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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096681/distributions-and-pools-of-lead-pb-in-a-terrestrial-forest-ecosystem-with-highly-elevated-atmospheric-pb-deposition-and-ecological-risks-to-insects
#1
Jun Zhou, Buyun Du, Zhangwei Wang, Wantong Zhang, Lei Xu, Xingjun Fan, Xiaoli Liu, Jing Zhou
There is growing interest in how heavy metals in remote ecosystems are elevated and affect environmental health. However, no studies have investigated atmospheric lead (Pb) deposition influences on the Pb bioaccumulation in insects in forests. Here we measure Pb concentrations and pools in forest vegetation, litterfall, organic soil, mineral soil, as well as litterfall deposition fluxes in a region severely affected by atmospheric deposition. We also analyzed Pb in insects which feed in the polluted forest vegetation and litter...
August 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096424/metabolic-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-for-high-level-astaxanthin-production-with-high-productivity
#2
Seon Young Park, Robert M Binkley, Won Jun Kim, Mun Hee Lee, Sang Yup Lee
Astaxanthin is a reddish keto-carotenoid classified as a xanthophyll found in various microbes and marine organisms. As a powerful antioxidant having up to 100 times more potency than other carotenoids such as β-carotene, lutein, and lycopene, astaxanthin is a versatile compound utilized in animal feed, food pigment, health promotion and cosmetic industry. Here, we report development of metabolically engineered Escherichia coli capable of producing astaxanthin to a high concentration with high productivity...
August 7, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095285/assessment-of-risk-factors-for-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infants-and-young-children-a-case-control-study
#3
Audrone Muleviciene, Natalija Sestel, Sigita Stankeviciene, Daiva Sniukaite-Adner, Roma Bartkeviciute, Jelena Rascon, Augustina Jankauskiene
INTRODUCTION: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common in children aged 0-35 months in Lithuania. Nevertheless, there are no studies investigating IDA in this age group. We aimed to identify the major risk factors for disease development focusing on medical history and dietary habits. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted in a university hospital. The enrolled cohort was divided into three groups: IDA infants (IDA-In; n = 36, aged 3-11 months), IDA children (IDA-Ch; n = 23, aged 12-32 months), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 32, aged 6-34 months)...
August 10, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094970/biomarkers-of-individual-foods-and-separation-of-diets-using-untargeted-lc-ms-based-plasma-metabolomics-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Evrim Acar, Gözde Gürdeniz, Bekzod Khakimov, Francesco Savorani, Sanne Kellebjerg Korndal, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Søren Balling Engelsen, Arne Astrup, Lars O Dragsted
SCOPE: Self-reported dietary intake does not represent an objective unbiased assessment. We investigate the effect of the New Nordic Diet (NND) versus Average Danish Diet (ADD) on plasma metabolic profiles to identify biomarkers of compliance and metabolic effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 26-week controlled dietary intervention study, 146 subjects followed either NND, a predominantly organic diet high in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and fish, or ADD, a diet higher in imported and processed foods...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094663/changes-in-health-parameters-in-older-lay-volunteers-who-delivered-a-lifestyle-based-program-to-frail-older-people-at-home
#5
Igor Grabovac, Sandra Haider, Eva Winzer, Ali Kapan, Karin E Schindler, Christian Lackinger, Thomas E Dorner
OBJECTIVE: To measure health effects in lay volunteers who made home visits consisting of social interaction, nutritional and physical exercise interventions to pre-frail and frail older people (trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01991639). METHODS: After baseline, participants were followed-up at 12 (V1) and 24 (V2) weeks. A one-repetition maximum (1-RPM) and handgrip were measured with the Concept2®DYNO and a dynamometer. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly was used to assess physical activity, and Food Frequency Questionnaire and the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener for nutrition...
August 9, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094314/the-best-of-intentions-prenatal-breastfeeding-intentions-and-infant-health
#6
Kerri M Raissian, Jessica Houston Su
Health organizations recommend that mothers exclusively breastfeed infants for the first six months of life. The current study contributes to a growing body of research that examines whether the purported benefits of breastfeeding are causal. We systematically evaluated the role of an expectant mother's prenatal breastfeeding intentions, which reflect not only demographic characteristics, but also knowledge, attitudes, and social norms about infant feeding, and therefore serve as a proxy for positive maternal selection into breastfeeding...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092782/sodium-and-potassium-excretion-in-an-adult-caribbean-population-of-african-descent-with-a-high-burden-of-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Rachel M Harris, Angela M C Rose, Ian R Hambleton, Christina Howitt, Nita G Forouhi, Anselm J M Hennis, T Alafia Samuels, Nigel Unwin
BACKGROUND: High sodium diets with inadequate potassium and high sodium-to-potassium ratios are a known determinant of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Caribbean island of Barbados has a high prevalence of hypertension and mortality from CVD. Our objectives were to estimate sodium and potassium excretion, to compare estimated levels with recommended intakes and to identify the main food sources of sodium in Barbadian adults. METHODS: A sub-sample (n = 364; 25-64 years) was randomly selected from the representative population-based Health of the Nation cross-sectional study (n = 1234), in 2012-13...
