival-and-comparison-with-aphidoletes-aphidimyza-rondani-diptera-cecidomyiidae
#1
S Barriault, A O Soares, S D Gaimari, E Lucas
The silver fly Leucopis glyphinivora Tanasijtshuk (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) is an aphidophagous predator during its larval stage. Our study describes the life cycle of L. glyphinivora and evaluates its potential as a biocontrol agent. The development, survival and longevity of L. glyphinivora were observed and compared with those of the aphid gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Tests were conducted under laboratory conditions in Petri dishes with the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on potato leaves...
October 16, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322417/from-ward-to-washer-the-survival-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-on-hospital-bed-sheets-through-a-commercial-uk-nhs-healthcare-laundry-process
#2
Joanna Tarrant, Richard O Jenkins, Katie T Laird
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the survival of Clostridium difficile spores on hospital bed sheets through the United Kingdom National Health System (UK NHS) healthcare laundry process (Health Technical Memorandum (HTM) 01-04) in vitro and on bed sheets from patients with C. difficile through the commercial laundry. METHODS: Clostridium difficile spores were inoculated onto cotton sheets and laundered through a simulated washer extractor cycle using an industrial bleach detergent with sodium hypochlorite 15% and peracetic acid sour 14% (acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide; pH, 2-4)...
October 16, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322337/autophagy-a-new-strategy-for-host-directed-therapy-of-tuberculosis
#3
Seungwha Paik, Jin Kyung Kim, Chaeuk Chung, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Tuberculosis (TB), which is primarily caused by the major etiologic agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a serious infectious disease worldwide. Recently, much effort has been made to develop novel/improved therapies by modulating host responses to TB (i.e., host-directed therapy). Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that helps maintain homeostasis or the removal of invading pathogens via a lysosomal degradation process. The activation of autophagy by diverse drugs or agents may represent a promising treatment strategy against Mtb infection, even to drug-resistant strains...
October 15, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322278/antimicrobial-effects-of-terpinen-4-ol-against-oral-pathogens-and-its-capacity-for-the-modulation-of-gene-expression
#4
Ester Alves Ferreira Bordini, Caroline Coradi Tonon, Renata Serignoli Francisconi, Fernando Augusto Cintra Magalhães, Patrícia Milagros Maquera Huacho, Telma Lombardo Bedran, Sebastião Pratavieira, Luis Carlos Spolidorio, Denise Palomari Spolidorio
This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of terpinen-4-ol against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus and its influence on gbpA (S. mutans) and slpA (L. acidophilus) gene expression. As measured by XTT assay, the concentrations of terpinen-4-ol that effectively inhibited the biofilm were 0.24% and 0.95% for S. mutans and L. acidophilus, respectively. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of a biofilm attached to the enamel and dentin block surfaces with significant terpinen-4-ol effects against these microorganisms...
October 16, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322236/a-scoping-review-of-the-epidemiological-methods-used-to-investigate-the-health-effects-of-industrially-contaminated-sites
#5
REVIEW
Manuela De Sario, Roberto Pasetto, Simona Vecchi, Ariana Zeka, Gerard Hoek, Paola Michelozzi, Ivano Iavarone, Tony Fletcher, Lisa Bauleo, Carla Ancona
BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Industrial contaminated sites (ICSs) are of high concern since industrial plants have produced widespread contamination potentially affecting the health of local population OBJECTIVES: to assess the types of epidemiological designs applied in studies of health effects related to ICSs according to time periods, type of ICS, and geography. METHODS: a literature search was conducted in Medline (OVID) through June 30th, 2018, using MeSH and customized terms, and no restrictions on publication year or language...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322208/new-methods-for-the-comprehensive-analysis-of-bioactive-compounds-in-cannabis-sativa-l-hemp
#6
Federica Pellati, Virginia Brighenti, Johanna Sperlea, Lucia Marchetti, Davide Bertelli, Stefania Benvenuti
Cannabis sativa L. is a dioecious plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. The main phytochemicals that are found in this plant are represented by cannabinoids, flavones, and terpenes. Some biological activities of cannabinoids are known to be enhanced by the presence of terpenes and flavonoids in the extracts, due to a synergistic action. In the light of all the above, the present study was aimed at the multi-component analysis of the bioactive compounds present in fibre-type C. sativa (hemp) inflorescences of different varieties by means of innovative HPLC and GC methods...
October 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322206/automated-vision-based-detection-of-cracks-on-concrete-surfaces-using-a-deep-learning-technique
#7
Byunghyun Kim, Soojin Cho
At present, a number of computer vision-based crack detection techniques have been developed to efficiently inspect and manage a large number of structures. However, these techniques have not replaced visual inspection, as they have been developed under near-ideal conditions and not in an on-site environment. This article proposes an automated detection technique for crack morphology on concrete surface under an on-site environment based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). A well-known CNN, AlexNet is trained for crack detection with images scraped from the Internet...
