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Ramón C Hermida, Juan J Crespo, Alfonso Otero, Manuel Domínguez-Sardiña, Ana Moyá, María T Ríos, María C Castiñeira, Pedro A Callejas, Lorenzo Pousa, Elvira Sineiro, José L Salgado, Carmen Durán, Juan J Sánchez, José R Fernández, Artemio Mojón, Diana E Ayala
Aims: Sleep-time blood pressure (BP) is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events than awake and 24 h BP means, but the potential role of asleep BP as therapeutic target for diminishing CVD risk is uncertain. We investigated whether CVD risk reduction is most associated with progressive decrease of either office or ambulatory awake or asleep BP mean. Methods and results: We prospectively evaluated 18 078 individuals with baseline ambulatory BP ranging from normotension to hypertension...
August 10, 2018: European Heart Journal
Giorgio Berlot, Rossana Bussani, Vennus Shafiei, Nadia Zarrillo
The release of fat and bone marrow fragments is a common occurrence following traumatic and nontraumatic events. In most cases, they go symptomless or cause only minor disturbances, but occasionally they can determine a multiorgan dysfunction whose severity ranges from mild to fatal. The authors describe the case of a patient who became deeply comatose and ultimately died after a traffic accident in which he suffered the exposed right femoral and tibial fracture in the absence of other injuries. He underwent the external fixation of the fractured bones 2 hours after the admission under general anesthesia...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
Vishwas Malik, Usha Kiran, Sandeep Chauhan, Neeti Makhija
Background and Aims: In patients undergoing open heart surgery, chest tubes are removed postoperatively when patients are well awake and stable. Pain during chest tube removal can be moderate to severe and can be the worst experience of hospitalization. Various modalities of pain relief during chest tube removal have been tried with variable results. We sought to examine the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as an intervention for pain relief during chest tube removal after cardiac surgery...
April 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Stavros Zanos, Irene Rembado, Daofen Chen, Eberhard E Fetz
The functional role of cortical beta oscillations, if any, remains unresolved. During oscillations, the periodic fluctuation in excitability of entrained cells modulates transmission of neural impulses and periodically enhances synaptic interactions. The extent to which oscillatory episodes affect activity-dependent synaptic plasticity remains to be determined. In nonhuman primates, we delivered single-pulse electrical cortical stimulation to a "stimulated" site in sensorimotor cortex triggered on a specific phase of ongoing beta (12-25 Hz) field potential oscillations recorded at a separate "triggering" site...
August 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Lei Ma, Bart C Jongbloets, Wei-Hong Xiong, Joshua B Melander, Maozhen Qin, Tess J Lameyer, Madeleine F Harrison, Boris V Zemelman, Tianyi Mao, Haining Zhong
Neuromodulation imposes powerful control over brain function, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a central downstream mediator of multiple neuromodulators. Although genetically encoded PKA sensors have been developed, single-cell imaging of PKA activity in living mice has not been established. Here, we used two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2pFLIM) to visualize genetically encoded PKA sensors in response to the neuromodulators norepinephrine and dopamine. We screened available PKA sensors for 2pFLIM and further developed a variant (named tAKARα) with increased sensitivity and a broadened dynamic range...
August 7, 2018: Neuron
Alain Haggiag, Jose Tadeu Tesseroli de Siqueira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the improvement in reducing the pain of patients diagnosed with masticatory myofascial pain and bruxism when undergoing treatment with a partial posterior interocclusal device for the management and control of awake bruxism through biofeedback. METHODS: Sixty patients were evaluated during the following periods: pretreatment, 7, 30, and 90 days. The evaluation was carried out by measuring the reduction in pain using clinical and numerical scales...
August 11, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Ali Kandeger, Umran Egilmez, Ayca A Sayin, Yavuz Selvi
Humans' sleep timing and the psychological construct "diurnal preference" determines their "chronotype" (i.e., morning or evening type). Diurnal preferences can affect sleep-awake rhythms and eating behaviors. Our aim in this study was to examine the relationship between night eating symptoms and disordered eating attitudes by evaluating insomnia and chronotype differences in university students. The participants, 383 university students, filled out a package of psychological tools, including the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Night Eating Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test...