August 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092704/nutrient-composition-and-dietary-diversity-of-on-site-lunch-meals-and-anthropometry-of-beneficiary-children-in-private-and-public-primary-schools-in-ghana
#8
Faith Agbozo, Prosper Atitto, Albrecht Jahn, Abdulai Abubakari
BACKGROUND: On-site lunch provided through the Ghana School Feeding Programme is expected to be nutritionally adequate thereby contributing to reducing hunger and malnutrition. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the dietary diversity and nutrient composition of on-site school lunch and estimate the extent to which it met the Food and Agriculture Organization Reference Nutrient Intakes for children aged 3-12 years. METHODS: In this cross-sectional food consumption survey, on-site lunch menus were reviewed, dietary diversity assessed and meal preparation/serving observed during a typical school week...
August 10, 2018: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092577/mechanisms-of-action-of-kefir-in-chronic-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases
#9
Fabio S Pimenta, Maria Luaces-Regueira, Alyne Mm Ton, Bianca P Campagnaro, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Thiago Mc Pereira, Elisardo C Vasquez
The gut microbiota maintains a complex mutual interaction with different organs of the host. Whereas in normal conditions this natural community of trillions of microorganisms greatly contributes to the human health, gut dysbiosis is related with onset or worsening of diverse chronic systemic diseases. Thus, the reestablishment of gut microbiota homeostasis with consumption of prebiotics and probiotics may be a relevant strategy to prevent or attenuate several cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Among these functional foods, the synbiotic kefir, which is a fermented milk composed of a mixture of bacteria and yeasts, is currently the most used and has attracted the attention of health care professionals...
August 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092099/estimated-global-overweight-and-obesity-burden-in-pregnant-women-based-on-panel-data-model
#10
Cheng Chen, Xianglong Xu, Yan Yan
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the global and country-level burden of overweight and obesity among pregnant women from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Publicly accessible country-level data were collected from the World Health Organization, the World Bank and the Food and Agricultural Organization. We estimated the number of overweight and obese pregnant women among 184 countries and determined the time-related trend from 2005 to 2014. Based on panel data model, we determined the effects of food energy supply, urbanization, gross national income and female employment on the number of overweight and obese pregnant women...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090541/toxicological-effects-of-patulin-mycotoxin-on-the-mammalian-system-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Saurabh Pal, Neha Singh, Kausar Mahmood Ansari
The mycotoxin PAT (4-hydroxy-4 H -furo[3,2 c ]pyran-2[6 H ]-one) is a secondary metabolic product of molds such as Penicillium , Aspergillus , and Byssochlamys species. PAT is a common contaminant of fruit and vegetable based products, most notably apples. Despite PAT's original discovery as an antibiotic, it has come under heavy scrutiny for its potential to impart negative health effects. Studies investigating these health effects have proved its toxic potential. PAT occurrence in the food commodities poses a serious threat and necessitates novel and cost-effective mitigation methods to remove it from food products...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086553/the-importance-of-the-world-health-organization-sugar-guidelines-for-dental-health-and-obesity-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Joao Breda, Jo Jewell, Amélie Keller
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a reduced intake of free sugars throughout the life course (strong recommendation) with a reduction of free sugars intake to less than 10% of the total energy intake (strong recommendation) and preferably below 5% of the total energy intake (conditional recommendation) in both adults and children. Available data clearly show that people already consume significantly more sugar than they should, increasing the risk for dental caries, overweight and obesity. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by the policy makers as a benchmark for assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change...
August 7, 2018: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083315/individual-and-household-risk-factors-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-among-under-five-children-in-mao-chad-a-matched-case-control-study
#13
Jovana Dodos, Chiara Altare, Mahamat Bechir, Mark Myatt, Brigitte Pedro, Francois Bellet, Jean Lapegue, Joachim Peeters, Mathias Altmann
Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Chad. The reasons behind persistently high prevalence of SAM in the Kanem region are still poorly understood, leaving national and international partners without clearly identified drivers to address. Current knowledge of SAM determinants in this context is largely based on very limited data. The aim of this study was thus to investigate individual and household-level risk factors for SAM among under-five children in Mao health district...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082049/linking-sustainability-to-the-healthy-eating-patterns-of-the-dietary-guidelines-for-americans-a-modelling-study
#14
Nicole Tichenor Blackstone, Naglaa H El-Abbadi, Margaret S McCabe, Timothy S Griffin, Miriam E Nelson
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based nutrition policy is a key mechanism to promote planetary health. In the USA, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the foundation of nutrition policy and guide more than US$80 billion in federal spending. Recent attempts have been made to incorporate sustainability into the development of the Dietary Guidelines. However, the sustainability of the 2015-20 Dietary Guidelines remains unclear; research has not yet assessed the environmental impacts of the distinct healthy patterns recommended by the policy...
