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Traumatic Brain Injury And Long Term Potentiation

Xintong Ge, Jinwen Yu, Shan Huang, Zhenyu Yin, Zhaoli Han, Fanglian Chen, Zengguang Wang, Jianning Zhang, Ping Lei
BACKGROUND: Athletes, military personnel and mobility-declined elderly people are prone to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI). The injury does not cause acute pathological changes, but leads to chronic neurodegeneration, long-term cognitive dysfunction and even chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Many existing rmTBI animal models reported uncontrollable adverse effects and long experiment period. Therefore, an improved model needs to be designed. NEW METHOD: Our rmTBI mouse model is a modification of the closed head injury method using electronic controlled cortical impact system...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Hugh H Chan, Connor A Wathen, Nicole D Mathews, Olivia Hogue, James P Modic, Ronak Kundalia, Cara Wyant, Hyun-Joo Park, Imad M Najm, Bruce D Trapp, Andre G Machado, Kenneth B Baker
BACKGROUND: Many traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors live with persistent disability from chronic motor deficits despite contemporary rehabilitation services, underscoring the need for novel treatment. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We have previously shown that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) can enhance post-stroke motor recovery and increase the expression of markers of long-term potentiation in perilesional cerebral cortex. We hypothesize that a similar beneficial effect will be for motor deficits induced by unilateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rodents through long-term potentiation- and anti-inflammatory based mechanisms...
July 25, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Daniel M Costello, Andrew H Kaye, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz
Sport-related concussion is a common form of mild traumatic brain injury that is now recognised as a serious health issue. Growing evidence suggests concussion may result in long-term and severe neurological disabilities. Recent research into the diagnosis and management of concussion may provide new approaches to concussion management that limit the potential long-term adverse effects of concussion. This paper summarises the problem of sport-related concussion and reviews key factors (sex, age, genetics) that may modify concussion outcomes...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Rajesh K Aneja, Alicia Alcamo, Jessica L Cummings, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko-Feldman, Qingde Wang, C Edward Dixon, Timothy Billiar, Patrick M Kochanek
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a prototypical danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecule that is considered a late mediator of neuro-inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prior studies have suggested that targeting HMGB1 may lead to neuroprotective effects, but none of these studies have reported cognitive outcomes. We hypothesized that loss of HMGB1 before and after TBI would markedly attenuate posttraumatic brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, improve functional deficits and long-term neuropathology versus control mice...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nicholas B Angstman, Hans-Georg Frank, Christoph Schmitz
Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury induces significant long-term health issues, yet treatment procedures remain underdeveloped. Therapeutic hypothermia has been postulated as a potentially effective therapy. In a Caenorhabditis elegans model, we demonstrate a dose-dependent reduction in lifespan following exposure to blast-like shock waves. Using polyvinyl alcohol, we show that cavitation is a key injurious factor in the damaging shock wave component. Short and long lifespan C. elegans mutants demonstrated the interaction of genetic and environmental longevity-determining factors...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Niketa A Patel, Lauren Daly Moss, Jea-Young Lee, Naoki Tajiri, Sandra Acosta, Charles Hudson, Sajan Parag, Denise R Cooper, Cesario V Borlongan, Paula C Bickford
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is a common therapeutic target for traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to its contribution to delayed secondary cell death and has the potential to occur for years after the initial insult. Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) containing the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 are a novel, cell-free regenerative approach to long-term recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have the potential to modulate inflammation at the genomic level. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 has been shown to be an important component of the secretome of hASCs...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bamini Gopinath, Gerald Liew, Ashley Craig, Ilaria Pozzato, Susanne Meares, George Burlutsky, Ian D Cameron, Paul Mitchell
The adverse long-term consequences following traumatic brain injury are poorly understood, particularly on the cerebral microvasculature. Retinal vessels are a surrogate marker of cerebral vascular changes. We therefore aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between serious head injury or being knocked unconscious, and/or concussion and retinal microvascular signs, specifically, mean retinal arteriolar and venular calibre, in older adults after accounting for potential confounders. This cohort study involved 2,624 adults with mean age of 66...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Agustin Godoy, Jose Orquera, Alejandro A Rabinstein
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity represents an uncommon and potentially life-threatening complication of severe brain injuries, which are most commonly traumatic. This syndrome is a clinical diagnosis based on the recurrent occurrence of tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis, tachypnea, and occasionally high fever and dystonic postures. The episodes may be induced by stimulation or may occur spontaneously. Underdiagnosis is common, and delayed recognition may increase morbidity and long-term disability...
