Read by QxMD icon Read

information sciences

Sharon Chen, Kenneth J Malmberg, Melissa Prince, Shantai Peckoo, Amy H Criss
Retrieval from episodic memory has consequences (Malmberg, Lehman, Annis, Criss, & Shiffrin, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 61; 285-313, 2014). In some cases, the consequences are beneficial, as in the improvement in memory for items that were already retrieved (Izawa, 1970, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83(2, Pt.1), 340-344; Izawa, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89(1): 10-21, 1971; Roediger & Karpicke, Psychological Science, 17(3), 249-255, 2006). In other cases, the consequences are negative, as in the case of output interference (OI; Wickens, Borne, & Allen, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2, 440-445, 1963)...
August 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Nicole M Pirozzi, Jacob P Hoogenboom, Ben N G Giepmans
Nanometer-scale identification of multiple targets is crucial to understand how biomolecules regulate life. Markers, or probes, of specific biomolecules help to visualize and to identify. Electron microscopy (EM), the highest resolution imaging modality, provides ultrastructural information where several subcellular structures can be readily identified. For precise tagging of (macro)molecules, electron-dense probes, distinguishable in gray-scale EM, are being used. However, practically these genetically-encoded or immune-targeted probes are limited to three targets...
August 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Axel Schick, Christina Sandig, Anja Krause, Peter R Hobson, Stefan Porembski, Pierre L Ibisch
Growing levels of uncertainty and vulnerability generated by land use conversion and climate change set demands on local communities and national institutions to build synergies between the diverse array of knowledge systems in order to provide policy makers and practitioners with the best available information to decide what urgent actions must be taken. Science policy arenas and agreements such as the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognize the importance of different types of knowledge and the need for broad stakeholder involvement, yet the use of indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) in environmental decision-making processes is still underdeveloped...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Management
Assem M Khamis, Lama Bou-Karroum, Maram B Hakoum, Mounir Al-Gibbawi, Joseph R Habib, Fadi El-Jardali, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Major research-reporting statements, such as PRISMA and CONSORT, require authors to provide information about funding. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the reporting of funding in health policy and systems research (HPSR) papers and (2) to assess the funding reporting policies of journals publishing on HPSR. METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional surveys for papers published in 2016 addressing HPSR (both primary studies and systematic reviews) and for journals publishing on HPSR (both journals under the 'Health Policy and Services' (HPS) category in the Web of Science, and non-HPS journals that published on HPSR)...
August 17, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Philip J Landrigan, Richard Fuller, Howard Hu, Jack Caravanos, Maureen L Cropper, David Hanrahan, Karti Sandilya, Thomas C Chiles, Pushpam Kumar, William A Suk
Pollution is a major, overlooked, global health threat that was responsible in 2015 for an estimated 9 million deaths and great economic losses. To end neglect of pollution and advance prevention of pollution-related disease, we formed the Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health. Despite recent gains in understanding of pollution and its health effects, this Commission noted that large gaps in knowledge remain. To close these gaps and guide prevention, the Commission made research recommendations and proposed creation of a Global Observatory on Pollution and Health...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Joel Tickner, Molly Jacobs, Tim Malloy, Topher Buck, Alex Stone, Ann Blake, Sally Edwards
Alternatives assessment has emerged as a science policy field that supports the evaluation and adoption of safer chemistries in manufacturing processes and consumer products. The recent surge in the development and practice of alternatives assessment has revealed notable methodological challenges. Spurred by this need, we convened an informal community of practice comprising industry experts, academics, and scientists within government and non-governmental organizations to prioritize a research and practice agenda for the next five years that, if implemented, would significantly advance the field of alternatives assessment...
August 17, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Nicola Disma, James D O'Leary, Andreas W Loepke, Ansgar M Brambrink, Karin Becke, Nicola G Clausen, Jurgen C De Graaff, Fang Liu, Tom G Hansen, Mary E McCann, Cynthia F Salorio, Sulpicio Soriano, Lena S Sun, Peter Szmuk, David O Warner, Laszlo Vutskits, Andrew J Davidson
All commonly used general anesthetics have been shown to cause neurotoxicity in animal models, including nonhuman primates. Opinion, however, remains divided over how cumulative evidence from preclinical and human studies in this field should be interpreted and its translation to current practices in pediatric anesthesia and surgery. A group of international experts in laboratory and clinical sciences recently convened in Genoa, Italy, to evaluate the current state of both laboratory and clinical research and discuss future directions for basic, translational, and clinical studies in this field...
August 16, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Rishad Khan, Joanne Plahouras, Bradley C Johnston, Michael A Scaffidi, Samir C Grover, Catharine M Walsh
BACKGROUND: Endoscopy has traditionally been taught with novices practicing on real patients under the supervision of experienced endoscopists. Recently, the growing awareness of the need for patient safety has brought simulation training to the forefront. Simulation training can provide trainees with the chance to practice their skills in a learner-centred, risk-free environment. It is important to ensure that skills gained through simulation positively transfer to the clinical environment...
August 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lotfollah Davoodi, Babak Masoum, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Hamed Jafarpour, Mohammad Reza Haghshenas, Tahoora Mousavi
An estimated 185 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-α (peg IFN) and ribavirin is the first line of treatment against the psychiatric side effects, including mood disorders, anxiety and irritability. In the present study, all of the studies electronically published between 2000 and 2016 were retrieved using databases including Scopus, PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information, Science Direct and Google Scholar. All of the articles were independently evaluated by two reviewers and the results were compared, followed by removal of duplicate, irrelevant and re-published studies after reviewing...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mary Thompson, Lauralyn McIntyre, Brian Hutton, Alexandre Tran, Dianna Wolfe, Jamie Hutchison, Dean Fergusson, Alexis F Turgeon, Shane W English
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines identify the choice of fluid resuscitation as important in minimizing the incidence of secondary brain injury from cerebral edema. It is widely accepted that isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids, specifically normal saline (NS), are optimal for resuscitation and that other relatively hypotonic fluids, such as Ringer's lactate (RL), should be avoided in this patient population. The aim of this review is to systematically compare the use of relatively hypotonic versus isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids in clinical and pre-clinical models of acute brain injury and their effect on outcomes...
