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Yun Zhang, Fei Yan, Liu Wang, Yubo Wang, Chunshu Wang, Qiang Wang, Liyu Huang
Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) waveform induced by rare deviant stimuli that occur in a stream of regular auditory stimuli. The generators of MMN are believed to include several different cortical regions like the bilateral temporal and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, exact cortical regions associated with MMN remain controversial. In this study, we compared the number of long-distance connections induced by the standard and deviant stimuli during awake state and propofol anesthesia state to identify the cortical areas associated with the generation of MMN...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Eugene A Kiyatkin
The goal of this work is to consider physiological fluctuations in brain oxygen levels and its changes induced by opioid drugs. This review article presents, as a comprehensive story, the most important findings obtained in our laboratory by using high-speed amperometry with oxygen sensors in awake, freely moving rats; most of these findings were separately published elsewhere. First, we show that oxygen levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) phasically increase following exposure to natural arousing stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Benjamin A Plog, Humberto Mestre, Genaro E Olveda, Amanda M Sweeney, H Mark Kenney, Alexander Cove, Kosha Y Dholakia, Jeffrey Tithof, Thomas D Nevins, Iben Lundgaard, Ting Du, Douglas H Kelley, Maiken Nedergaard
Despite the initial promise of immunotherapy for CNS disease, multiple recent clinical trials have failed. This may be due in part to characteristically low penetration of antibodies to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain parenchyma, resulting in poor target engagement. We here utilized transcranial macroscopic imaging to noninvasively evaluate in vivo delivery pathways of CSF fluorescent tracers. Tracers in CSF proved to be distributed through a brain-wide network of periarterial spaces, previously denoted as the glymphatic system...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Martin G Myers, Murray Matangi, Janusz Kaczorowski
The recent American hypertension guidelines recommended a threshold of 130/80 mmHg to define hypertension on the basis of office, home or ambulatory blood pressure (BP). Despite recognizing the potential advantages of automated office (AO)BP, the recommendations only considered conventional office BP, without providing supporting evidence and without taking into account the well documented difference between office BP recorded in research studies versus routine clinical practice, the latter being about 10/7 mmHg higher...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Brian B Jeon, Alex D Swain, Jeffrey T Good, Steven M Chase, Sandra J Kuhlman
Reliable perception of environmental signals is a critical first step to generating appropriate responses and actions in awake behaving animals. The extent to which stimulus features are stably represented at the level of individual neurons is not well understood. To address this issue, we investigated the persistence of stimulus response tuning over the course of 1-2 weeks in the primary visual cortex of awake, adult mice. Using 2-photon calcium imaging, we directly compared tuning stability to two stimulus features (orientation and spatial frequency) within the same neurons, specifically in layer 2/3 excitatory neurons...
October 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cristian de Quintana-Schmidt, Andreas Leidinger, Joan Molet Teixidó, Gerardo Conesa Bertrán
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been published about percutaneous techniques for the management of surgical bed hemorrhage during a stereotactic biopsy, a serious complication that may affect patient outcome. We describe the injection of a thrombin-gelatin matrix through the biopsy cannula as an effective method to arrest surgical bed bleeding that does not respond to conventional methods of hemostasis. METHODS: We prospectively documented image-guided stereotactic brain biopsy procedures on 30 awake patients between July 2014 and July 2017 at our center...
October 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ryosuke Matsuda, Kentaro Tamura, Fumihiko Nishimura, Ichiro Nakagawa, Yasushi Motoyama
BACKGROUND: To avoid permanent neurologic deficits and preserve brain function in and near the eloquent area, intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping (IESM) is necessary. However, little is known about how these subcortical regions are involved in calculation processing function in patients with glioma. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 56-year-old right-handed woman working at a primary school as a teacher who had recurrent left parietal glioma. She underwent initial surgical resection for a low-grade glioma present in the left parietal lobe 14 months prior to recurrence...