August 2018: The Lancet. Planetary health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082015/-an-automated-direct-immersion-solid-phase-micro-extraction-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-di-spme-gcms-method-for-determination-pesticides-in-liquid-chinese-herbal-health-food
#15
Yan Ma, Xi Chen, Shi Shen, Yufei Wang, Qin Zhuo
OBJECTIVE: To establish a method to determinate 25 pesticides in liquid health food from Chinese herbal medicines by direct immersion solid phase micro extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. METHODS: The sample was diluted with ultrapure water, adjusted p H with acetic acid, and then filtered by 0. 45μm filter. The target compounds were extracted and concentrated by the method of on-line immersion solid phase micro extraction( SPME) coupled with 65 μm PDMS/DVB extraction fiber...
May 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080211/effects-of-honey-from-mimosa-quadrivalvis-l-mal%C3%A3-cia-produced-by-the-melipona-subnitida-d-janda%C3%A3-ra-stingless-bee-on-dyslipidaemic-rats
#16
Maria Luiza Rolim Bezerra, Evandro Leite de Souza, Janaína Maria Batista de Sousa, Marcos Dos Santos Lima, Adriano Francisco Alves, Maria das Graças Almeida, Raquel Coutinho Alves, Emmanuel Veríssimo de Araújo, Naís Lira Soares, Gabriel Araújo da Silva, Marciane Magnani, Jailane de Souza Aquino
This study assessed the effects of supplementation with honey from Mimosa quadrivalvis L. (malícia) (MH) produced by jandaíra stingless bees (Melipona subnitida D.) on the lipid metabolism, antioxidant status and some intestinal health parameters of rats with diet-induced dyslipidaemia. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: healthy control (HC), dyslipidaemic control (DC), healthy experimental (EHH) and dyslipidaemic experimental (EDH). Malícia honey (MH) was administered (1000 mL kg-1) via orogastric feeding for 35 days...
August 6, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077707/french-infant-total-diet-study-exposure-to-selected-trace-elements-and-associated-health-risks
#17
Véronique Sirot, Thiema Traore, Thierry Guerin, Laurent Noël, Morgane Bachelot, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, André Mazur, Philippe Glorennec, Paule Vasseur, Julien Jean, Géraldine Carne, Sébastien Gorecki, Gilles Riviere, Marion Hulin
A total diet study (TDS) was conducted between 2010 and 2016 to assess the risk associated with chemicals in food of non-breast-fed children under three living in France. 291 composite food samples were prepared "as consumed" and analyzed for 16 trace elements: aluminium (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), vanadium (V). Dietary exposure was assessed for 705 representative children using food consumptions recorded through a 3-consecutive-days record...
August 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077219/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-food-chain-in-the-european-union
#18
Diego Florez-Cuadrado, Miguel A Moreno, María Ugarte-Ruíz, Lucas Domínguez
Consumers require safety foods but without losing enough supply and low prices. Food concerns about antimicrobial residues and antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria are not usually appropriately separated and could be perceived as the same problem. The monitoring of residues of antimicrobials in animal food is well established at different levels (farm, slaughterhouse, and industry), and it is preceded by the legislation of veterinary medicines where maximum residues limits are required for medicines to be used in food animal...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075625/rational-design-of-amphiphilic-peptides-and-its-effect-on-antifouling-performance
#19
Sheng Long Gaw, Gowripriya Sakala, Sivan Nir, Abhijit Saha, Zhichuan J Xu, Pooi-See Lee, Meital Reches
Biofouling, the unwanted adhesion of organisms to surfaces, has a negative impact on energy, food, water and health resources. One possible strategy to fight biofouling is to modify the surface using a peptide-based coating that will change the surface properties. This paper reveals the importance of rational design and positioning of individual amino acids in amphiphilic peptide sequence. By just manipulating the position of the amino acids within the peptide chain of the same chemical composition, we improved the antifouling performance of an amphiphilic peptide-based coating - Phe(4-F)-Lys-DOPA - by 30%...
August 3, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074866/effects-of-starch-on-oral-health-systematic-review-to-inform-who-guideline
#20
K Halvorsrud, J Lewney, D Craig, P J Moynihan
A systematic review was conducted to update evidence on the effect of total dietary starch and of replacing rapidly digestible starches (RDSs) with slowly digestible starches (SDSs) on oral health outcomes to inform updating of World Health Organization guidance on carbohydrate intake. Data sources included MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, and Wanfang. Eligible studies were comparative and reported any intervention with a different starch content of diets or foods and data on oral health outcomes relating to dental caries, periodontal disease, or oral cancer...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
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