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Celeste G Black, Larissa Tavares, Anna Stachel, Adam J Ratner, Tara M Randis
OBJECTIVE:  We sought to examine pathogen distribution and clinical presentation of late-onset sepsis (LOS) at an urban tertiary care center. STUDY DESIGN:  We performed a retrospective review of all culture-confirmed cases of LOS presenting to our institution from 2013 to 2017. Medical records were evaluated for demographic information, sepsis risk factors, encounter location, and clinical outcome. RESULTS:  We identified 97 cases of LOS, with a median age at diagnosis of 25 days...
December 14, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Paolo Vercellini, Paola Viganò, Giussy Barbara, Laura Buggio, Edgardo Somigliana
Elagolix, an orally active non-peptidic GnRH antagonist, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of moderate to severe pain associated with endometriosis. As the degree of ovarian suppression obtained with elagolix is dose-dependent, pain relief may be achieved by modulating the level of hypo-oestrogenism while limiting side effects. Elagolix may thus be considered a novelty in terms of its endocrine and pharmacological properties but not for its impact on the pathogenic mechanisms of endometriosis, as the target of this new drug is, yet again, alteration of the hormonal milieu...
December 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
Millicent R Smith, A Merchant
Rapid, reliable tools are needed to infer physiological and nutritional health for managing forest systems. Understanding the processes governing tree health is central to the development of these tools. Non-foliar approaches such as the collection of phloem sap reflect processes governing both the use and acquisition of plant water and nutrients at a wide range of temporal (diurnal to seasonal) and spatial (canopy) scales. Despite this, phloem sap is not commonly employed due to an incomplete understanding of transport and post-photosynthetic processes and their effects on chemical concentrations and carbon isotope discrimination...
December 14, 2018: Tree Physiology
Camille Riffaud, Marie-Laure Pinel-Marie, Gaëtan Pascreau, Brice Felden
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are ubiquitous among bacteria, frequently expressed in multiple copies, and important for functions such as antibiotic resistance and persistence. Type I TA systems are composed of a stable toxic peptide whose expression is repressed by an unstable RNA antitoxin. Here, we investigated the functionalities, regulation, and possible cross-talk between three core genome copies of the pathogenicity island-encoded 'sprG1/sprF1' type I TA system in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus...
December 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jiaxi Wang, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Guolei Li, Yong Liu
Remobilization of stored nitrogen (N) plays an important role in the early growth of deciduous trees in spring. Several environmental factors can modulate N remobilization, but whether water stress is one such factors is unknown. This study analyzes how the size of N storage in Quercus variabilis Blume seedlings interacts with water stress to affect N remobilization, uptake and new growth. This information is important for improving success of forest tree plantations under dry spring conditions. During the first growing season, we produced seedlings with distinct N content by applying two fall N fertilization rates (12 or 24 mg N per seedling) using 15N-enriched fertilizer...
December 14, 2018: Tree Physiology
Florian Delerue, Jean-François Masfaraud, Jean-François Lascourrèges, Olivier Atteia
Development of organisms that live on contaminated soils depends on toxicity as well as several physical and chemical soil properties. We aimed to identify plant bioassays most responsive to contaminants and not to confounding factors due to soil type differences. We implemented a multi-site approach in seven contaminated sites and used different ordinary plant bioassays (fourteen-day-shoot biomass and five-day-root and shoot elongation). Most of the sites were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soils were sampled from areas of both high and low contamination...
December 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Emna Fourati, Katarina Vogel-Mikuš, Taoufik Bettaieb, Anja Kavčič, Mitja Kelemen, Primož Vavpetič, Primož Pelicon, Chedly Abdelly, Tahar Ghnaya
Sesuvium portulacastrum, a halophyte with high tolerance to heavy metals like Cd, Pb and Ni is considered for phytoremediation of metal contaminated saline soils. The tolerance to a selected metal ion could, by hypothesis, be stimulated through in vitro adaptation and regeneration of the plant. Seedlings obtained by in vitro micro-propagation, were exposed to 0, 25 and 50 μM Ni, as NiCl2 , in agar-based medium for 30 days. Growth parameters, plant water content, the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined...
