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information sciences

Rebecca E Lee, Elizabeth Lorenzo, Jacob Szeszulski, Anel Arriola, Meg Bruening, Paul A Estabrooks, Jennie Hill, Flavio Marsiglia, Teresia O'Connor, Kim Sellers Pollins, Gabriel Q Shaibi, Erica Soltero, Michael Todd
Strategies are needed to help early care and education centers (ECEC) comply with policies to meet daily physical activity and fruit and vegetable guidelines for young children. This manuscript describes the design and methodology of Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a 12-session cluster-randomized controlled crossover design trial using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to test a garden-based ECEC physical activity and fruit and vegetables promotion intervention for young children aged 3-5 years in 20 sites...
December 11, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
James Howard, Raghav C Dwivedi, Liam Masterson, Prasad Kothari, Harry Quon, F Christopher Holsinger
BACKGROUND: More than 400,000 cases of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) are diagnosed every year worldwide and this is rising. Much of the increase has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-positive OPSCC patients are often younger and have significantly improved survival relative to HPV-negative patients. Traditional management of OPSCC has been with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, as this was shown to have similar survival to open surgery but with significantly lower morbidity...
December 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Grant E Gardner, Jennifer Parrish
Biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are a critical instructional group in the successful implementation of classroom reform efforts in higher education. Despite this, little is known about effective Teaching Professional Development (TPD) of this largely novice instructor group. This Idea to explore article proposes that a comparison of what we already know about novice K-12 science teachers beliefs about teaching and learning might inform future research into GTA TPD. As such, data related to teaching ability and practice beliefs is provided to compare and contrast these constructs in GTA and novice K-12 teacher groups...
December 13, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Ivana Petrovic, Hina Panchal, Paula Demetrio De Souza Franca, Marisol Hernandez, Colleen C McCarthy, Jatin P Shah
BACKGROUND: Segmental mandibulectomy impairs health-related quality of life (QoL), by altering speech, mastication, swallowing, and facial aesthetics. Fibula free flap (FFF) used for mandible reconstruction is known to improve outcomes; however, minimal information exists in the literature regarding patient-reported outcomes. We aim to assess how current studies evaluate patient perception following segmental mandibulectomy and FFF mandible reconstruction. METHODS: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a search was conducted for publications involving FFF mandible reconstruction from 2005 to 2017 using PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsychInfo...
December 12, 2018: Head & Neck
Anne Rodrigues Ferreira, Eliete Farias Azevedo
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Subcutaneous (SC) formulations for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) must be evaluated for efficacy and safety in comparison with preexisting IV formulations to identify potential benefits and risks. LITERATURE SEARCH: This is a systematic review of clinical trials. MEDLINE®/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), and reference lists were searched for relevant studies. DATA EVALUATION: Data regarding efficacy and safety were registered in a form designed for this review...
January 13, 2019: Oncology Nursing Forum
Norma B Bulamu, Billingsley Kaambwa, Julie Ratcliffe
BACKGROUND: This paper reports the methods and findings from a systematic review of economic evaluations conducted in the community aged care sector between 2000 and 2016. METHODS: Online databases searched were PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and web of science, CINAHL and informit. Studies were included if they 1) were full economic evaluations that compared both the costs and outcomes of two or more interventions 2) in study population of people aged 65 years and over 3) dependent older people living in the community 4) alternatives being compared were care models or service delivery interventions in the community aged care sector (a group of programs that have been established as a support system to allow older people to remain living in their own homes for as long as possible, as an alternative to institutional or residential care) and 5) published in the English language between 2000 and November 2016...
December 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
David J McConkey, Seth P Lerner
PURPOSE: To provide a condensed summary of the Basic Science chapter that was included in the Third International Consultation on Bladder Cancer. METHODS: World bladder cancer basic science experts used the published literature to create summaries of recent progress in their areas of expertise. RESULTS: The completion of several large-scale genomics projects coupled with a strong collaborative culture within the research community and the exciting clinical activity of immune checkpoint blockade have combined to transform the bladder cancer research landscape...
