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Traumatic Brain Injury And Long Term Potentiation

Holly A Kinder, Emily W Baker, Franklin D West
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major contributor of long-term disability and a leading cause of death worldwide. A series of secondary injury cascades can contribute to cell death, tissue loss, and ultimately to the development of functional impairments. However, there are currently no effective therapeutic interventions that improve brain outcomes following TBI. As a result, a number of experimental TBI models have been developed to recapitulate TBI injury mechanisms and to test the efficacy of potential therapeutics...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Mohammad Ali Mirshekar, Alireza Sarkaki, Yaghoub Farbood, Mohammad Kazem Gharib Naseri, Mohammad Badavi, Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Abbas Haghparast
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of intellectual and cognitive disabilities. Clinically, it is essential to limit the development of cognitive impairment after TBI. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of gallic acid (GA) on neurological score, memory, long-term potentiation (LTP) from hippocampal dentate gyrus (hDG), brain lipid peroxidation and cytokines after TBI were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into three groups with 24 in each: Veh + Sham, Veh + TBI and GA + TBI (GA; 100 mg/kg, PO for 7 days before TBI induction)...
October 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Chin Lik Tan, Peter J Hutchinson
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and major disability worldwide. The initial management often depends on the severity of the injury. Pituitary dysfunction can develop as a sequela of TBI, and can have long-term, debilitating impact on the patients. Early identification and prompt intervention of post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) is essential to prevent or minimize the adverse consequences of this condition. We hereby provide an overview of the current management of TBI from a neurosurgical standpoint...
November 27, 2018: Pituitary
Jeong Bin Lee, Bethann M Affeldt, Yaritxa Gamboa, Mary Hamer, Jeff F Dunn, Andrea C Pardo, Andre Obenaus
Concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is often accompanied by long-term behavioral and neuropsychological deficits. Emerging data suggest that these deficits can be exacerbated following repeated injuries. However, despite the overwhelming prevalence of mTBI in children due to falls and sports-related activities, the effects of mTBI on white matter (WM) structure and its development in children have not been extensively examined. Moreover, the effect of repeated mTBI (rmTBI) on developing WM has not yet been studied, despite the possibility of exacerbated outcomes with repeat injuries...
November 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Leslie Wynveen, Miriam Gamble, Josephine Nabulime, Tonny Luggya, Joseph K Kalanzi, Hani Mowafi
Introduction: In Africa, traumatic brain injuries frequently result from road traffic injuries and assaults. Despite limited resources and the high costs of life-saving neurosurgical interventions, secondary brain injury prevention has the potential for improving outcomes. However, nurses and other medical personnel infrequently monitor vital signs, blood sugar, and pulse oximetry and only sporadically re-assess neurological status. Methods: In one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, 27 nurses from Mulago Hospital's emergency centre, a tertiary care trauma hospital in Kampala, Uganda, provided feedback regarding a traumatic brain injury-focused education session and use of a nursing chart for detecting secondary brain injury...
June 2018: African Journal of Emergency Medicine Revue Africaine de la Médecine D'urgence
Shannon B Juengst, Lauren Terhorst, Amy K Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Establish the factor structure of the Behavioral Assessment Screening Tool (BAST), a self-reported emotional/behavioral symptom measure for adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults with moderate-severe TBI (n = 162; n = 110). DESIGN: Assessment development (cohort study). MAIN MEASURES: Behavioral Assessment Screening Tool...
November 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Emily J Nalder, Karl Zabjek, Deirdre R Dawson, Carolina L Bottari, Isabelle Gagnon, Bradford J McFadyen, Anne W Hunt, Suzanne McKenna, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Sylvain Giroux, Nora Cullen, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
OBJECTIVE: This paper reports on a funded summit, which convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to provide consensus on the research priorities necessary for improving long-term community integration of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their caregivers. METHODS: The 2-day summit was directed using the World Café Methodology, to engage stakeholders and collaboratively arrive at a consensus on the problems to be targeted in research. Participants (n=54), drawn from two Canadian provinces, included an interdisciplinary group of researchers, clinicians, representatives from brain injury associations, individuals with TBI, and caregivers...
November 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Adan Hernandez, Chunfeng Tan, Florian Plattner, Aric F Logsdon, Karine Pozo, Mohammad A Yousuf, Tanvir Singh, Ryan C Turner, Brandon P Luke-Wold, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, James A Bibb
Direct or indirect exposure to an explosion can induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) of various severity levels. Primary TBI from blast exposure is commonly characterized by internal injuries, such as vascular damage, neuronal injury, and contusion, without external injuries. Current animal models of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) have helped to understand the deleterious effects of moderate to severe blast forces. However, the neurological effects of mild blast forces remain poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effects caused by mild blast forces combining neuropathological, histological, biochemical and neurophysiological analysis...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
Dewa Putu Gede Purwa Samatra, Ni Made Dwita Pratiwi, I Putu Eka Widyadharma
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exerts a significant impact on society with regards to physical, affective, and cognitive impairment. The consequent cognitive sequelae include a problem in memory, attention, concentration, and processing speed. Following traumatic brain injury, inflammatory response developed, characterised by increased interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) levels in the blood. IL 1-β at pathophysiological concentration has been reported to cause an inhibition of the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the areas CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Guilherme Gozzoli Podolsky-Gondim, Luciano Lopes Furlanetti, Dinark Conceição Viana, Matheus Fernando Manzolli Ballestero, Ricardo Santos de Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Head injury is a significant economic, social, and medical problem in developing countries and remains one of the leading causes of pediatric morbidity and mortality. The association of traumatic brain injury and coagulopathy in children is linked with an increase in mortality and poor functional outcomes. However, its impact on long-term outcome has not been discussed in the literature so far. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of coagulopathy diagnosed by routine laboratory tests on neurological outcome following traumatic brain injury in children...