August 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Chenchen Song, Denise M Piscopo, Cristopher M Niell, Thomas Knöpfel
Sensory inputs carry critical information for the survival of an organism. In mice, tactile information conveyed by the whiskers is of high behavioural relevance, and is broadcasted across cortical areas beyond the primary somatosensory cortex. Mesoscopic voltage sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) of cortical population response to whisker stimulations has shown that seemingly 'simple' sensory stimuli can have extended impact on cortical circuit dynamics. Here we took advantage of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) that allow for cell type-specific monitoring of population voltage dynamics in a chronic dual-hemisphere transcranial windowed mouse preparation to directly compare the cortex-wide broadcasting of sensory information in wakening (lightly anesthetized to sedated) and awake mice...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Craig, D Rodrigues, Y Tran, R Guest, J Middleton
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of daytime sleepiness in adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and investigate the contribution of fatigue and autonomic function to sleepiness status. METHODS: Participants included 45 adults with SCI attending outpatient services or living in the community and 44 able-bodied controls. The Oxford Sleep Resistance Test (OSLER) was used to assess daytime sleepiness, while eye blink rate duration (electrooculography) and the Iowa Fatigue Scale assessed fatigue...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
David J Mathew, Rana A Greene, Yousaf Jamal Mahsood, Numan Hallaji, Ana Maria B Vargas, Ya-Ping Jin, Antonio Finelli, Matteo Parotto, Avner Belkin, Graham E Trope, Yvonne M Buys
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of preoperative brimonidine tartrate 0.2% on intraocular pressure (IOP) during robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) in steep Trendelenburg position (sTBURG). METHODS: In this prospective randomized controlled masked interventional trial, eligible patients scheduled for RALP in sTBURG at the Toronto General Hospital had one eye randomized to placebo (artificial tears) or drug (brimonidine tartrate 0.2%) preoperatively...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Ei-Ichiro Takaoka, Masahiro Kurobe, Hiroki Okada, Shun Takai, Takahisa Suzuki, Nobutaka Shimizu, Joonbeom Kwon, Hiroyuki Nishiyama, Naoki Yoshimura, Christopher J Chermansky
AIMS: To produce an animal model of peripheral neurogenic detrusor underactivity (DU) and to evaluate the effect of TRPV4 receptor activation in this DU model. METHODS: In female Sprague-Dawley rats, bilateral pelvic nerve crush (PNC) was performed by using sharp forceps. After 10 days, awake cystometrograms (CMG) were recorded in sham and PNC rats. A TRPV4 agonist (GSK 1016790A) with or without a TRPV4 antagonist (RN1734) were administered intravesically and CMG parameters were compared before and after drug administration in each group...
August 10, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Laura D Lewis, Giovanni Piantoni, Robert A Peterfreund, Emad N Eskandar, Priscilla Grace Harrell, Oluwaseun Akeju, Linda S Aglio, Sydney S Cash, Emery N Brown, Eran A Mukamel, Patrick L Purdon
During awake consciousness, the brain intrinsically maintains a dynamical state in which it can coordinate complex responses to sensory input. How the brain reaches this state spontaneously is not known. General anesthesia provides a unique opportunity to examine how the human brain recovers its functional capabilities after profound unconsciousness. We used intracranial electrocorticography and scalp EEG in humans to track neural dynamics during emergence from propofol general anesthesia. We identify a distinct transient brain state that occurs immediately prior to recovery of behavioral responsiveness...
August 10, 2018: ELife
Elika Bergelson, Andrei Amatuni, Shannon Dailey, Sharath Koorathota, Shaelise Tor
Measurements of infants' quotidian experiences provide critical information about early development. However, the role of sampling methods in providing these measurements is rarely examined. Here we directly compare language input from hour-long video-recordings and daylong audio-recordings within the same group of 44 infants at 6 and 7 months. We compared 12 measures of language quantity and lexical diversity, talker variability, utterance-type, and object presence, finding moderate correlations across recording-types...
