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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551119/why-do-current-strategies-for-optimal-nutritional-therapy-neglect-the-microbiome
#1
Stephen A McClave, Robert G Martindale
Strategies for providing optimal nutritional therapy have evolved over time, with the emphasis on specific directives (such as route, use of immunonutrition, high protein, organ-specific formulas, etc.), achieving variable degrees of success for improving outcomes in the intensive care unit. As the largest immune organ in the body comprising the largest interface between the host and the external environment, the gut can have an amplifying effect on a pattern of dysbiosis, immune dysregulation, and multiple organ failure seen in the critically ill patient...
October 5, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550907/subsurface-biogeochemistry-is-a-missing-link-between-ecology-and-hydrology-in-dam-impacted-river-corridors
#2
Emily B Graham, James C Stegen, Maoyi Huang, Xingyuan Chen, Timothy D Scheibe
Global investment in hydropower is rapidly increasing, fueled by a need to manage water availability and by incentives promoting renewable energy sources. This expansion poses unrecognized risks to the world's vulnerable freshwater ecosystems. While many hydropower impacts have been investigated, dam-induced alterations to subsurface processes influence river corridor ecosystem health in ways that remain poorly understood. We advocate for a better understanding of dam impacts on subsurface biogeochemical activity, its connection to hydrology, and follow-on trophic cascades within the broader river corridor...
November 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548806/scavenger-birds-exploiting-rubbish-dumps-pathogens-at-the-gates
#3
Pablo I Plaza, Guillermo Blanco, Julia Madariaga, Eduardo Boeri, María Luisa Teijeiro, Griselda Bianco, Sergio Lambertucci
Different bacteria are present in rubbish dumps used as food resources by various bird species. Birds may be good indicators of the presence of zoonotic diseases in these sites since they can be infected with zoonotic pathogens by foraging on organic waste, and can also act as carriers. We studied if foraging in rubbish dumps increases the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Chlamydia psittaci in American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) from northwest Patagonia. We compared these pathogens isolated from or detected in cloacae and oropharynx swabs in two different groups of black vultures: individuals trapped in (1) the Patagonian wild steppe, and (2) in a rubbish dump...
December 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547025/ideal-cardiovascular-health-and-cognitive-test-performance-testing-a-modified-index-of-life-s-simple-7-among-older-chinese-adults
#4
Theresa E Gildner, Nawi Ng, Fan Wu, Yanfei Guo, J Josh Snodgrass, Paul Kowal
Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern is evident in low-income countries. Nationally-representative data collected in China were drawn from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010; n = 11,295)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545896/possible-role-of-phytoestrogens-in-breast-cancer-via-gper-1-gpr30-signaling
#5
REVIEW
Luis Molina, Felipe A Bustamante, Kanti D Bhoola, Carlos D Figueroa, Pamela Ehrenfeld
Estrogens generated within endocrine organs and the reproductive system act as ligands for at least three types of estrogen receptors. Estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) belong to the so-called classical family of estrogen receptors, whereas the G protein-coupled receptor GPR30, also known as GPER-1, has been described as a novel estrogen receptor sited in the cell membrane of target cells. Furthermore, these receptors are under stimulation of a family of exogenous estrogens, known as phytoestrogens, which are a diverse group of non-steroidal plant compounds derived from plant food consumed by humans and animals...
December 21, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544827/simultaneous-determination-of-18-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-daily-foods-hanoi-metropolitan-area-by-gas-chromatography%C3%A2-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Thanh-Thien Tran-Lam, Yen Hai Dao, Lien Kim Thi Nguyen, Hoi Kim Ma, Hai Nguyen Tran, Giang Truong Le
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-a large group of organic compounds-are extremely hazardous to human health. In this study, the 198 samples from six groups of daily food products in the Hanoi metropolitan area were collected and prepared by the QuEChERS sample treatment technique. The detection and identification of PAHs were obtained by gas chromatography⁻tandem mass spectrometry (GC⁻MS/MS) determination. The results demonstrated that the recovery of PAH compounds ranged approximately between 71% and 110% when the solvent evaporation condition was optimized using the nitrogen gas at a low temperature (1 °C)...
