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Sade C Iriah, Malav Trivedi, William Kenkel, Simone E Grant, Kelsey Moore, Jason R Yee, Dan Madularu, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig F Ferris
The present study was designed to use blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging to "fingerprint" the change in activity in response to oxycodone (OXY) in drug naïve rats before and after repeated exposure to OXY. It was hypothesized that repeated exposure to OXY would initiate adaptive changes in brain organization that would be reflected in an altered response to opioid exposure. Male rats exposed to OXY repeatedly showed conditioned place preference, evidence of drug seeking behavior and putative neuroadaptation...
December 11, 2018: Neuroscience
Martin Schmidt, Mathias Baumert, Thomas Penzel, Hagen Malberg, Sebastian Zaunseder
Background-The objective of this study was to quantify repolarization lability and its association with sex, sleep stage and cardiovascular mortality. Methods-We analyzed polysomnographic recordings of 2,263 participants enrolled in the Sleep heart health study (SHHS-2). Beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) was quantified for consecutive epochs of 5 minutes according to the dominant sleep stage (AWAKE, NREM2, NREM3, REM). To explore the effect of sleep stage and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) on QT interval parameters we employed a general linear mixed model and mixed ANOVA...
December 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Karel Dewulf, Emmanuel Weyne, Thomas Gevaert, Yves Deruyver, Thomas Voets, Dirk De Ridder, Wouter Everaerts, Maarten Albersen
OBJECTIVES: To create a rat model for neurogenic detrusor underactivity (DU) by bilateral pelvic nerve crush injury (BPNI) and to study temporal changes in detrusor contractility and morphology. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to BPNI or sham surgery and evaluated 1, 3 and 9 weeks after surgery. Bladder function was determined in vivo by awake cystometry, micturition pattern analysis and 24-hours urine collection. Bladders were harvested for in vitro pharmacological investigation by isometric tension recording...
December 14, 2018: BJU International
Ulrich H Frey, Marina Klaassen, Crista Ochsenfarth, Florian Murke, Matthias Thielmann, Eva Kottenberg, Petra Kleinbongard, Stefanie Klenke, Andrea Engler, Gerd Heusch, Bernd Giebel, Jürgen Peters
BACKGROUND: Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) can attenuate myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury but its underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to mediate distant intercellular communication that may be involved in cardioprotection. We tested the hypothesis that RIPC in anaesthetized patients undergoing coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery results in the release of EVs from the ischaemic/reperfused arm into the blood stream harbouring cardioprotective miRNAs...
December 11, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Jakob Wittenstein, Lorenzo Ball, Paolo Pelosi, Marcelo Gama de Abreu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at high risk for pulmonary and extra pulmonary complications, and may develop impairment of gas exchange during surgery and in the postoperative period. This review focuses on the potential benefits of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in those patients. RECENT FINDINGS: HFNC oxygen therapy can be used pre, intra and postoperatively. However, evidence for the use of HFNC oxygen therapy is still limited...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Ulf H Schnabel, Christophe Bossens, Jeannette A M Lorteije, Matthew W Self, Hans Op de Beeck, Pieter R Roelfsema
Figure-ground segregation is the process by which the visual system identifies image elements of figures and segregates them from the background. Previous studies examined figure-ground segregation in the visual cortex of monkeys where figures elicit stronger neuronal responses than backgrounds. It was demonstrated in anesthetized mice that neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of mice are sensitive to orientation contrast, but it is unknown whether mice can perceptually segregate figures from a background...
December 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonathan D Breshears, Derek G Southwell, Edward F Chang
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative stimulation of the posterior inferior frontal lobe (IFL) induces speech arrest, which is often interpreted as demonstration of essential language function. However, prior reports have described "negative motor areas" in the IFL, sites where stimulation halts ongoing limb motor activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial and functional relationship between IFL speech arrest areas and negative motor areas (NMAs). METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, intraoperative stimulation mapping was performed to localize speech and motor function, as well as arrest of hand movement, hand posture, and guitar playing in a set of patients undergoing awake craniotomy for dominant hemisphere pathologies...
December 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Ying-Cheng Huang, Chun-Yu Chen, Kai-Cheng Lin, Shang-Wei Yang, Yih-Wen Tarng, Wei-Ning Chang
Wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) is used for various hand surgeries, but there are no reports of its use for distal radius fractures. The authors compared perioperative variables and clinical outcomes for volar plating for distal radius fractures with WALANT vs general anesthesia with tourniquet. This retrospective study included 47 patients who presented with distal radius fractures between January 2015 and February 2017. Twenty-one underwent surgical volar plating with WALANT, and 26 underwent surgical volar plating with general anesthesia with tourniquet...
December 11, 2018: Orthopedics
Ming-Hui Hung, Jin-Shing Chen, Ya-Jung Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review focuses on precise anesthesia for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with the goal of enhanced recovery. RECENT FINDINGS: VATS has become an established and widely used minimally invasive approach with broad implementation on a variety of thoracic operations. In the current environment of enhanced recovery protocols and cost containment, minimally invasive VATS operations suggest adoption of individualized tailored, precise anesthesia...