October 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Mineyuki Zukawa, Ryusuke Osada, Hiroto Makino, Tomoatsu Kimura
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of the wide-awake tendon reconstruction for chronic rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon with evaluation of the voluntary active contraction distance (ACD) of the ruptured musculotendinous unit. METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients underwent tendon reconstruction under wide-awake surgery for chronic tendon rupture of the FPL. If the total of the passive distraction distance (PDD) and the ACD of the ruptured FPL musculotendinous unit was greater than 30 mm, tendon grafting was performed...
October 10, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Natalia V Barykina, Danila A Doronin, Oksana M Subach, Vladimir P Sotskov, Viktor V Plusnin, Olga A Ivleva, Anna M Gruzdeva, Tatiana A Kunitsyna, Olga I Ivashkina, Alexander A Lazutkin, Aleksey Y Malyshev, Ivan V Smirnov, Anna M Varizhuk, Galina E Pozmogova, Kiryl D Piatkevich, Konstantin V Anokhin, Grigori Enikolopov, Fedor V Subach
The NTnC genetically encoded calcium indicator has an advantageous design because of its smaller size, GFP-like N- and C-terminal ends and two-fold reduced number of calcium binding sites compared with widely used indicators from the GCaMP family. However, NTnC has an inverted and modest calcium response and a low temporal resolution. By replacing the mNeonGreen fluorescent part in NTnC with EYFP, we engineered an NTnC-like indicator, referred to as YTnC, that had a positive and substantially improved calcium response and faster kinetics...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Frida Bergman, Viktoria Wahlström, Andreas Stomby, Julia Otten, Ellen Lanthén, Rebecka Renklint, Maria Waling, Ann Sörlin, Carl-Johan Boraxbekk, Patrik Wennberg, Fredrik Öhberg, James A Levine, Tommy Olsson
BACKGROUND: Treadmill workstations that enable office workers to walk on a treadmill while working at their computers might increase physical activity in offices, but long-term effects are unknown. We therefore investigated whether treadmill workstations in offices increased daily walking time. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial of healthy office workers who were either overweight or obese. We recruited participants from 13 different companies, which comprised 17 offices, in Umeå, Sweden...
October 12, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Keita Sonoda, Teppei Matsui, Haruhiko Bito, Kenichi Ohki
Astrocytes are known to contact with a great number of synapses and may integrate sensory inputs. In the ferret primary visual cortex, astrocytes respond to a visual stimulus with a delay of several seconds with respect to the surrounding neurons. However, in the mouse visual cortex, it remains unclear whether astrocytes respond to visual stimulations. In this study, using dual-color simultaneous in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neurons and astrocytes in the awake mouse visual cortex, we examined the visual response of astrocytes and their precise response timing relative to the surrounding neurons...
October 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chang-Hoon Koo, Sun Young Lee, Seung Hyun Chung, Jung-Hee Ryu
The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of airway complications between extubation under deep anesthesia (deep extubation) and extubation when fully awake (awake extubation) in pediatric patients after general anesthesia. A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) statement standards. The review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (registration number: CRD 42018090172)...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Santiago Castro-Zaballa, Matías Cavelli, Joaquín González, Jaime Monti, Atilio Falconi, Pablo Torterolo
Mesopontine and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are involved in the control of behavioral states and cognitive functions. Animals treated with cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonists display a dissociated state characterized by behavioral wakefulness (W) associated with high amplitude slow oscillations and spindles in the electroencephalogram (EEG), similar to those that occur during non-REM (NREM) sleep. Oscillations in the gamma frequency band (≈ 40 Hz) of the EEG also play a critical role during W and cognition...
