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information sciences

Peng Cai, Yan Peng, Yan Wang, Xukai Wang
BACKGROUND: White-coat hypertension (WCH) is a debatable risk factor of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and the current study results on the association between WCH and arterial stiffness are inconsistent. The aim was to investigate the effect of WCH on arterial stiffness using meta-analysis. METHODS: Based on prespecified search strategies and inclusion criteria, Medline, Embase, Web Of Science, Cochrane Library, and BioSciences Information Service Preview databases were reviewed...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mojtaba Nouhi, Mohamad Hadian, Alireza Olyaeemanesh
BACKGROUND: Surgical intervention is one of the common therapeutic interventions applied to a vast class of diseases. Unwarranted variation in practice style in different locations is considered as practice style variations (PSVs), which cause undesirable effects on patient health status and economic consequences. The magnitude of the variations in surgical interventions and its effects on clinical outcomes of patients and also utilization of resources have been investigated in recent years...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Debbie Lee, Moukaram Tertuliano, George Vellidis, Casey Harris, Marissa K Grossman, Sreekumari Rajeev, Karen Levy
The recognition that irrigation water sources contribute to preharvest contamination of produce has led to new regulations on testing microbial water quality. To best identify contamination problems, growers who depend on irrigation ponds need guidance on how and where to collect water samples for testing. In this study, we evaluated several sampling strategies to identify Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination in five ponds used for irrigation on produce farms in southern Georgia. Both Salmonella and E...
October 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Suzanne Day, Meredith Blumberg, Thi Vu, Yang Zhao, Stuart Rennie, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Stakeholder engagement is an essential component of HIV clinical trials. We define stakeholder engagement as an input by individuals or groups with an interest in HIV clinical trials to inform the design or conduct of said trials. Despite its value, stakeholder engagement to inform HIV clinical trials has not been rigorously examined. The purpose of our systematic review is to examine stakeholder engagement for HIV clinical trials and compare it to the recommendations of the UNAIDS/AVAC Good Participatory Practice (GPP) guidelines...
October 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Adrià Escobet-Montalbán, Roman Spesyvtsev, Mingzhou Chen, Wardiya Afshar Saber, Melissa Andrews, C Simon Herrington, Michael Mazilu, Kishan Dholakia
Optical approaches to fluorescent, spectroscopic, and morphological imaging have made exceptional advances in the last decade. Super-resolution imaging and wide-field multiphoton imaging are now underpinning major advances across the biomedical sciences. While the advances have been startling, the key unmet challenge to date in all forms of optical imaging is to penetrate deeper. A number of schemes implement aberration correction or the use of complex photonics to address this need. In contrast, we approach this challenge by implementing a scheme that requires no a priori information about the medium nor its properties...
October 2018: Science Advances
Asha Behdinan, Elliot Gunn, Prativa Baral, Lathika Sritharan, Patrick Fafard, Steven J Hoffman
The current lack of synthesized evidence for informing the design of scientific advisory committees (SACs) is surprising in light of the widespread use of SACs throughout decision-making processes. While existing research points to the importance of quality, relevance, and legitimacy for SACs' effectiveness, those planning SACs would benefit from efforts to systematically pinpoint optimal designs of these committees for maximal effectiveness. Search strategies are developed for seven electronic databases. Of the 1895 systematic reviews identified, six reviews meet the inclusion criteria: they report the results of systematic reviews that followed a clearly identified systematic methodology, examine factors related to the design of SACs, and involve processes in the natural or social sciences...
September 2018: Global Challenges
Katharine Thoday, Precious Benjamin, Meixi Gan, Elisa Puzzolo
Background: In 2007, the Indonesian Government instigated a national program to convert domestic kerosene users to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking. This was primarily motivated by the rising cost of kerosene subsidies. Objective: To review the national conversion program and LPG scale up by evaluating its impacts, including assessing sustained changes in cooking behaviour and consequent reductions in exposure to household air pollution (HAP). Methods and data sources: Searches of peer-review and grey literature in both English and Bahasa Indonesian were conducted and supplemented by interviews with key informants, data from the National Statistics Agency and results from household surveys...
October 2018: Energy for Sustainable Development: the Journal of the International Energy Initiative
Frank Pennekamp, Mikael Pontarp, Andrea Tabi, Florian Altermatt, Roman Alther, Yves Choffat, Emanuel A Fronhofer, Pravin Ganesanandamoorthy, Aurélie Garnier, Jason I Griffiths, Suzanne Greene, Katherine Horgan, Thomas M Massie, Elvira Mächler, Gian Marco Palamara, Mathew Seymour, Owen L Petchey
Losses and gains in species diversity affect ecological stability1-7 and the sustainability of ecosystem functions and services8-13 . Experiments and models have revealed positive, negative and no effects of diversity on individual components of stability, such as temporal variability, resistance and resilience2,3,6,11,12,14 . How these stability components covary remains poorly understood15 . Similarly, the effects of diversity on overall ecosystem stability16 , which is conceptually akin to ecosystem multifunctionality17,18 , remain unknown...
October 17, 2018: Nature
Masoud Behzadifar, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Meysam Behzadifar, Wesam Kooti, Ignazio Vecchio, Giulia Malaguarnera, Mariano Martini, Farnaz Kheirandish
BACKGROUND: Fascioliasis, an infectious disorder with a serious public health burden, is caused by two liver flukes belonging to the genus Fasciola. Iran is among the endemic areas for this disease. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Iran. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science (WoS), and Google Scholar, as well as Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran and Irandoc from January 2000 to June 2016...