December 13, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Michelle Brandt, Raquel Luiza Santos de Carvalho, Tatiana Belfort, Marcia Cristina Nascimento Dourado
Metamemory is the awareness of one's own knowledge and control of memory, and refers to the online ability to gather information about the current state of the memory system. Objective: Metamemory is one's own knowledge and control of memory. A systematic review was performed to identify the types of tasks used for evaluating metamemory monitoring, the stimuli used in these tasks, their limitations and the outcomes in people with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD). Methods: This systematic review followed PRISMA methodology...
October 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Sander van der Leeuw
This paper summarizes some personal impressions of the 7th conference of the International Complex Systems Society, co-organized with "Future Earth", held in Stockholm on August 24-26, 2017. The main point is that it is urgent and important to consider the sustainability conundrum as long-term, society-driven one, and to place societal dynamics at the core of how we, as a global society, came to this point, how ongoing dynamics are driving us towards a tipping point, and which role the Information and Communication Technology revolution plays in that process...
2018: Sustainability science
Thomas Elmqvist, José Siri, Erik Andersson, Pippin Anderson, Xuemei Bai, Pranab Kishore Das, Tatu Gatere, Andrew Gonzalez, Julie Goodness, Steven N Handel, Ellika Hermansson Török, Jessica Kavonic, Jakub Kronenberg, Elisabet Lindgren, David Maddox, Raymond Maher, Cheikh Mbow, Timon McPhearson, Joe Mulligan, Guy Nordenson, Meggan Spires, Ulrika Stenkula, Kazuhiko Takeuchi, Coleen Vogel
Cities are currently experiencing serious, multifaceted impacts from global environmental change, especially climate change, and the degree to which they will need to cope with and adapt to such challenges will continue to increase. A complex systems approach inspired by evolutionary theory can inform strategies for policies and interventions to deal with growing urban vulnerabilities. Such an approach would guide the design of new (and redesign of existing) urban structures, while promoting innovative integration of grey, green and blue infrastructure in service of environmental and health objectives...
2018: Sustainability science
Maria Jose Martinez-Harms, Stefan Gelcich, Rainer M Krug, Fleur J F Maseyk, Hannah Moersberger, Archi Rastogi, Geoffrey Wambugu, Cornelia B Krug, Eva M Spehn, Unai Pascual
Sustainability is a key challenge for humanity in the context of complex and unprecedented global changes. Future Earth, an international research initiative aiming to advance global sustainability science, has recently launched knowledge-action networks (KANs) as mechanisms for delivering its research strategy. The research initiative is currently developing a KAN on "natural assets" to facilitate and enable action-oriented research and synthesis towards natural assets sustainability. 'Natural assets' has been adopted by Future Earth as an umbrella term aiming to translate and bridge across different knowledge systems and different perspectives on peoples' relationships with nature...
2018: Sustainability science
Oluwadurotimi S Aworunse, Oluwatomiwa Adeniji, Olusola L Oyesola, Itunuoluwa Isewon, Jelili Oyelade, Olawole O Obembe
Lately, the term "genomics" has become ubiquitous in many scientific articles. It is a rapidly growing aspect of the biomedical sciences that studies the genome. The human genome contains a torrent of information that gives clues about human origin, evolution, biological function, and diseases. In a bid to demystify the workings of the genome, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was initiated in 1990, with the chief goal of sequencing the approximately 3 billion nucleotide base pairs of the human DNA...
2018: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Mohammed Asdullah, Afroz Alam Ansari, Masood Hassan Khan, Nasir A Salati, Kauser J Khawja, Arti S Sachdev
Introduction: The lingula is used for identifying the site for injection of local anesthetics and for excision of nerve in facial neuralgia. The relationship between lingula and lingual nerves may aid in risk associated with an impacted third molar. Due to its connection to nerve and vascular structures, the study of the lingula provides important information related to oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures, such as the sagittal split ramus osteotomy and the intraoral vertico-sagittal ramus osteotomy carried out to correct dento facial deformities...