April 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Vedrana Đurić, Bojan Batinić, Jelena Petrović, Dušanka Stanić, Zorica Bulat, Vesna Pešić
Although a magnesium-mediated attenuation of memory deficits was reported in animal models of ageing and traumatic brain injury, a possible memory enhancement in healthy subjects has not been investigated yet. We used novel object recognition test (NORT) to examine the effects of acute (30 mg/kg) and chronic (50 mg/kg, 28 days) Mg-sulfate treatment on the long-term memory (LTM) in healthy adult male rats, and to test the sustainability of magnesium effects in the models of acute and chronic (21 days) ACTH administration (10 μg/animal), mimicking the stress- and depression-like conditions...
July 10, 2018: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
Chet T Moritz
Recent advances in neuroscience and devices are ushering in a new generation of medical treatments. Engineered biodevices are demonstrating the potential to create long-term changes in neural circuits, termed neuroplasticity. Thus, the approach of engineering neuroplasticity is rapidly expanding, building on recent demonstrations of improved quality of life for people with movement disorders, epilepsy, and spinal cord injury. In addition, discovering the fundamental mechanisms of engineered neuroplasticity by leveraging anatomically well-documented systems like the spinal cord is likely to provide powerful insights into solutions for other neurotraumas, such as stroke and traumatic brain injury, as well as neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis...
June 11, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Nagalakshmi B, Sneha Sagarkar, Amul J Sakharkar
Of all types of injuries, traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are most likely to result in death or permanent physical or mental disabilities. With the increased frequency of military operations, terror attacks, sports activities, and road mishaps, TBIs are increasingly becoming a serious public health concern. Patients who meet with moderate-to-severe TBI suffer from a constellation of cognitive deficits and phenotypes due to diffuse axonal injury. On the contrary, minimal TBI precipitates in long-term behavioral complications commonly referred to as post-traumatic stress disorders, which consist of depression, anxiety, hallucinations, and so on...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Milos D Ikonomovic, Eric E Abrahamson, Shaun W Carlson, Steven H Graham, C Edward Dixon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for development of chronic neurodegenerative disorders later in life. This review summarizes the current knowledge and concepts regarding the connection between long-term consequences of TBI and aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and Parkinsonism, with implications for novel therapy targets. Several aggregation-prone proteins such as the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, tau proteins, and α-synuclein protein are involved in secondary pathogenic cascades initiated by a TBI and are also major building blocks of the hallmark pathological lesions in chronic human neurodegenerative diseases with dementia...