October 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322144/mitochondrial-arabidopsis-thaliana-trxo-isoforms-bind-an-iron%C3%A2-sulfur-cluster-and-reduce-nfu-proteins-in-vitro
#8
Flavien Zannini, Thomas Roret, Jonathan Przybyla-Toscano, Tiphaine Dhalleine, Nicolas Rouhier, Jérémy Couturier
In plants, the mitochondrial thioredoxin (TRX) system generally comprises only one or two isoforms belonging to the TRX h or o classes, being less well developed compared to the numerous isoforms found in chloroplasts. Unlike most other plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two TRXo isoforms whose physiological functions remain unclear. Here, we performed a structure⁻function analysis to unravel the respective properties of the duplicated TRXo1 and TRXo2 isoforms. Surprisingly, when expressed in Escherichia coli , both recombinant proteins existed in an apo-monomeric form and in a homodimeric iron⁻sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-bridged form...
October 13, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322127/chitosan-stabilized-ag-nanoparticles-with-superior-biocompatibility-and-their-synergistic-antibacterial-effect-in-mixtures-with-essential-oils
#9
Ludmila Otilia Cinteza, Cristina Scomoroscenco, Sorina Nicoleta Voicu, Cristina Lavinia Nistor, Sabina Georgiana Nitu, Bogdan Trica, Maria-Luiza Jecu, Cristian Petcu
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in fighting multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, their use in medical application is hindered by the public concern regarding the toxicity of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, rationally designed AgNP were produced, in order to balance the antibacterial activity and toxicity. A facile, environmentally friendly synthesis was used for the electrochemical fabrication of AgNPs. Chitosan was employed as the capping agent, both for the stabilization and to improve the biocompatibility...
October 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322101/biodetoxification-of-phenolic-inhibitors-from-lignocellulose-pretreatment-using-kurthia-huakuii-lam0618-t-and-subsequent-lactic-acid-fermentation
#10
Yuejiao Xie, Qing Hu, Guodong Feng, Xu Jiang, Jinlong Hu, Mingxiong He, Guoquan Hu, Shumiao Zhao, Yunxiang Liang, Zhiyong Ruan, Nan Peng
Phenolic inhibitors generated during alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses significantly hinder bacterial growth and subsequent biofuel and biochemical production. Water rinsing is an efficient method for removing these compounds. Nevertheless, this method often generates a great amount of wastewater, and leads to the loss of solid fiber particles and fermentable sugars. Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T , a recently identified microorganism, was herein shown to be able to efficiently transform phenolic compounds (syringaldehyde, hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin) into less toxic acids...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322098/the-application-of-supercritical-fluid-extraction-in-phenolic-compounds-isolation-from-natural-plant-materials
#11
REVIEW
Katarzyna Tyśkiewicz, Marcin Konkol, Edward Rój
The separation of phenolic compounds by supercritical fluid extraction has been widely studied throughout the last two decades. This is evidenced by a number of publications and articles. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has become thus the effective method of separating the mentioned group of compounds. On the other hand, SFE is a beneficial approach in plant waste materials utilization and reduction of environmental burdens caused by the wastes. The aim of the study is to gather and systematize available information on the phenolic compounds separation that have been reported so far as well as to evaluate whether there is one optimal supercritical fluid extraction method for the phenolic compounds...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322087/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-nac-transcription-factor-gene-family-reveals-differential-expression-patterns-and-cold-stress-responses-in-the-woody-plant-prunus-mume
#12
Xiaokang Zhuo, Tangchun Zheng, Zhiyong Zhang, Yichi Zhang, Liangbao Jiang, Sagheer Ahmad, Lidan Sun, Jia Wang, Tangren Cheng, Qixiang Zhang
NAC transcription factors (TFs) participate in multiple biological processes, including biotic and abiotic stress responses, signal transduction and development. Cold stress can adversely impact plant growth and development, thereby limiting agricultural productivity. Prunus mume , an excellent horticultural crop, is widely cultivated in Asian countries. Its flower can tolerate freezing-stress in the early spring. To investigate the putative NAC genes responsible for cold-stress, we identified and analyzed 113 high-confidence PmNAC genes and characterized them by bioinformatics tools and expression profiles...
October 12, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322086/phytohormones-regulate-the-development-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#13
REVIEW
Dehua Liao, Shuangshuang Wang, Miaomiao Cui, Jinhui Liu, Aiqun Chen, Guohua Xu
Most terrestrial plants are able to form a root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for enhancing the assimilation of mineral nutrients. AM fungi are obligate symbionts that depend on host plants as their sole carbon source. Development of an AM association requires a continuous signal exchange between the two symbionts, which triggers coordinated differentiation of both partners, to enable their interaction within the root cells. The control of the AM symbiosis involves a finely-tuned process, and an increasing number of studies have pointed to a pivotal role of several phytohormones, such as strigolactones (SLs), gibberellic acids (GAs), and auxin, in the modulation of AM symbiosis, through the early recognition of events up to the final arbuscular formation...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322071/discrimination-of-malus-taxa-with-different-scent-intensities-using-electronic-nose-and-gas-chromatography%C3%A2-mass-spectrometry
#14
Junjun Fan, Wangxiang Zhang, Ting Zhou, Dandan Zhang, Donglin Zhang, Long Zhang, Guibin Wang, Fuliang Cao
Floral scent is important in plant reproduction and also has aesthetic implications. However, the accurate determination of aroma is presently limited by the available collection and analysis tools. In this study, the floral scents of four crabapple taxa exhibiting faint, weak, clear, and strong scent intensities were comparatively analyzed by electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography⁻mass spectrometry (GC⁻MS). The E-nose was able to effectively group the different taxa in the principal component analysis in correspondence with scent intensity...