July 2018: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
Boya Wang, Chris Thachuk, Andrew D Ellington, Erik Winfree, David Soloveichik
Artificially designed molecular systems with programmable behaviors have become a valuable tool in chemistry, biology, material science, and medicine. Although information processing in biological regulatory pathways is remarkably robust to error, it remains a challenge to design molecular systems that are similarly robust. With functionality determined entirely by secondary structure of DNA, strand displacement has emerged as a uniquely versatile building block for cell-free biochemical networks. Here, we experimentally investigate a design principle to reduce undesired triggering in the absence of input (leak), a side reaction that critically reduces sensitivity and disrupts the behavior of strand displacement cascades...
December 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Afua Adjekum, Alessandro Blasimme, Effy Vayena
BACKGROUND: Information and communication technologies have long become prominent components of health systems. Rapid advances in digital technologies and data science over the last few years are predicted to have a vast impact on health care services, configuring a paradigm shift into what is now commonly referred to as digital health. Forecasted to curb rising health costs as well as to improve health system efficiency and safety, digital health success heavily relies on trust from professional end users, administrators, and patients...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Satya S Sahoo, Joshua Valdez, Matthew Kim, Michael Rueschman, Susan Redline
OBJECTIVE: Reproducibility of research studies is key to advancing biomedical science by building on sound results and reducing inconsistencies between published results and study data. We propose that the available data from research studies combined with provenance metadata provide a framework for evaluating scientific reproducibility. We developed the ProvCaRe platform to model, extract, and query semantic provenance information from 435, 248 published articles. METHODS: The ProvCaRe platform consists of: (1) the S3 model and a formal ontology; (2) a provenance-focused text processing workflow to generate provenance triples consisting of subject, predicate, and object using metadata extracted from articles; and (3) the ProvCaRe knowledge repository that supports "provenance-aware" hypothesis-driven search queries...
January 2019: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Desirée Colombo, Azucena Garcia Palacios, Javier Fernandez Alvarez, Andrea Patané, Michelle Semonella, Pietro Cipresso, Marta Kwiatkowska, Giuseppe Riva, Cristina Botella
BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) and ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) represent a novel approach for the assessment and delivery of psychological support to depressed patients in daily life. Beyond the classical paper-and-pencil daily diaries, the more recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enabled researchers to bring all the needed processes together in only one device, i.e., response signaling, repeated symptom collection, information storage, secure data transfer, and psychological support delivery...
December 13, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Devon C Payne-Sturges, Madeleine K Scammell, Jonathan I Levy, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Elaine Symanski, Jessie L Carr Shmool, Robert Laumbach, Stephen Linder, Jane E Clougherty
Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) has been proposed as a means of evaluating possible additive and synergistic effects of multiple chemical, physical and social stressors on human health, with the goal of informing policy and decision-making, and protecting public health. Routine application of CRA to environmental regulatory and policy decision making, however, has been limited due to a perceived lack of appropriate quantitative approaches for assessing combined effects of chemical and nonchemical exposures...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dianbo Liu, Dan Cheng, Timothy T Houle, Lucy Chen, Wei Zhang, Hao Deng
INTRODUCTION: Prediction of pain using machine learning algorithms is an emerging field in both computer science and clinical medicine. Several machine algorithms were developed and validated in recent years. However, the majority of studies in this topic was published on bioinformatics or computer science journals instead of medical journals. This tendency and preference led to a gap of knowledge and acknowledgment between computer scientists who invent the algorithm and medical researchers who may use the algorithms in practice...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Erik van Zwet
When the sample size is not too small, M-estimators of regression coefficients are approximately normal and unbiased. This leads to the familiar frequentist inference in terms of normality-based confidence intervals and p-values. From a Bayesian perspective, use of the (improper) uniform prior yields matching results in the sense that posterior quantiles agree with one-sided confidence bounds. For this, and various other reasons, the uniform prior is often considered objective or non-informative. In spite of this, we argue that the uniform prior is not suitable as a default prior for inference about a regression coefficient in the context of the bio-medical and social sciences...
December 13, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
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