December 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Christian Ineichen, Naomi Ruth Shepherd, Oǧuzkan Sürücü
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proven to be an effective treatment modality for various late-stage neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, knowledge on the electrical field distribution in the brain tissue is still scarce. Most recent attempts to understand electric field spread were primarily focused on the effect of different electrodes on rather simple tissue models. The influence of microanatomic, biophysical tissue properties in particular has not been investigated in depth. Ethical concerns restrict thorough research on field distribution in human in vivo brain tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ritsuko Hanajima, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Yuichiro Shirota, Takahiro Shimizu, Yasuo Terao, Yoshikazu Ugawa
Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, is known to affect sleep-awake cycles, the stress response, and learning and memory. It has been suggested that caffeine influences synaptic plasticity, but the effects of caffeine on synaptic plasticity in the human brain remain unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects in the primary motor cortex of healthy humans. Twelve healthy participants (six women and six men; mean age: 44.8 ± 1...
December 10, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Brian M Inouye, Francis M Hughes, Huixia Jin, Robin Lütolf, Kunal C Potnis, Jonathan C Routh, Douglas C Rouse, Wen-Chi Foo, J Todd Purves
Purpose: Diabetes is a grave and progressive condition characterized by debilitating complications. Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) is a very common complication with no specific treatments currently available. Unlike other tissues affected by this disease, the bladder is subjected to two independent insults; 1) polyuria, created by the osmotic effects of glucose in the urine, and 2) hyperglycemia itself. Based on our understanding of inflammation as a major contributor to the underlying organ damage in several other diabetic complications, its presence in the bladder during DBD and the contribution of polyuria and hyperglycemia to its development were assessed...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Kanil R Kumar, Renu Sinha, Pranita Mandal, Apala R Chowdhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Kanil Ranjith Kumar, Sathish Raja Selvam, Banu Priya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Pil-Jong Kim, Hong-Gee Kim, Teo Jeon Shin
Integration of neural information could be considered a crucial element in maintaining consciousness. Although consciousness is usually maintained during sedation, strictly speaking, the sedative state is different from consciousness. Nitrous oxide (N2O) has been used widely to sedate patients for dental procedures. However, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the extent of disturbance in the integration of brain activities during N2O administration on the basis of projection to the reconstructed state space...
December 7, 2018: Neuroreport
Rasmus M Birn, Alexander K Converse, Abigail Z Rajala, Andrew L Alexander, Walter F Block, Alan B McMillan, Bradley T Christian, Caitlynn N Filla, Dhanabalan Murali, Samuel A Hurley, Rick L Jenison, Luis C Populin
Dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum are increased by many therapeutic drugs, such as methylphenidate (MPH), which also alters behavioral and cognitive functions thought to be controlled by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) dose-dependently. We linked DA changes and functional connectivity (FC) using simultaneous [18 F]fallypride PET and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake male rhesus monkeys after oral administration of various doses of MPH. We found a negative correlation between [18 F]fallypride nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND ) and MPH dose in the head of the caudate (hCd), demonstrating increased extracellular DA resulting from MPH administration...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Osman S Ipsiroglu, Katarina Wind, Yi-Hsuan Amy Hung, Mai Berger, Forson Chan, Wayne Yu, Sylvia Stockler, Joanne Weinberg
INTRODUCTION: Clinical research and studies using animal models have revealed a complex and relatively under-explored interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and alterations in sleep-wake behaviors. OBJECTIVES: To utilize a structured naturalistic observation-based methodology, consisting of descriptive elements, to provide insight into possible links between altered sleep and disruptive daytime presentations in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)...
October 25, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Kaitlin M Best, Lisa A Asaro, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVE: To compare current analgesia and sedation management practices between critically ill children with pre-existing cognitive impairment and critically ill neurotypical children, including possible indicators of therapeutic efficacy. STUDY DESIGN: This study used secondary analysis of prospective data from the RESTORE clinical trial, with 2449 children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and receiving mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Samuel S McAfee, Yu Liu, Mukesh Dhamala, Detlef H Heck
In the neocortex, communication between neurons is heavily influenced by the activity of the surrounding network, with communication efficacy increasing when population patterns are oscillatory and coherent. Less is known about whether coherent oscillations are essential for conveyance of thalamic input to the neocortex in awake animals. Here we investigated whether visual-evoked oscillations and spikes in the primary visual cortex (V1) were aligned with those in the visual thalamus (dLGN). Using simultaneous recordings of visual-evoked activity in V1 and dLGN we demonstrate that thalamocortical communication involves synchronized local field potential oscillations in the high gamma range (50-90 Hz) which correspond uniquely to precise dLGN-V1 spike synchrony...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Blaž Cugmas, Eva Štruc, Janis Spigulis
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an increasingly popular health and well-being tool for monitoring heart rate and oxygen saturation. Due to pigmentation and hairiness of dogs and cats, a pulse oximeter is routinely placed solely on the tongue. As this approach is feasible only for the pet monitor use during surgical procedures, we investigate PPG signal quality on several other measurement sites that would be better tolerated by conscious animals.
 Approach: Acquired PPG signals are analyzed by four signal quality indices (SQI): mean baseline, signal power, kurtosis, and tolerance score...
November 27, 2018: Physiological Measurement
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