December 8, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544187/quality-of-life-of-patients-with-a-colonic-interposition-postoesophagectomy
#7
Delfien Coevoet, Elke Van Daele, Wouter Willaert, Wouter Huvenne, Dirk Van de Putte, Wim Ceelen, Philippe Deron, Piet Pattyn, Yves Van Nieuwenhove
OBJECTIVES: After oesophagectomy, stomach grafts are most frequently used to restore intestinal continuity. Less frequently, a colonic graft is used. There is quite a large body of literature addressing the functional outcome after gastric pull-up, but little is known about the functional results of colonic interposition (CI). The aim of this study was to assess the short-term outcomes and the long-term quality of life and function of the CI postoesophagectomy. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2016, we retrospectively collected data on 80 patients with CI from personal health records at the Ghent University hospital...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543007/patient-reported-outcomes-in-oncology-beyond-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Mondher Toumi, Szymon Jarosławski, Christos Chouhaid, Bruno Fallissard, P Auquier
The goal of the treatment of a disease has moved from treating organs and diseases through symptoms, biological parameters and imaging towards treating a human being as a whole. The treatments should deliver benefits that patients can personally perceive. However, the patient's perspective does not always match the one of those surrounding them. Illustratively, patients' symptom assessments are more predictable for daily health status, whereas clinicians' symptom measurements are more related to clinical outcomes...
2019: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541540/indigenous-land-management-as-primary-health-care-qualitative-analysis-from-the-interplay-research-project-in-remote-australia
#9
Rosalie Schultz, Tammy Abbott, Jessica Yamaguchi, Sheree Cairney
BACKGROUND: For Indigenous Australians, health transcends the absence of disease, and includes the health and wellbeing of their community and Country: their whole physical, cultural and spiritual environment. Stronger relationships with Country and greater involvement in cultural practices enhance the wellbeing of Indigenous Australians, and those in more remote regions have greater access to their Country and higher levels of wellbeing. However this does not translate into improvements in clinical indicators, and Indigenous Australians in more remote regions suffer higher levels of morbidity and mortality than Indigenous people in non-remote areas, and other Australians...
December 12, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30540343/association-of-noninfectious-pneumonia-with-ustekinumab-use
#10
Allen Brinker, Carmen Cheng, Vicky Chan
Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts ongoing public health safety surveillance for drug and therapeutic biologic products. Identifying cases of acute and subacute noninfectious pneumonia supports the public health mission of the FDA. Objective: To identify and analyze postmarketing cases of noninfectious pneumonia associated with ustekinumab use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective analysis of postmarketing (spontaneous) case reports reviewed the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the PubMed databases from September 25, 2009, through November 20, 2017...
December 12, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539810/essential-oils-and-functional-herbs-for-healthy-aging
#11
REVIEW
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, Ella Kustrin, David W Morton
As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Recent studies have linked diabetes as a risk factor in developing Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The incidence of patients with type II diabetes and increased levels and activity of α-amylase is higher in patients with dementia...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538508/epidemiological-and-molecular-analysis-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-in-shanghai-china-2013-2017
#12
Seong Jin Wang, Xue Wei Liu, Xiaojuan Shen, Xiu Guo Hua, Li Cui
Background: Human infections with a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) were reported in Shanghai municipality, China, at the beginning of 2013. High-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged in late February 2017 along with existing low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus, and this has the potential to develop into a pandemic that could be harmful to humans. Methods: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of H7N9-infected cases from 2013 to 2017 in Shanghai, data on the 59 laboratory-confirmed human cases and 26 bird and environmental contamination cases were collected from the WHO website and Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (FAO EMPRES-AH)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536695/systemic-mastocytosis-in-adults-2019-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#13
Animesh Pardanani
OVERVIEW: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in extra-cutaneous organs. DIAGNOSIS: The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC CD25 expression, and presence of KITD816V mutation. RISK STRATIFICATION: Establishing SM subtype as per the World Health Organization classification system is an important first step...
December 8, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536566/combined-aclidinium-bromide-and-long-acting-beta2-agonist-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#14
REVIEW
Han Ni, Soe Moe, Zay Soe, Kay Thi Myint, K Neelakantan Viswanathan
BACKGROUND: Several dual bronchodilator combinations of long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) have been approved for treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) recommendations suggest the use of LABA/LAMA combinations in people with group B COPD with persistent symptoms, group C COPD with further exacerbations on LAMA therapy alone and group D COPD with or without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)...
