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Marie-Christine Roehsner, Joshua A Kettlewell, Tiago B Batalhão, Joseph F Fitzsimons, Philip Walther
One-time programs, computer programs which self-destruct after being run only once, are a powerful building block in cryptography and would allow for new forms of secure software distribution. However, ideal one-time programs have been proved to be unachievable using either classical or quantum resources. Here we relax the definition of one-time programs to allow some probability of error in the output and show that quantum mechanics offers security advantages over purely classical resources. We introduce a scheme for encoding probabilistic one-time programs as quantum states with prescribed measurement settings, explore their security, and experimentally demonstrate various one-time programs using measurements on single-photon states...
December 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Hadiseh Nasari, Matthieu Dupré, Boubacar Kanté
Random media introduce large degrees of freedom in device design and can thus address challenges in manipulating optical waves. Wave shaping with metasurfaces has mainly utilized periodic or quasi-periodic grids, and the potential of random arrangement of particles for devices has only come under investigation recently. The main difficulty in pursuing random metasurfaces is the identification of the degrees of freedom that optimize their efficiencies and functions. They can also encode information using the statistics of particle distribution...
December 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Yan Yu, Nan Zhao
Broadcast and multi-cast communications are two important applications in quantum information science. Such applications guarantee the implementation of quantum information theory. In this paper, we propose two general schemes for the quantum broadcast and multi-cast communications to ensure that the central party (sender) can broadcast arbitrary single-qubit state to multiple receivers synchronously. Moreover, it is guaranteed that the information among the multiple receivers is different to satisfy the requirement in multi-cast communications...
October 29, 2018: Optics Express
Matan Mazor, Noam Mazor, Roy Mukamel
Often researchers wish to mark an objective line between study plans that were specified before data acquisition and decisions that were made following data exploration. Contrary to common perception, registering study plans to an online platform prior to data collection does not by itself provide such an objective distinction, even when the registration is time-stamped. Here we adapt a method from the field of cryptography to allow encoding of study plans and predictions within random aspects of the data acquisition process...
November 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Majid Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Waseem
Quantum information processing made a tremendous and remarkable impact on number of classical mechanic's problems. The impact does not only stop at classical mechanics but also the cyber security paradigm. Quantum information and cryptography are two classes of quantum information processing which use the idea of qubits instead of bits as in classical information security. The idea of fast computations with multiple complexity level is becoming more realistic in the age of quantum information due to quantum parallelism where a single quantum computer does allow to compute hundreds of classical computers with less efforts and more accuracy...
2018: PloS One
Zeqi Chen, Jiahai Chen, Meng Chen, Shu-Di Bao
With the increasing demand forinformation interaction and data transmission in medical and healthcare Internet of Things applications, effective and secure transmissions of data become particularly important. To address this problem, this paper focuses on a novel method of secure compressed sensing, which can be readily applied to physiological signals and other kinds of health signals. The method is able to efficiently reduce the sampling data and at the same time secure them without an extra significant computational cost, where a key is bound to the compressed sensing process with a symmetric cryptography design...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Manuel Suárez-Albela, Paula Fraga-Lamas, Tiago M Fernández-Caramés
The latest Internet of Things (IoT) edge-centric architectures allow for unburdening higher layers from part of their computational and data processing requirements. In the specific case of fog computing systems, they reduce greatly the requirements of cloud-centric systems by processing in fog gateways part of the data generated by end devices, thus providing services that were previously offered by a remote cloud. Thanks to recent advances in System-on-Chip (SoC) energy efficiency, it is currently possible to create IoT end devices with enough computational power to process the data generated by their sensors and actuators while providing complex services, which in recent years derived into the development of the mist computing paradigm...
November 10, 2018: Sensors
Weiping Peng, Danhua Cheng, Cheng Song
The security strength of the traditional one-time-pad encryption system depends on the randomness of the secret key. However, It can hardly to generatea truerandom key by using the existing technologies and methods, and it is also difficult to issue and store the random keywhich is at least as long as the plaintext. Therefore, we pay more attention to the logical operation used in the encryption and decryption but not to how to generate the random key. The calculator, a three-dimensional DNA self-assembly pyramid structure, is designed to construct four common logical operations (AND, OR, NOT, XOR) by programming DNA interactions...
2018: PloS One
Liping Zhang, He Luo, Lanchao Zhao, Yixin Zhang
Recently, remote points-of-care as a novel medical model has emerged and received considerable attention due to its convenient medical services such as efficient real-time monitoring and prompt information feedback. Although the points-of-care has more attractive advantages compared with traditional health care systems, some important issues still require a serious consideration such as privacy protection and the security of the transmitted biomedical signals. In this study, we propose a novel authentication and key agreement mechanism that ensures privacy preservation and provides biomedical signals protection during the communication process by negotiating a shared key to encrypt/decrypt sensitive information...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Pujuan Ma, Lei Gao, Pavel Ginzburg, Roman E Noskov
Bistability is widely exploited to demonstrate all-optical signal processing and light-based computing. The standard paradigm of switching between two steady states corresponding to "0" and "1" bits is based on the rule that a transition occurs when the signal pulse intensity overcomes the bistability threshold, and otherwise, the system remains in the initial state. Here, we break with this concept by revealing the phenomenon of indefinite switching in which the eventual steady state of a resonant bistable system is transformed into a nontrivial function of signal pulse parameters for moderately intense signal pulses...