December 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Xin Zhong, Yuting Li, Xingkai Che, Zishan Zhang, Yiman Li, Binbin Liu, Qingming Li, Huiyuan Gao
Oxybenzone (OBZ), an active ingredient in most sunscreens, was recently shown to be toxic to humans, corals and other animals. This study is the first to demonstrate that OBZ can significantly inhibit photosynthesis and respiration in the leaves of a higher plant, cucumber. An OBZ suspension content as low as 0.228 mg/L obviously inhibited the photosynthesis and respiration of cucumber. OBZ instantly inhibits the electron transport of chloroplasts and mitochondria in cucumber leaves. Probit analysis demonstrated that the effective content for 20% inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was 11...
December 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Shin Woong Kim, Dokyung Kim, Yooeun Chae, Dasom Kim, Youn-Joo An
As expanded polystyrene (EPS) has been utilized in soil environments, there is a need to understand interactions between chemical adsorption and the soil system. We conducted a plant bioassay using agricultural crops in a soil system containing a macro-sized EPS (8.3 ± 0.5 mm). When the EPS was collected after cultivation of no crop (control), mung bean, lettuce, and rice, we found that its water absorption rate significantly (p < 0.05) increased after mung bean and rice cultivation as compared to the no crop condition...
December 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Hayet Belmecheri-Cherifi, Alfonso Albacete, Cristina Martínez-Andújar, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea, Ouzna Abrous-Belbachir
Fenugreek is a legume cultivated for its medicinal value, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, where soil salinity is an increasing problem. In fact, salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting plant growth and productivity. Plant hormones are known to play vital roles in the ability of the plants to acclimatize to varying environments by mediating growth, development, and nutrient allocation. Thus, to gain insights about the role of plant hormones in the growth responses of salinized fenugreek plants (Trigonella foenum-graecum L...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Josefa M Navarro, Asunción Morte
An experiment was conducted with seedlings of Citrus macrophylla Wester to study the effects of P nutrition on plants inoculated with a mixture (Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of two factors: mycorrhization (-AM: non-inoculated plants, and +AM: inoculated plants) and P nutrition (0, 0.1, 1, and 5 mM P). After the P treatments had been applied for 165 days, the AM fungi showed an important effect on plant growth and P uptake, but this effect depended on the P fertilization...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Bradley Downs, Simon Sherman, Jian Cui, Yeong C Kim, Carrie Snyder, Maria Christensen, Jiangtao Luo, Henry Lynch, San Ming Wang
PURPOSE: The presence of pathogenic germline mutation in BRCA1 gene is considered as the most penetrant genetic predisposition for breast cancer. However, a portion of BRCA1 mutation carriers never develops breast cancer throughout their lifetime. This phenomenon is called incomplete penetrance. Genetic factor is proposed to contribute to this phenomenon, but the details regarding the genetic factor remain elusive. BRCA1 mutations were inherited from the ancestors of the mutation carrier families during human evolution, and their presence is a consistent threat to the survival of the mutation carrier population...
December 11, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Jesús Alberto Pérez-Romero, Bernardo Duarte, Jose-Maria Barcia-Piedras, Ana Rita Matos, Susana Redondo-Gómez, Isabel Caçador, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
A 45-days long climatic chamber experiment was design to evaluate the effect of 400 and 700 ppm atmospheric CO2 treatments with and without soil water logging in combination with 171 and 510 mM NaCl in the halophyte Salicornia ramosissima. In order to ascertain the possible synergetic impact of these factors associate to climatic change in this plant species physiological and growth responses. Our results indicated that elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration improved plant physiological performance under suboptimal root-flooding and saline conditions plants...