December 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Andriy O Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Tetyana Y Korol, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term disabilities and devastating chronic neurological complications including problems with cognition, motor function, sensory processing, as well as behavioral deficits and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, personality change and social unsuitability. Clinical data suggest that disruption of the thalamo-cortical system including anatomical and metabolic changes in the thalamus following TBI might be responsible for some chronic neurological deficits following brain trauma...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hsiao-Yue Wee, Chung-Han Ho, Ching-Hung Chang, Chung-Ching Chio, Jhi-Joung Wang, Che-Chuan Wang, Jinn-Rung Kuo
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been reported as a risk factor for brain tumor, but whether TBI affects systemic cancer remains to be determined. We aimed to investigate the incidence and factors associated with cancer development in TBI patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A propensity score (age, gender, and comorbidity)-matched longitudinal cohort study of 34,556 pre-existing TBI patients and 69,112 patients without TBI between January 2000 and December 2015 was presented using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Lonnie G Petersen, Justin S Lawley, Alexander Lilja-Cyron, Johan C G Petersen, Erin J Howden, Satyam Sarma, William K Cornwell, Rong Zhang, Louis A Whitworth, Michael A Williams, Marianne Juhler, Benjamin D Levine
KEY POINTS: During long-term missions, some astronauts experience structural and functional changes of the eyes and brain which resemble signs/symptoms experienced by patients with intracranial hypertension. Weightlessness prevents the normal cerebral volume and pressure 'unloading' associated with upright postures on Earth, which may be part of the cerebral and ocular pathophysiology. By placing the lower body in a negative pressure device (LBNP) that pulls fluid away from cranial compartments, we simulated effects of gravity and significantly lowered pressure within the brain parenchyma and ventricle compartments...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Quan Du, Jian-Feng Weng, Li-Feng Luo, Meng Cen, Wen-Hua Yu, Yong-Ke Zheng, Wei Hu, Jian-Wei Pan, Xiao-Qiao Dong
BACKGROUND: ST2, a receptor of interleukin-33, is involved in inflammation. We discerned the relationship between serum soluble ST2 (sST2) concentrations, inflammation, severity and prognosis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We measured serum sST2, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, myelin basic protein, glial fibrillary astrocyte protein, S100B, neuron-specific enolase, phosphorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, Tau and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 concentrations in 106 healthy controls and 106 severe TBI patients...
September 25, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Ashley L Russell, Robert J Handa, T John Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 1.7 million people in the United States every year, resulting in increased risk of death and disabilities. A significant portion of TBIs experienced by military personnel are induced by explosive blast devices. Active duty military personnel are especially vulnerable to mild blast-induced (mb)TBI and the associated long-term effects, such as anxiety disorders. Additionally, females are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with anxiety-related disorders. The mechanism by which mbTBI results in anxiety disorders in males and females is unknown...
November 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Patricia E G Bestelmeyer, Nick J Davis, Oren Poliva, Robert D Rafal
Auditory agnosia is an inability to make sense of sound that cannot be explained by deficits in low-level hearing. In view of recent promising results in the area of neurorehabilitation of language disorders after stroke, we examined the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a young woman with general auditory agnosia caused by traumatic injury to the left inferior colliculus. Specifically, we studied activations to sound embedded in a block design using functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after application of anodal tDCS to the right auditory cortex...
September 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Xiao-Hong Wang, Qiang Liu, Ze-Tao Shao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, also resulting in long-term serious neurological impairment in survivors. However, the pathogenesis of TBI has not been fully understood. Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors, containing a basic region-leucine zipper motif. JDP2 plays essential roles in various cellular processes, including differentiation, apoptosis, senescence and aging. In the study, we attempted to explore the effects of JDP2 on TBI progression both in vivo and in vitro...
October 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jenny E Ozga, Jessica M Povroznik, Elizabeth B Engler-Chiurazzi, Cole Vonder Haar
Executive function is an umbrella term that includes cognitive processes such as decision-making, impulse control, attention, behavioral flexibility, and working memory. Each of these processes depends largely upon monoaminergic (dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic) neurotransmission in the frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, among other brain areas. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces disruptions in monoaminergic signaling along several steps in the neurotransmission process - synthesis, distribution, and breakdown - and in turn, produces long-lasting deficits in several executive function domains...
October 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Bao-Liang Zhang, Yue-Shan Fan, Ji-Wei Wang, Zi-Wei Zhou, Yin-Gang Wu, Meng-Chen Yang, Dong-Dong Sun, Jian-Ning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury can cause loss of neuronal tissue, remote symptomatic epilepsy, and cognitive deficits. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of traumatic brain injury are not yet clear. Hippocampal excitability is strongly correlated with cognitive dysfunction and remote symptomatic epilepsy. In this study, we examined the relationship between traumatic brain injury-induced neuronal loss and subsequent hippocampal regional excitability. We used hydraulic percussion to generate a rat model of traumatic brain injury...
October 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Colleen N Bodnar, Josh M Morganti, Adam D Bachstetter
A substantial number of individuals have long-lasting adverse effects from a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Depression is one of these long-term complications that influences many aspects of life. Depression can limit the ability to return to work, and even worsen cognitive function and contribute to dementia. The mechanistic cause for the increased depression risk associated with a TBI remains to be defined. As TBI results in chronic neuroinflammation, and priming of glia to a secondary challenge, the inflammatory theory of depression provides a promising framework for investigating the cause of depression following a TBI...
October 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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