August 10, 2018: Developmental Science
Jose L Sanmillan, Pablo Lopez-Ojeda, Isabel Fernández-Conejero, Alejandro Fernández-Coello, Gerard Plans, Yara Ali-Ciurana, Andreu Gabarrós
BACKGROUND: Eloquent area surgery has become safer with the development of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and brain mapping techniques. However, the usefulness of intraoperative electric brain stimulation techniques applied to the management and surgical treatment of cavernous malformations in supratentorial eloquent areas is still not proven. With this study, we aim to describe our experience with the use of a tailored functional approach to treat cavernous malformations in supratentorial eloquent areas...
August 8, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Niansheng Ju, Rundong Jiang, Stephen L Macknik, Susana Martinez-Conde, Shiming Tang
Whereas optogenetic techniques have proven successful in their ability to manipulate neuronal populations-with high spatial and temporal fidelity-in species ranging from insects to rodents, significant obstacles remain in their application to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Robust optogenetics-activated behavior and long-term monitoring of target neurons have been challenging in NHPs. Here, we present a method for all-optical interrogation (AOI), integrating optical stimulation and simultaneous two-photon (2P) imaging of neuronal populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) of awake rhesus macaques...
August 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
Chintan S Oza, David T Brocker, Christina E Behrend, Warren M Grill
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for movement disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), although the mechanisms of action remain unclear. Abnormal oscillatory neural activity is correlated with motor symptoms and pharmacological or DBS treatment that alleviates motor symptoms appears to suppress abnormal oscillations. However, whether such oscillatory activity is causal of motor deficits such as tremor remains unclear. Our goal was to generate abnormal oscillatory activity in the cortex-basal ganglia loop using patterned subthalamic nucleus DBS and quantify motor behavior in awake healthy rats...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Saurabh S Thosar, Alec M Berman, Maya X Herzig, Sally A Roberts, Michael R Lasarev, Steven A Shea
INTRODUCTION: Adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death occur more frequently in the morning. Prior studies have shown that vascular endothelial function (VEF), a marker of cardiovascular disease, is attenuated during physical inactivity, and declines across the night. We sought to determine whether a morning attenuation in VEF is a result of prior sleep or the inactivity that inevitably accompanies sleep. METHODS: After one week of rigorously controlled sleep-wake schedule and behaviors, 10 healthy participants completed a randomized cross-over protocol in dim-light and constant conditions, incorporating a night of 6-h sleep opportunity and a night of immobility while supine and awake...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Oguz Baran, Mehmet Yigit Akgun, Rahsan Kemerdere, Eren Fatma Akcil, Taner Tanriverdi
OBJECTIVE: To report long-term clinical and seizure outcomes of patients who were operated upon insular gliomas via trans-opercular approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Since 2010, surgical resection of insular gliomas was performed via trans-opercular approach by our group. Clinical, surgical and follow-up results were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The majority were low-grade (81.8%) and among them oligodendroglioma was the most common (n = 8)...
August 2, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Carsten Tschöpe, Sophie Van Linthout, Oliver Klein, Thomas Mairinger, Florian Krackhardt, Evgenij V Potapov, Gunther Schmidt, Daniel Burkhoff, Burkert Pieske, Frank Spillmann
Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is often required to stabilize patients with acute fulminant myocarditis with cardiogenic shock. This review gives an overview of the successful use of left-sided Impella in the setting of fulminant myocarditis and cardiogenic shock as the sole means of MCS as well as in combination with right ventricular (RV) support devices including extracorporeal life support (ECLS) (ECMELLA) or an Impella RP (BI-PELLA). It further provides evidence from endomyocardial biopsies that in addition to giving adequate support, LV unloading by Impella exhibits disease-modifying effects important for myocardial recovery (i...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Avi Rascoe, Pawan Sharma, Prithvi K Shah
Purpose: Extensive pre-clinical and clinical experimentation has yielded data on the robustness and versatility of epidural stimulation (ES) strategies to activate spinal neural circuitry to produce functional benefits. Increasing studies are now reporting that closed-loop electrical stimulation delivery methods significantly enhance the neuromodulation effects of stimulation, to in turn, improve physiological outcomes of the intervention. No studies have yet explored the feasibility and usage of closed-loop systems to neuromodulate the cervical spinal cord using ES...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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