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Andrey Kim, Yongsoo Song, Miran Kim, Keewoo Lee, Jung Hee Cheon
BACKGROUND: Security concerns have been raised since big data became a prominent tool in data analysis. For instance, many machine learning algorithms aim to generate prediction models using training data which contain sensitive information about individuals. Cryptography community is considering secure computation as a solution for privacy protection. In particular, practical requirements have triggered research on the efficiency of cryptographic primitives. METHODS: This paper presents a method to train a logistic regression model without information leakage...
October 11, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Bin Yan, Yong Xiang, Guang Hua
In visual cryptography (VC) for grayscale image, size reduction leads to bad perceptual quality to the reconstructed secret image. To improve the quality, the current efforts are limited to the design of VC algorithm for binary image, and measuring the quality with metrics that are not directly related to how the human visual system (HVS) perceives halftone images. We propose an analysis-by-synthesis (AbS) framework to integrate the halftoning process and the VC encoding: the secret pixel/block is reconstructed from the shares in the encoder and the error between the reconstructed secret and the original secret images is fed back and compensated concurrently by the error diffusion process...
October 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
P Frigerio Parenza, D Amaya, Ó Martínez-Matos, P Vaveliuk
Nonsymmetric curved beams having a symmetric caustic skeleton are presented. They arise from a finite jump in the symmetric spectral phase that breaks the symmetry of the beam intensity without altering its associated caustic curve. These nonsymmetric beams can be represented as a superposition of two caustic beams whose wave fields have well-defined even and odd symmetries with weight coefficients dependent on the phase jump. In this approach, the phase jump acts as a measure of the beam asymmetry degree that can be easily controlled in experiments...
September 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Alicia Sit, Robert Fickler, Fatimah Alsaiari, Frédéric Bouchard, Hugo Larocque, Patrick Gregg, Lu Yan, Robert W Boyd, Siddharth Ramachandran, Ebrahim Karimi
Optical fiber links and networks are integral components within and between cities' communication infrastructures. Implementing quantum cryptographic protocols on either existing or new fiber links will provide information-theoretical security to fiber data transmissions. However, there is a need for ways to increase the channel bandwidth. Using the transverse spatial degree of freedom is one way to transmit more information and increase tolerable error thresholds by extending the common qubit protocols to high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) schemes...
September 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Marcone Pereira de Almeida, Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Júnior, Luis Javier García Villalba, Tai-Hoon Kim
We present a novel technique for source authentication of a packet stream in a network, which intends to give guarantees that a specific network flow really comes from a claimed origin. This mechanism, named packet level authentication (PLA), can be an essential tool for addressing Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Based on designated verifier signature schemes, our proposal is an appropriate and unprecedented solution applying digital signatures for DoS prevention. Our scheme does not rely on an expensive public-key infrastructure and makes use of light cryptography machinery that is suitable in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT)...
August 26, 2018: Sensors
Frédéric Bouchard, Alicia Sit, Felix Hufnagel, Aazad Abbas, Yingwen Zhang, Khabat Heshami, Robert Fickler, Christoph Marquardt, Gerd Leuchs, Robert W Boyd, Ebrahim Karimi
Quantum communication has been successfully implemented in optical fibres and through free-space. Fibre systems, though capable of fast key and low error rates, are impractical in communicating with destinations without an established fibre link. Free-space quantum channels can overcome such limitations and reach long distances with the advent of satellite-to-ground links. However, turbulence, resulting from local fluctuations in refractive index, becomes a major challenge by adding errors and losses. Recently, an interest in investigating the possibility of underwater quantum channels has arisen...
August 20, 2018: Optics Express
Paulo Vinicius Pereira Pinheiro, Poompong Chaiwongkhot, Shihan Sajeed, Rolf T Horn, Jean-Philippe Bourgoin, Thomas Jennewein, Norbert Lütkenhaus, Vadim Makarov
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises information theoretic secure key as long as the device performs as assumed in the theoretical model. One of the assumptions is an absence of information leakage about individual photon detection outcomes of the receiver unit. Here we investigate the information leakage from a QKD receiver due to photon emission caused by detection events in single-photon detectors (backflash). We test commercial silicon avalanche photodiodes and a photomultiplier tube, and find that the former emit backflashes...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Piotr Antonik, Marvyn Gulina, Jaël Pauwels, Serge Massar
Using the machine learning approach known as reservoir computing, it is possible to train one dynamical system to emulate another. We show that such trained reservoir computers reproduce the properties of the attractor of the chaotic system sufficiently well to exhibit chaos synchronization. That is, the trained reservoir computer, weakly driven by the chaotic system, will synchronize with the chaotic system. Conversely, the chaotic system, weakly driven by a trained reservoir computer, will synchronize with the reservoir computer...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
I Stewart, D Ilie, A Zamyatin, S Werner, M F Torshizi, W J Knottenbelt
Quantum computers are expected to have a dramatic impact on numerous fields due to their anticipated ability to solve classes of mathematical problems much more efficiently than their classical counterparts. This particularly applies to domains involving integer factorization and discrete logarithms, such as public key cryptography. In this paper, we consider the threats a quantum-capable adversary could impose on Bitcoin, which currently uses the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to sign transactions...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Fatima Akram, Ikram Ul Haq, Haider Ali, Aiman Tahir Laghari
There has been an ascending growth in the capacity of information being generated. The increased production of data in turn has put forward other challenges as well thus, and there is the need to store this information and not only to store it but also to retain it for a prolonged time period. The reliance on DNA as a dense storage medium with high storage capacity and its ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions has increased over the past few years. There have been developments in reading and writing different forms of data on DNA, codes for encrypting data and using DNA as a way of secret writing leading towards new styles like stenography and cryptography...