December 6, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Lara Saftić, Željka Peršurić, Emilia Fornal, Tomislav Pavlešić, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić
Propolis is a complex biological matrix consisting mostly of plant resins and waxes, and in a small proportion of the herbal secondary metabolites, phenols. Phenols are components that are responsible for biological activities of propolis, however, their qualitative and quantitative composition is strongly influenced by climate and vegetation. Although studies on profiling of propolis samples from different countries have been carried out for some time propolis from Croatia is still not characterized till now...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marilyn C Erickson, Jye-Yin Liao, Alison S Payton, Peter W Cook, Henk C Den Bakker, Jesus Bautista, Juan Carlos Díaz Pérez
Plant genotype has been advocated to have an important role in the fate of enteric pathogens residing in lettuce foliage. This study was therefore undertaken under the premise that different pathogen responses could occur in lettuce cultivars with cultivar selection being one of several hurdles in an overall strategy for controlling foodborne pathogens on field-grown produce. Up to eight lettuce cultivars ('Gabriella', 'Green Star', 'Muir', 'New Red Fire', 'Coastal Star', 'Starfighter', 'Tropicana', and 'Two Star') were examined in these experiments in which the plants were subjected to spray contamination of their foliage with pathogens...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Christelle Langevin, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Pierre Boudinot
Tripartite motif (TRIM) family or RBCC proteins comprises characteristic zinc-binding domains (a RING (R), a B-box type 1 (B1) and a B-box type 2 (B2)) and coiled-coil (CC) domain followed by a C-terminus variable domain. There are about 80 different TRIM proteins in human, but more than 200 in zebrafish with several large gene expansions (ftr >70 genes; btr >30 genes; trim35 > 30 genes). Repertoires of trim genes in fish are variable across fishes, but they have been remarkably diversified independently in a number of species...
December 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mostafa F El-Banna, Ahmed Mosa, Bin Gao, Xianqiang Yin, Hongyu Wang, Zahoor Ahmad
To evaluate the scavenging effect of functionalized biochar against the phytotoxicity of Pb2+ , original biochar (O-B) was chemically oxidized with either HNO3 or KMnO4 to serve as biofilters (O-BF, HNO3 -BF and KMnO4 -BF) to hydroponically grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. intybus). Plants subjected to Pb-stress showed various deteriorations in cell organelles including visible alterations in chloroplasts, malformations in plant cells, abnormalities in the mitochondrial system, inward invagination of cell walls, distortions in the plasma membrane, oversized vacuoles and irregular increase in plastoglobuli formation...
December 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sarder Arifuzzaman, Md Saidur Rahman, Myung-Geol Pang
With the continued increase in global human population, diverse contraception approaches have become increasingly essential, including non-hormonal male contraception. Non-hormonal approaches to contraception are very convenient; however, such options are limited because data regarding the identification and characterization of tissue/cell-specific targets and appropriate small molecule candidate contraceptives are lacking. Based on in-silico studies of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, performed by mining datasets in PubMed, we first reviewed testis-, epididymis-, and germline cell-specific genes/proteins, with the aim of presenting evidence that many of these could become 'druggable' targets for the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives in the future...
December 11, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Socorro Lupisan, Akira Suzuki, Noel Macalalad, Rutchie Egos, Lydia Sombrero, Michiko Okamoto, Clyde Dapat, Melisa Mondoy, Hazel Galang, Vicente Francisco Froilan Zeta, Flora de la Pena, Vicente Romano, Remigio Olveda, Hitoshi Oshitani
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide. However, the distribution of etiology of CAP varies from one country to another with limited data from rural areas. METHODS: A prospective hospital-based study on adult CAP was conducted in Leyte, Central Philippines from May 2010 to May 2012. Blood, sputum, and nasopharyngeal samples obtained from patients were used to identify pathogens using standard microbiological culture methods and PCR...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Alessandra Marchica, Giacomo Lorenzini, Romina Papini, Rodolfo Bernardi, Cristina Nali, Elisa Pellegrini
Tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is the most important gaseous pollutant and induces a mass of negative impacts on vegetation at functional and genic levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species and signalling molecules in sage plants exposed to O3 (200 ppb, 5 h). Ozone exposure induced only a transient oxidative burst, as confirmed by the rapid peak of anion superoxide during the first hours of exposure (+16% compared to controls). The spontaneous reaction of O3 with membrane fatty acids stimulates peroxidative processes, as demonstrated by the rise of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration starting after 1 h of exposure (+25%)...
December 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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