August 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Lindsay H Dewa, Elizabeth Cecil, Lynne Eastwood, Ara Darzi, Paul Aylin
BACKGROUND: The first signs of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression are likely to occur before the age of 25. The combination of high prevalence of severe mental health symptoms, inability to recognise mental health deterioration and increased likelihood of comorbidity in a complex transitional young group makes detecting deterioration paramount. Whilst studies have examined physical and mental health deterioration in adults, no systematic review has examined the indicators of mental and physical deterioration in young adults with SMI...
August 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Neil A J Ryan, Dominic Blake, Marcus Cabrera-Dandy, Mark A Glaire, D Gareth Evans, Emma J Crosbie
BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited cancer syndrome, which predisposes individuals to a number of different cancers, principally colorectal and endometrial cancer. The early diagnosis of Lynch syndrome enables colorectal surveillance, which has been shown to save lives through the detection and removal of premalignant polyps and earlier detection of invasive disease. Endometrial cancer, which is often the sentinel cancer in women, provides an opportunity to diagnose Lynch syndrome and thus enable colorectal surveillance as well as the cascade testing for Lynch syndrome in other family members...
August 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Serena Lucrezi, Martina Milanese, Marco Palma, Carlo Cerrano
Citizen Science (CS) strengthens the relationship between society and science through education and engagement, with win-win benefits. Marine Citizen Science (MCS) is increasingly popular, thanks to society's growing interest in marine environments and marine issues. Scuba diving significantly increases the potential of MCS, thanks to the skills and behavioural properties of people who participate in the sport. To be able to exploit this potential, however, MCS needs to face challenges related to CS, to scuba diving activities and to the broader scuba diving industry...
2018: PloS One
Ferenc Kálovits, Márton Tompa, Ádám Nagy, Bernadette Kálmán
Background and purpose: Oncogenesis is related to a sequential accumulation of somatic mutations. Comprehensive characterizations of the genomic landscapes have been completed recently for several tumors, glioblastoma being among the first ones. Our own translational research studies have been focused on defining molecular subtypes of glioblastoma in the clinical setting because of an expected prognostic and therapeutic utility of the information. Somatic mutations in genes of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzyme family appear to be among the best-defined biomarkers that also influence tumor behavior and confer clinical utility...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Roger D Dias, Avni Gupta, Steven J Yule
PURPOSE: To identify the different machine learning (ML) techniques that have been applied to automate physician competence assessment and evaluate how these techniques can be used to assess different competence domains in several medical specialties. METHOD: In May 2017, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, PROSPERO, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for articles published from inception to April 30, 2017...
August 14, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Cain C T Clark, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, John F T Fernandes, Jason Moran, Benjamin Drury, Andrea Mannini, Piotr Gronek, Robert Podstawski
 It is evident that a growing number of studies advocate a wrist-worn accelerometer for the assessment of patterns of physical activity a priori; yet, the veracity of this site over any other body-mounted location for its accuracy in activity classification is hither to unexplored.
 The objective of this review was to identify the relative accuracy for classifying physical activities according to accelerometer site and analytical technique.
 A search of electronic databases was conducted using Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar...
August 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Devin G Ray, Sarah Gomillion, Andrei I Pintea, Iain Hamlin
Our memories contain a wealth of social information-including details of past interactions, facts about others, and others' identities. Yet, human memory is imperfect, and we often find ourselves unable to recall such information in social interactions. Conversely, people routinely find themselves on the receiving end of others' memory failures; that is, people sometimes find themselves forgotten. Despite the apparent pervasiveness of such experiences, modern science possesses no explanatory framework for understanding the psychological impact of being forgotten in part or in whole...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Juan Luis Alcázar, Laura Bonilla, Julia Marucco, Ana Isabel Padilla, Enrique Chacón, Nabil Manzour, Aina Salas
PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk of endometrial cancer and/or endometrial hyperplasia with atypia in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial thickness ≥ 11 mm. METHODS: Systematic review of literature using database search (PubMed and Web of Science) of articles published between January 1990 and December 2016 evaluating the correlation between endometrial thickness as measured by transvaginal ultrasound (double layer) and histopathological findings in asymptomatic postmenopausal women, using the following terms: "endometrial thickness," "postmenopausal," "postmenopause," and "asymptomatic...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Bahlol Rahimi, Hamed Nadri, Hadi Lotfnezhad Afshar, Toomas Timpka
BACKGROUND:  One common model utilized to understand clinical staff and patients' technology adoption is the technology acceptance model (TAM). OBJECTIVE:  This article reviews published research on TAM use in health information systems development and implementation with regard to application areas and model extensions after its initial introduction. METHOD:  An electronic literature search supplemented by citation searching was conducted on February 2017 of the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases, yielding a total of 492 references...
July 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Lesley Gotlib Conn, Avery B Nathens, Charlene Soobiah, Homer Tien, Barbara Haas
OBJECTIVE: Quality improvement (QI) training is an essential component of postgraduate surgical education and can occur through formal and informal education programs. Informal QI education requires that faculty take advantage of learning opportunities in the hospital setting. Trauma rotations appear ideal opportunities for informal QI learning given that performance improvement is a mandatory component of care at verified trauma centers. It is unclear, however, whether QI initiatives within trauma programs are well integrated into trainee education...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"