October 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322055/degree-of-bacterial-contamination-of-mobile-phone-and-computer-keyboard-surfaces-and-efficacy-of-disinfection-with-chlorhexidine-digluconate-and-triclosan-to-its-reduction
#15
Jana Koscova, Zuzana Hurnikova, Juraj Pistl
The main aim of our study was to verify the effectiveness of simple disinfection using wet wipes for reduction of microbial contamination of mobile phones and computer keyboards. Bacteriological swabs were taken before and after disinfection with disinfectant wipes with active ingredients chlorhexidine digluconate and triclosan. The incidence and type of microorganisms isolated before and after disinfection was evaluated; the difference was expressed as percentage of contamination reduction. Our results confirmed the high degree of surface contamination with bacteria, some of which are opportunistic pathogens for humans...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322037/lichen-xanthones-as-models-for-new-antifungal-agents
#16
Diana I S P Resende, Patrícia Pereira-Terra, Ângela S Inácio, Paulo Martins da Costa, Eugénia Pinto, Emília Sousa, Madalena M M Pinto
Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms, the search for new antimicrobial compounds plays an important role in current medicinal chemistry research. Inspired by lichen antimicrobial xanthones, a series of novel chlorinated xanthones was prepared using five chlorination methods (Methods A⁻E) to obtain different patterns of substitution in the xanthone scaffold. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Among them, 3-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1-methyl-9 H -xanthen-9-one 15 showed promising antibacterial activity against E...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322020/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-transcriptional-regulation-by-dna-methyltransferase-inhibitor-5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-enhancing-red-pigmentation-in-bagged-granny-smith-apples-malus-domestica
#17
Changqing Ma, Bowen Liang, Bo Chang, Li Liu, Jiuying Yan, Yazhou Yang, Zhengyang Zhao
The red color of apples ( Malus domestica ) is an attractive trait for consumers. The green skinned "Granny Smith" cultivar develops red pigmentation after bagging treatment. DNA methylation plays an important role in various developmental processes in plants. To explore the possible functions of DNA methylation in the pigmentation of bagged "Granny Smith" apples, we first analyzed the anthocyanin content of fruit skin following treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321912/on-site-secretory-vesicle-delivery-drives-filamentous-growth-in-the-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#18
Allon Weiner, François Orange, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Katya Rechav, Vikram Ghugtyal, Martine Bassilana, Robert A Arkowitz
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes the skin as well as genital and intestinal mucosa of most healthy individuals. The ability of C. albicans to switch between different morphological states, e.g. from an ellipsoid yeast form to a highly polarized, hyphal form, contributes to its success as a pathogen. In highly polarized tip growing cells such as neurons, pollen tubes and filamentous fungi, delivery of membrane and cargo to the filament apex is achieved by long-range delivery of secretory vesicles tethered to motors moving along cytoskeletal cables that extend towards the growing tip...
October 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321907/expression-of-ceacam1-or-ceacam5-in-az-521-cells-restores-the-type-iv-secretion-deficiency-for-translocation-of-caga-by-helicobacter-pylori
#19
Nicole Tegtmeyer, Aileen Harrer, Verena Schmitt, Bernhard B Singer, Steffen Backert
Helicobacter pylori represents an important pathogen involved in diseases ranging from gastritis, peptic ulceration to gastric malignancies. Prominent virulence factors comprise the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA and the cytotoxin-associated genes pathogenicity island (cagPAI) encoded type-IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS effector protein CagA can be translocated into AGS and other gastric epithelial cells followed by phosphorylation through c-Src and c-Abl tyrosine kinases to hijack signaling networks. The duodenal cell line AZ-521 has been recently introduced as novel model system to investigate CagA delivery and phosphorylation in a VacA-dependent fashion...
October 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321865/antimicrobial-resistance-virulence-and-genetic-relationship-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-seafood-from-coasts-of-bohai-sea-and-yellow-sea-china
#20
Yanhua Jiang, Yubo Chu, Guosi Xie, Fengling Li, Lianzhu Wang, Jie Huang, Yuxiu Zhai, Lin Yao
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen which commonly inhabits estuarine and marine environments and seafood. In the present study, 90 V. parahaemolyticus isolates from the main seafoods from three coastal provinces surrounding Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, China were analyzed to elucidate their antimicrobial resistance, virulence and genetic relationship by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results showed that the virulence genes tdh and trh were detected in one isolate and five isolates respectively...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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