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Mediodorsal nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089460/arc-protein-expression-after-unilateral-intracranial-self-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-is-upregulated-in-specific-nuclei-of-memory-related-areas
#1
Elisabet Kádár, Eva Vico Varela, Laura Aldavert-Vera, Gemma Huguet, Ignacio Morgado-Bernal, Pilar Segura-Torres
BACKGROUND: Intracranial Self-Stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is a deep brain stimulation procedure, which has a powerful enhancement effect on explicit and implicit memory. However, the downstream synaptic plasticity events of MFB-ICSS in memory related areas have not been described thoroughly. This study complements previous work studying the effect of MFB-ICSS on the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein, which has been widely established as a synaptic plasticity marker...
August 8, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022540/macaque-parvocellular-mediodorsal-thalamus-dissociable-contributions-to-learning-and-adaptive-decision-making
#2
Subhojit Chakraborty, Zakaria Ouhaz, Stuart Mason, Anna S Mitchell
Distributed brain networks govern adaptive decision-making, new learning and rapid updating of information. However, the functional contribution of the rhesus macaque monkey parvocellular nucleus of the mediodorsal thalamus (MDpc) in these key higher cognitive processes remains unknown. The current study investigated the impact of MDpc damage in cognition. Preoperatively, animals were trained on an object-in-place scene discrimination task that assesses rapid learning of novel information within each session...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989183/chronic-intermittent-treatment-with-a-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist-impairs-recognition-memory-and-brain-network-functional-connectivity
#3
Francisco M Mouro, Joaquim A Ribeiro, Ana M Sebastião, Neil Dawson
Elucidating how cannabinoids affect brain function is instrumental for the development of therapeutic tools aiming to mitigate 'on target' side effects of cannabinoid based therapies. A single treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, disrupts recognition memory in mice. Here we evaluate how prolonged, intermittent (30 days) exposure to WIN 55,212-2 (1mg/kg) alters recognition memory and impacts on brain metabolism and functional connectivity. We show that chronic, intermittent treatment with WIN 55,212-2 disrupts recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test) without affecting locomotion and anxiety-like behaviour (Open Field and Elevated Plus Maze)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926840/injury-of-thalamocortical-connection-between-the-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-and-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Sang Seok Yeo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910762/correlation-of-longitudinal-gray-matter-volume-changes-and-motor-recovery-in-patients-after-pontine-infarction
#5
Peipei Wang, Xiuqin Jia, Miao Zhang, Yanxiang Cao, Zhilian Zhao, Yi Shan, Qingfeng Ma, Tianyi Qian, Jingjuan Wang, Jie Lu, Kuncheng Li
The mechanisms of motor functional recovery after pontine infarction (PI) remain unclear. Here, we assessed longitudinal changes in gray matter volume (GMV) and examined the relationship between GMV and clinical outcome. Fifteen patients with unilateral PI underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neurological exams five times during a period of 6 months. Another 15 healthy participants were enrolled as the normal control (NC) group and were examined with the same protocol. The MR exam included routine protocol and a 3D T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo scan...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899404/cortico-thalamic-hypo-and-hyperconnectivity-extend-consistently-to-basal-ganglia-in-schizophrenia
#6
Mihai Avram, Felix Brandl, Josef Bäuml, Christian Sorg
Schizophrenia is characterized by hypoconnectivity or decreased intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between prefrontal-limbic cortices and thalamic nuclei, as well as hyperconnectivity or increased iFC between primary-sensorimotor cortices and thalamic nuclei. However, cortico-thalamic iFC overlaps with larger, structurally defined cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) circuits. If such an overlap is relevant for intrinsic hypo-/hyperconnectivity, it suggests (i) that patterns of cortico-subcortical hypo-/hyperconnectivity extend consistently from thalamus to basal ganglia nuclei; and (ii) such consistent hypo-/hyperconnectivity might link distinctively but consonant with different symptom dimensions, namely cognitive and psychotic impairments...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729357/effects-of-systemic-cholinergic-antagonism-on-reinforcer-devaluation-in-macaques
#7
Hannah F Waguespack, Ludise Málková, Patrick A Forcelli, Janita Turchi
The capacity to adjust actions based on new information is a vital cognitive function. An animal's ability to adapt behavioral responses according to changes in reward value can be measured using a reinforcer devaluation task, wherein the desirability of a given object is reduced by decreasing the value of the associated food reinforcement. Elements of the neural circuits serving this ability have been studied in both rodents and nonhuman primates. Specifically, the basolateral amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and mediodorsal thalamus have each been shown to play a critical role in the process of value updating, required for adaptive goal selection...
June 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702122/temporally-dissociable-effects-of-ketamine-on-neuronal-discharge-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-thalamo-cortical-networks
#8
Maria Amat-Foraster, Anders A Jensen, Niels Plath, Kjartan F Herrik, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
BACKGROUND: Sub-anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist ketamine evoke transient psychotomimetic effects, followed by persistent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients and rodents through still poorly understood mechanisms. Since phencyclidine (PCP) disinhibits thalamo-cortical networks by blocking NMDA-Rs on GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RtN), we examined ketamine's actions in the same areas...