October 17, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Junjie Zou, Juanfang Lin, Chao Li, Ruirui Zhao, Lulu Fan, Jesse Yu, Jingwei Shao
BACKGROUND: Cancer metastasis has emerged as a major public health threat that cause majority of cancer fatalities. Traditional chemotherapeutics have been effective in the past but suffer from low therapeutic efficiency and harmful side-effects. Recently, it has been reported ursolic acid (UA), one of the naturally abundant pentacyclic triterpenes, possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-cancer properties. More importantly, UA has the features of low toxicity, liver protection and the potential of anti-cancer metastasis...
October 16, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Emily M Becker-Haimes, Kelsie H Okamura, Constance D Baldwin, Edward Wahesh, Christopher Schmidt, Rinad S Beidas
Reports on the behavioral health workforce highlight the need to enhance evidence-based capacity; evidence-based interventions incorporated into pre-service graduate curricula (coursework and fieldwork) are needed to meet this goal. Improving educational practices across pre-service settings will require understanding of and careful attention to the contextual factors that exert pressure on curricula. The authors believe efforts to change educational practices can be enhanced by application of implementation science principles...
October 18, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Luca Chiapperino
Background: Epigenetics is a burgeoning field of contemporary biosciences, which has attracted a lot of interest both in biomedical and in social sciences. Sources of data: Unsystematic literature analysis and retrospective mapping of highly cited work (source: Web of Science core collection) in the social sciences and humanities engaging with epigenetics. Areas of agreement: Epigenetics poses no new ethical issue over and above those discussed in relation to genetics...
October 17, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Coral J Yao, Cong Cao, Michael M Bornstein, Nikos Mattheos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to compare patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) of implant-supported fixed complete dentures (IFCDs) and overdentures (IODs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science were searched, complemented by manual search. Studies published in English up to November 2016 comparing removable with fixed implant-supported prosthesis on fully edentulous patients were included. The review focused on impact on patients' oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), satisfaction or other patient-reported outcomes measures...
October 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Laura Ellen Ashcraft, Miya Asato, Amy J Houtrow, Dio Kavalieratos, Elizabeth Miller, Kristin N Ray
BACKGROUND: Parent empowerment is often an expressed goal in clinical pediatrics and in pediatric research, but the antecedents and consequences of parent empowerment are not well established. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize potential antecedents and consequences of parent empowerment in healthcare settings. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The inclusion criteria were (1) studies with results about parent empowerment in the context of children's healthcare or healthcare providers; and (2) qualitative studies, observational studies, and systematic reviews of such studies...
October 17, 2018: Patient
A H Mohsin, A A Zaidan, B B Zaidan, A S Albahri, O S Albahri, M A Alsalem, K I Mohammed
The development of wireless body area sensor networks is imperative for modern telemedicine. However, attackers and cybercriminals are gradually becoming aware in attacking telemedicine systems, and the black market value of protected health information has the highest price nowadays. Security remains a formidable challenge to be resolved. Intelligent home environments make up one of the major application areas of pervasive computing. Security and privacy are the two most important issues in the remote monitoring and control of intelligent home environments for clients and servers in telemedicine architecture...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Hubert Krotkiewski, Andrzej Górski, Michał Zimecki
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis (AITE) was founded in 1953 by Ludwik Hirszfeld, a world famous Polish physician and scientist in the field of microbiology and immunology. Initially, AITE was published in Polish, but within a few years, it changed to English to increase the range and number of international readers. In its over 65 year history, AITE has had several Editors and a number of Publishers. In the period 1977-1991, AITE was listed in the system of scientific information Current Contents/Life Sciences, but for several years, its impact on the international readership of the Journal was negligible...
October 16, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Brendan P Cassidy, Lori Harwood, Leah E Getchell, Michael Smith, Shannon L Sibbald, Louise M Moist
Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are asked to choose a renal replacement therapy or conservative management. Education and knowledge transfer play key roles in this decision-making process, yet they remain a partially met need. Objective: We sought to understand the dialysis modality decision-making process through exploration of the predialysis patient experience to better inform the educational process. Design: Qualitative descriptive study...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Madamanchi Geethangili, Shih-Torng Ding
The genus Phyllanthus (L.) is one of the most important groups of plants belonging to the Phyllantaceae family. Phyllanthus urinaria (L.) is an annual perennial herbal species found in tropical Asia, America, China, and the Indian Ocean islands. P. urinaria is used in folk medicine as a cure to treat jaundice, diabetes, malaria, and liver diseases. This review provides traditional knowledge, phytochemistry, and biological activities of P. urinaria . The literature reviewed for this article was obtained from the Web of Science, SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar journal papers published prior to December 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Vitaly Panchuk, Irina Yaroshenko, Andrey Legin, Valentin Semenov, Dmitry Kirsanov
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is a modern method of element analysis, widely applied in forensic science, archeology, geochemistry and other fields. Chemometric data processing tools and approaches may help XRF to become even more informative. These tools allow for convenient data visualization, exploration of hidden relations in the data, classification of samples and quantitative treatment of noisy and overlapped spectra. This review describes the most popular chemometric techniques employed in XRF studies and provides typical examples of such applications...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Maryam Nesari, Joanne K Olson, Ben Vandermeer, Linda Slater, David M Olson
BACKGROUND: Evidence relating maternal history of abuse before pregnancy with pregnancy outcomes is controversial. This study aims to examine the association between maternal histories of abuse before pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight. METHODS: We searched Subject Headings and keywords for exposure and the outcomes through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Scopus, PILOTS, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global and Web of Science Core Collection in April 2017...
October 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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