October 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Michael Jansen, Jianzhong Jin, Xiaobing Li, Reza Lashgari, Jens Kremkow, Yulia Bereshpolova, Harvey A Swadlow, Qasim Zaidi, Jose-Manuel Alonso
The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates is dominated by the OFF visual pathway and responds more strongly to dark than light stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that this cortical OFF dominance is modulated by the size and spatial frequency of the stimulus in awake primates and we uncover a main neuronal mechanism underlying this modulation. We show that large grating patterns with low spatial frequencies drive five times more OFF-dominated than ON-dominated neurons, but this pronounced cortical OFF dominance is strongly reduced when the grating size decreases and the spatial frequency increases, as when the stimulus moves away from the observer...
October 15, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Kaoru Yamada
In vivo microdialysis is a powerful technique to collect ISF from awake, freely-behaving animals based on a dialysis principle. While microdialysis is an established method that measures relatively small molecules including amino acids or neurotransmitters, it has been recently used to also assess dynamics of larger molecules in ISF using probes with high molecular weight cut off membranes. Upon using such probes, microdialysis has to be run in a push-pull mode to avoid pressure accumulated inside of the probes...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Annie Lee, Yusuke Hirabayashi, Seok-Kyu Kwon, Tommy L Lewis, Franck Polleux
Mitochondria play numerous critical physiological functions in neurons including ATP production, Ca2+ regulation, lipid synthesis, ROS signaling, and the ability to trigger apoptosis. Recently developed technologies, including in vivo 2-photon imaging in awake behaving mice revealed that unlike in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), mitochondrial transport decreases strikingly along the axons of adult neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, the improvements of genetically-encoded biosensors have enabled precise monitoring of the spatial and temporal impact of mitochondria on Ca2+ , ATP and ROS homeostasis in a compartment-specific manner...
June 2018: Current opinion in physiology
Michel Desmurget, Nathalie Richard, Pierre-Aurélien Beuriat, Alexandru Szathmari, Carmine Mottolese, Jean-René Duhamel, Angela Sirigu
Inhibition is a central component of motor control. Although current models emphasize the involvement of frontal networks [1, 2], indirect evidence suggests a potential contribution of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). This region is active during inhibition of upper-limb movements to undesired targets [3], and its stimulation with single magnetic pulses can depress motor-evoked potentials [4, 5]. Also, it has been speculated that alien hand movements caused by focal parietal lesions reflect a release of inhibition from PPC to M1 [6]...
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Alessandro Frati, Alessandro Pesce, Mauro Palmieri, Manuela Iasanzaniro, Pietro Familiari, Albina Angelini-, Maurizio Salvati, Monica Rocco, Antonino Raco
BACKGROUND: Hypnosis is a technique that could aid Awake Surgery protocols. The aim of the presents study is to describe the results of a preliminary experience of a cohort of patients operated on with an original protocol of Hypnosis aided Awake Surgery(HAS). METHODS: All the patients were operated on with the aid of HAS and their data have been retrospectively reviewed. A thorough Literature Review was conducted to compare the results of HAS to the standard Awake Surgery protocol in regard to 1...
October 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
J L Mathias, M L Cant, A L J Burke
OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain, with or without an identified diagnosis or cause, is widespread and commonly associated with sleep disturbances. However, research has often used poor quality measures of sleep and focused on specific pain conditions, thereby limiting its reliability and applicability to the wider CP population. This study meta-analysed the findings from studies that used objective polysomnographic measures of sleep or examined diagnosed sleep disorders in people with CP. METHODS: Three databases were searched (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase; inception to June 2017) for case-controlled polysomnography studies and studies that reported the prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders in adults with CP...
June 11, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Patrick J Drew, Aaron T Winder, Qingguang Zhang
Animals and humans continuously engage in small, spontaneous motor actions, such as blinking, whisking, and postural adjustments ("fidgeting"). These movements are accompanied by changes in neural activity in sensory and motor regions of the brain. The frequency of these motions varies in time, is affected by sensory stimuli, arousal levels, and pathology. These fidgeting behaviors can be entrained by sensory stimuli. Fidgeting behaviors will cause distributed, bilateral functional activation in the 0...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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