June 20, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Emily W Baker, Holly A Kinder, Jessica M Hutcheson, Kylee Jo J Duberstein, Simon R Platt, Elizabeth W Howerth, Franklin D West
A number of preclinical rodent models have been developed in an effort to recapitulate injury mechanisms and identify potential therapeutics for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is a major cause of death and long-term disability in the United States. However, the lack of restorative treatments for TBI has led to considerable criticism of current preclinical therapeutic development strategies, namely the translatability of widely-used rodent models to human patients. The use of large animal models, such as the pig, with more comparable brain anatomy and physiology to humans may enhance the translational capacity of current preclinical animal models...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jeongmin Park, Eunshil Choi, Seulgi Shin, Sungsu Lim, Dohee Kim, Suji Baek, Kang Pa Lee, Jae Jun Lee, Byeong Han Lee, Bokyung Kim, Keunsoo Jeong, Ja-Hyun Baik, Yun Kyung Kim, Sehoon Kim
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an intracranial injury which can induce immediate neuroinflammation and long-term neurological deficits. Methylene blue (MB) as a nootropic has a great potential to treat neurodegeneration after TBI because of its anti-inflmmatory and neuroprotective functions. However, its limited accumulation to the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a major hurdle to be overcome. In this paper, we present a polymer surfactant-encapsulated nanocomplex of MB as a delivery system with high BBB permeability for efficacious treatment of TBI-induced neurodegeneration...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Wenjie Dai, Aizhong Liu, Atipatsa C Kaminga, Jing Deng, Zhiwei Lai, Jianzhou Yang, Shi Wu Wen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic accident (RTA), an unexpected traumatic event, may not only lead to death and serious physical injuries, but also could put survivors at an increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, particularly acute stress disorder (ASD). Early assessment of trauma-related psychological responses is important because acute trauma responses in the early post-traumatic period are among the robust predictors of long-term mental health problems. However, estimates of the prevalence of ASD among RTA survivors varied considerably across studies...
June 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Mohit Kumar, Rajat Sandhir
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been widely known as a toxic gas for more than 300 years in scientific community. However, the understanding about this small molecule has changed recently as many physiological and pathological roles of H2S have been identified. Presently, H2S is considered as a third gasotransmitter and neuromodulator after carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO). H2S plays an important role in memory and cognition through mechanisms that involve long-term potentiation (LTP) and calcium homeostasis in the neuronal cells...
June 4, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jie Liu, Xinsheng Xue, Ying Wu, Chaohua Yang, Ning Li, Huiping Li
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a leading cause of death among young people worldwide. Survivors may live with a long-term TBI-related disability or even develop a disorder of consciousness resulting in poor life quality and shortened life expectancy. Thus far, very few approaches have been found to be effective in the consciousness recovery of these patients. Acupuncture has long been used in the treatment of neurological disorders in China. However, its efficacy and safety in consciousness recovery remain to be proved...
May 29, 2018: Trials
Justin R Piro, Georgette L Suidan, Jie Quan, YeQing Pi, Sharon M O'Neill, Marissa Ilardi, Nikolay Pozdnyakov, Thomas A Lanz, Hualin Xi, Robert D Bell, Tarek A Samad
BACKGROUND: Acute neurological insults caused by infection, systemic inflammation, ischemia, or traumatic injury are often associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) followed by infiltration of peripheral immune cells, cytotoxic proteins, and water. BBB breakdown and extravasation of these peripheral components into the brain parenchyma result in inflammation, oxidative stress, edema, excitotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. These downstream consequences of BBB dysfunction can drive pathophysiological processes and play a substantial role in the morbidity and mortality of acute and chronic neurological insults, and contribute to long-term sequelae...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Susie Bergeron, Hilary Flint, Zeynep Hansen
Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, especially among young children, teenagers, and young adults, is a significant problem in Ada County, Idaho, and the United States. Although much has been learned about concussion, considerable controversy and gaps in knowledge still exist in many areas of research, leading to variation in concussion assessment, treatment, and management protocols. Health systems can positively impact concussion outcomes through community education and outreach, and provision of timely, coordinated, evidence-based clinical care...
May 14, 2018: Population Health Management
Ping Sun, Da Zhi Liu, Glen C Jickling, Frank R Sharp, Ke-Jie Yin
Central nervous system (CNS) injuries, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI), are important causes of death and long-term disability worldwide. MicroRNA (miRNA), small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, can serve as diagnostic biomarkers and are emerging as novel therapeutic targets for CNS injuries. MiRNA-based therapeutics include miRNA mimics and inhibitors (antagomiRs) to respectively decrease and increase the expression of target genes...
July 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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