December 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535611/scientific-mistakes-from-the-agri-food-biotech-critics
#15
Giovanni Tagliabue
Critics of the use of advanced biotechnologies in the agri-food sector ("New Breeding Techniques", comprising CRISPR) demand a strict regulation of any such method, even more severe than rules applied to so-called "Genetically Modified Organisms" (i.e. recombinant DNA processes and products). But their position is unwarranted, since it relies on faulty arguments.While most life scientists have always explained that the trigger for regulation should be the single product and its phenotypic traits, opponents insist that the target should be certain biotech processes...
December 10, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535349/colonization-of-internal-organs-by-salmonella-enteritidis-in-experimentally-infected-laying-hens-of-four-commercial-genetic-lines-in-conventional-cages-and-enriched-colony-housing
#16
Richard K Gast, Prafulla Regmi, Rupa Guraya, Deana R Jones, Kenneth E Anderson, Darrin M Karcher
The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial egg-laying flocks is a prominent public health concern because contaminated eggs cause human illness. Deposition of this pathogen inside eggs results from bacterial colonization of reproductive tissues in infected hens. Environmental conditions can influence avian Salmonella infections, but the food safety consequences of different poultry housing systems remain uncertain. The present study assessed the invasion of internal organs by Salmonella Enteritidis in groups of experimentally infected laying hens of four commercial genetic lines (designated as white egg lines W1 and W2 and brown egg lines B1 and B2)...
December 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534549/evaluation-of-food-insecurity-in-adults-and-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-community-case-study
#17
Perry S Brown, Dixie Durham, Rick D Tivis, Shannon Stamper, Cleary Waldren, Sarah E Toevs, Barbara Gordon, Tiffany A Robb
Advances in the care and treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) have led to improved mortality rates; therefore, considerably more individuals with CF are living into adulthood. With an increased number of CF patients advancing into adulthood, there is the need for more research that surrounds the aging adult CF patient. It is important to conduct research and collect results on the aging CF population to help better prepare the CF patient, who is dealing with the heavy treatment and financial burden of their disease, build autonomy and increase their quality of life...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532782/determination-of-formaldehyde-by-hplc-with-stable-precolumn-derivatization-in-egyptian-dairy-products
#18
Ahmed Salem Sebaei, Ahmed M Gomaa, A A El-Zwahry, E A Emara
Formaldehyde is one of the most dangerous chemical compounds affecting the human health; exposure to it from food may occur naturally or by intentional addition. In this study a high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of formaldehyde in dairy products was described. The dairy samples were reacted and extracted with a warmed organic solvent in the presence of derivatizing agent 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and formaldehyde; the mixture was centrifuged and followed by diode array detection...
2018: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532496/detection-characterization-and-antibiogram-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-bovine-milk-samples-in-west-bengal-india
#19
Kunal Batabyal, Abhiroop Banerjee, Susmita Pal, Samir Dey, Siddhartha Narayan Joardar, Indranil Samanta, Devi Prasad Isore, Abhishek Dharm Singh
Background: Milk is considered as complete food and an important part of human diet throughout the world including India. Bacterial contamination of milk such as Escherichia coli due to unhygienic condition and poor udder health can cause infections, especially in infants and elders or in immunocompromised persons. Possession of antimicrobial resistance genes by commensal bacteria present in milk makes the issue more serious. Aim: The study was aimed to isolate and characterize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E...
November 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529958/halogenated-organics-generated-during-online-chemical-cleaning-of-mbr-an-emerging-threat-to-water-supply-and-public-health
#20
Xiaoyuan Zhang, Yu Liu
The global wastewater treatment capacity of MBR has been constantly growing due to the strong needs in water reuse/cycle and restrictive availability of land. Recent research revealed generation of a variety of halogenated organics during online chemical cleaning of MBR with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) which has been commonly practiced for fouling control and permeability recovery of MBR. These exogenous halogenated organics may likely migrate into natural water bodies and soils through the discharge of MBR permeate, while they tend to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains (e...
November 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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