October 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Zoubir Hamici
The integration of wireless sensor networks into Internet of things, led to a new generation of sensor nodes, directly connected to remote servers, for signal processing and decision making. The migration of data processing from local node, achieved by decoupling the node hardware from the required processing capabilities, is only possible through implementations of network virtualization. The virtualization which brings, new services that are executed remotely has led to security challenges, yet to be resolved, due to the increasing amount of data being continually exchanged between the sensor node-hub and remote servers...
July 30, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Simon Lebech Cichosz, Mads Nibe Stausholm, Thomas Kronborg, Peter Vestergaard, Ole Hejlesen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes often generate large amounts of data specifically related to the disease and to their general health. Cross-institutional sharing of patient health care data is complex, and as a consequence, data are not always available to the health care provider treating the patient. Accommodating this challenge could lead to better clinical effectiveness and improve clinical research. This work aims to present an approach for a blockchain-based platform for sharing health care data...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Guosheng Xu, Shuming Qiu, Haseeb Ahmad, Guoai Xu, Yanhui Guo, Miao Zhang, Hong Xu
To provide secure communication, the authentication-and-key-agreement scheme plays a vital role in multi-server environments, Internet of Things (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSNs), etc. This scheme enables users and servers to negotiate for a common session initiation key. Our proposal first analyzes Amin et al.'s authentication scheme based on RSA and proves that it cannot provide perfect forward secrecy and user un-traceability, and is susceptible to offline password guessing attack and key-compromise user impersonation attack...
July 23, 2018: Sensors
Tong Zhang, C L Philip Chen, Long Chen, Xiangmin Xu, Bin Hu
This paper is to design substitution boxes (S-Boxes) using innovative I-Ching operators (ICOs) that have evolved from ancient Chinese I-Ching philosophy. These three operators- intrication, turnover, and mutual- inherited from I-Ching are specifically designed to generate S-Boxes in cryptography. In order to analyze these three operators, identity, compositionality, and periodicity measures are developed. All three operators are only applied to change the output positions of Boolean functions. Therefore, the bijection property of S-Box is satisfied automatically...
July 23, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Igor Radanović, Robert Likić
Blockchain technology is a decentralized database that stores a registry of assets and transactions across a peer-to-peer computer network, which is secured through cryptography, and over time, its history gets locked in blocks of data that are cryptographically linked together and secured. So far, there have been use cases of this technology for cryptocurrencies, digital contracts, financial and public records, and property ownership. It is expected that future uses will expand into medicine, science, education, intellectual property, and supply chain management...
October 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Byoung S Ham
Quantum coherence control is reinvestigated for a new physical insight in quantum nonlinear optics and applied for a wavelength-convertible quantum memory in a solid ensemble whose spin states are inhomogeneously broadened. Unlike typical atomic media whose spin decays are homogeneous, a spin inhomogeneously broadened solid ensemble requires a counter-intuitive quantum coherence control to avoid spontaneous emission-caused quantum noises. Such a quantum coherence control in a solid ensemble satisfying both near perfect retrieval efficiency and ultralong photon storage offers a solid framework to quantum repeaters, scalable qubit generations, quantum cryptography, and highly sensitive magnetometry...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xue-Bi An, Hong-Wei Li, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Meng-Jun Hu, Wei Huang, Bing-Jie Xu, Shuang Wang, Wei Chen, Guang-Can Guo, Zheng-Fu Han
Random number generation is an important task in modern science. A variety of quantum random number generation protocols have been proposed and realized. These protocols, however, are all based on two parties. Based on the weak measurement technique, we propose and realize a quantum random number generator among three observers. The violation of a double classical dimension witness based on the determinant value is first observed in experiment. With the heralding single-photon source, our experimental setup attains the independent assumption and the dimension assumption, which means our setup is semi-device-independent (DI)...
July 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Petar Pjanic, Anselm Grundhofer
In this paper, we propose Paxel, a generic framework for modeling the interaction between a projector and a high-frequency pattern surface. Using this framework, we present two different application setups (cf. Fig. 1a): a novel colorchanging effect, created with a single projected image and only when the projection surface is changed from a pattern surface to a uniform white surface. The observed effect relies on the spatially different reflectance properties of these two surfaces. Using this approach, one can alter color proprieties of the projected image such as hue or chroma...
April 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Robertas Damaševičius, Rytis Maskeliūnas, Egidijus Kazanavičius, Marcin Woźniak
Cryptographic frameworks depend on key sharing for ensuring security of data. While the keys in cryptographic frameworks must be correctly reproducible and not unequivocally connected to the identity of a user, in biometric frameworks this is different. Joining cryptography techniques with biometrics can solve these issues. We present a biometric authentication method based on the discrete logarithm problem and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, perform its security analysis, and demonstrate its security characteristics...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Kai Fan, Shangyang Wang, Yanhui Ren, Hui Li, Yintang Yang
With the development of electronic information technology, electronic medical records (EMRs) have been a common way to store the patients' data in hospitals. They are stored in different hospitals' databases, even for the same patient. Therefore, it is difficult to construct a summarized EMR for one patient from multiple hospital databases due to the security and privacy concerns. Meanwhile, current EMRs systems lack a standard data management and sharing policy, making it difficult for pharmaceutical scientists to develop precise medicines based on data obtained under different policies...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
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