2018: Light, Science & Applications
Andrey Kim, Yongsoo Song, Miran Kim, Keewoo Lee, Jung Hee Cheon
BACKGROUND: Security concerns have been raised since big data became a prominent tool in data analysis. For instance, many machine learning algorithms aim to generate prediction models using training data which contain sensitive information about individuals. Cryptography community is considering secure computation as a solution for privacy protection. In particular, practical requirements have triggered research on the efficiency of cryptographic primitives. METHODS: This paper presents a method to train a logistic regression model without information leakage...
October 11, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Bin Yan, Yong Xiang, Guang Hua
In visual cryptography (VC) for grayscale image, size reduction leads to bad perceptual quality to the reconstructed secret image. To improve the quality, the current efforts are limited to the design of VC algorithm for binary image, and measuring the quality with metrics that are not directly related to how the human visual system (HVS) perceives halftone images. We propose an analysis-by-synthesis (AbS) framework to integrate the halftoning process and the VC encoding: the secret pixel/block is reconstructed from the shares in the encoder and the error between the reconstructed secret and the original secret images is fed back and compensated concurrently by the error diffusion process...
October 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
P Frigerio Parenza, D Amaya, Ó Martínez-Matos, P Vaveliuk
Nonsymmetric curved beams having a symmetric caustic skeleton are presented. They arise from a finite jump in the symmetric spectral phase that breaks the symmetry of the beam intensity without altering its associated caustic curve. These nonsymmetric beams can be represented as a superposition of two caustic beams whose wave fields have well-defined even and odd symmetries with weight coefficients dependent on the phase jump. In this approach, the phase jump acts as a measure of the beam asymmetry degree that can be easily controlled in experiments...
September 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Alicia Sit, Robert Fickler, Fatimah Alsaiari, Frédéric Bouchard, Hugo Larocque, Patrick Gregg, Lu Yan, Robert W Boyd, Siddharth Ramachandran, Ebrahim Karimi
Optical fiber links and networks are integral components within and between cities' communication infrastructures. Implementing quantum cryptographic protocols on either existing or new fiber links will provide information-theoretical security to fiber data transmissions. However, there is a need for ways to increase the channel bandwidth. Using the transverse spatial degree of freedom is one way to transmit more information and increase tolerable error thresholds by extending the common qubit protocols to high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) schemes...
September 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Marcone Pereira de Almeida, Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Júnior, Luis Javier García Villalba, Tai-Hoon Kim
We present a novel technique for source authentication of a packet stream in a network, which intends to give guarantees that a specific network flow really comes from a claimed origin. This mechanism, named packet level authentication (PLA), can be an essential tool for addressing Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Based on designated verifier signature schemes, our proposal is an appropriate and unprecedented solution applying digital signatures for DoS prevention. Our scheme does not rely on an expensive public-key infrastructure and makes use of light cryptography machinery that is suitable in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT)...
August 26, 2018: Sensors
Frédéric Bouchard, Alicia Sit, Felix Hufnagel, Aazad Abbas, Yingwen Zhang, Khabat Heshami, Robert Fickler, Christoph Marquardt, Gerd Leuchs, Robert W Boyd, Ebrahim Karimi
Quantum communication has been successfully implemented in optical fibres and through free-space. Fibre systems, though capable of fast key and low error rates, are impractical in communicating with destinations without an established fibre link. Free-space quantum channels can overcome such limitations and reach long distances with the advent of satellite-to-ground links. However, turbulence, resulting from local fluctuations in refractive index, becomes a major challenge by adding errors and losses. Recently, an interest in investigating the possibility of underwater quantum channels has arisen...
August 20, 2018: Optics Express
Paulo Vinicius Pereira Pinheiro, Poompong Chaiwongkhot, Shihan Sajeed, Rolf T Horn, Jean-Philippe Bourgoin, Thomas Jennewein, Norbert Lütkenhaus, Vadim Makarov
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises information theoretic secure key as long as the device performs as assumed in the theoretical model. One of the assumptions is an absence of information leakage about individual photon detection outcomes of the receiver unit. Here we investigate the information leakage from a QKD receiver due to photon emission caused by detection events in single-photon detectors (backflash). We test commercial silicon avalanche photodiodes and a photomultiplier tube, and find that the former emit backflashes...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Piotr Antonik, Marvyn Gulina, Jaël Pauwels, Serge Massar
Using the machine learning approach known as reservoir computing, it is possible to train one dynamical system to emulate another. We show that such trained reservoir computers reproduce the properties of the attractor of the chaotic system sufficiently well to exhibit chaos synchronization. That is, the trained reservoir computer, weakly driven by the chaotic system, will synchronize with the chaotic system. Conversely, the chaotic system, weakly driven by a trained reservoir computer, will synchronize with the reservoir computer...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
I Stewart, D Ilie, A Zamyatin, S Werner, M F Torshizi, W J Knottenbelt
Quantum computers are expected to have a dramatic impact on numerous fields due to their anticipated ability to solve classes of mathematical problems much more efficiently than their classical counterparts. This particularly applies to domains involving integer factorization and discrete logarithms, such as public key cryptography. In this paper, we consider the threats a quantum-capable adversary could impose on Bitcoin, which currently uses the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to sign transactions...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Fatima Akram, Ikram Ul Haq, Haider Ali, Aiman Tahir Laghari
There has been an ascending growth in the capacity of information being generated. The increased production of data in turn has put forward other challenges as well thus, and there is the need to store this information and not only to store it but also to retain it for a prolonged time period. The reliance on DNA as a dense storage medium with high storage capacity and its ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions has increased over the past few years. There have been developments in reading and writing different forms of data on DNA, codes for encrypting data and using DNA as a way of secret writing leading towards new styles like stenography and cryptography...
October 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
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