July 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604176/deficits-in-prospective-memory-following-damage-to-the-medial-subdivision-of-the-mediodorsal-thalamic-nucleus
#9
Giorgia Cona, Gianvito Laera, Nicola Edelstyn, Patrizia S Bisiacchi
Identifying the neurocognitive mechanisms that lead individuals remembering to execute an intention at the right moment (prospective memory, PM) and how such mechanisms are influenced by the features of that intention is a fundamental theoretical challenge. In particular, the functional contribution of subcortical regions to PM is still unknown. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the medial subdivision of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (mMDT) in PM, with particular focus on the processes that are mediated by the projections from/to this structure...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524205/organization-of-afferents-to-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-the-rat
#10
Monika J M Murphy, Ariel Y Deutch
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is usually defined as the frontal cortical area receiving a mediodorsal thalamic (MD) innervation. Certain areas in the medial wall of the rat frontal area receive a MD innervation. A second frontal area that is the target of MD projections is located dorsal to the rhinal sulcus and often referred to as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Both the medial PFC and OFC are comprised of a large number of cytoarchitectonic regions. We assessed the afferent innervation of the different areas of the OFC, with a focus on projections arising from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine neurons...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481526/change-of-information-represented-by-thalamic-mediodorsal-neurons-during-the-delay-period
#11
Yumiko Watanabe, Shintaro Funahashi
The thalamic mediodorsal (MD) nucleus plays an important role in transforming visual information into motor information during spatial working-memory performances. To understand the neural mechanism of this transformation process, we examined whether or not the information represented in individual MD neuron's activity changes during a trial of the task. Two monkeys performed two oculomotor delayed-response tasks (an ordinary and a rotatory oculomotor delayed-response task). As MD neurons show directional delay-period activity, we compared the directional selectivity of the same MD neuron between these two tasks and determined whether the activity represented the cue direction or the saccade direction...
April 11, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467603/cognitive-functions-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-involving-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#12
REVIEW
Zakaria Ouhaz, Hugo Fleming, Anna S Mitchell
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) has been implicated in executive functions (such as planning, cognitive control, working memory, and decision-making) because of its significant interconnectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Yet, whilst the roles of the PFC have been extensively studied, how the MD contributes to these cognitive functions remains relatively unclear. Recently, causal evidence in monkeys has demonstrated that in everyday tasks involving rapid updating (e.g., while learning something new, making decisions, or planning the next move), the MD and frontal cortex are working in close partnership...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430525/interval-timing-errors-in-a-patient-with-thalamic-chronotaraxis
#13
R Hayashi, S Yamaguchi, Y Katsumata, M Mimura
Thalamic chronotaraxis is an isolated disorientation of time caused by the damage of thalamus, especially the mediodorsal nucleus. We performed interval timing trials on a patient with this phenomenon. Based on the results of those trials and compared to the previous reports, thalamic chronotaraxis of our case might be due to the disfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex caused by the right thalamic infarction.
March 2018: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352027/the-thalamus-in-drug-addiction-from-rodents-to-humans
#14
REVIEW
Anna S Huang, Jameson A Mitchell, Suzanne N Haber, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
Impairments in response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) have been proposed to underlie the clinical symptoms of drug addiction as mediated by cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. The bulk of evidence supporting the iRISA model comes from neuroimaging research that has focused on cortical and striatal influences with less emphasis on the role of the thalamus. Here, we highlight the importance of the thalamus in drug addiction, focusing on animal literature findings on thalamic nuclei in the context of drug-seeking, structural and functional changes of the thalamus as measured by imaging studies in human drug addiction, particularly during drug cue and non-drug reward processing, and response inhibition tasks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113642/prefrontal-thalamic-anatomical-connectivity-and-executive-cognitive-function-in-schizophrenia
#15
Monica Giraldo-Chica, Baxter P Rogers, Stephen M Damon, Bennett A Landman, Neil D Woodward
BACKGROUND: Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses...
March 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034318/mediodorsal-thalamic-neurons-mirror-the-activity-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-responding-to-movement-and-reinforcement-during-a-dynamic-dnmtp-task
#16
Rikki L A Miller, Miranda J Francoeur, Brett M Gibson, Robert G Mair
The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837019/medial-thalamic-stroke-and-its-impact-on-familiarity-and-recollection
#17
Lola Danet, Jérémie Pariente, Pierre Eustache, Nicolas Raposo, Igor Sibon, Jean-François Albucher, Fabrice Bonneville, Patrice Péran, Emmanuel J Barbeau
Models of recognition memory have postulated that the mammillo-thalamic tract (MTT)/anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) complex would be critical for recollection while the Mediodorsal nucleus (MD) of the thalamus would support familiarity and indirectly also be involved in recollection (Aggleton et al., 2011). 12 patients with left thalamic stroke underwent a neuropsychological assessment, three verbal recognition memory tasks assessing familiarity and recollection each using different procedures and a high-resolution structural MRI...
August 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777058/causal-evidence-from-humans-for-the-role-of-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-working-memory
#18
Jari Peräkylä, Lihua Sun, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola, Juha Öhman, Timo Möttönen, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC, has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation...
December 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710525/differential-role-of-the-anterior-and-intralaminar-lateral-thalamic-nuclei-in-systems-consolidation-and-reconsolidation
#20
Joëlle Lopez, Karine Gamache, Carmelo Milo, Karim Nader
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and the intralaminar/lateral thalamic nuclei (ILN/LT) play different roles in memory processes. The ATN are believed to be part of an extended hippocampal system, and the ILN/LT have strong connections with the medial prefrontal cortex. It was shown that the ILN/LT are involved in systems consolidation. However, whether they are necessary for memory retrieval as well remains unclear. We, therefore, used c-Fos immunohistochemistry and reversible inactivations to investigate the role of the ATN and ILN/LT in recent and remote contextual fear memory retrieval in rats...
January 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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